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\ VA . 






(by pbsmission) 










1 EN years ago the work which has resulted in the publication of 
this book was somewhat more than merely entered upon. But I 
am not able to say how long it is ago since the first thoughts of 
publication in the present, or in any, form definitely presented them- 
selves : it was not, however, imtil some time after the labour bestowed 
had begotten greater interest, and the interest had stimulated not only 
increased painstaking but more diligent and systematic study. In 
the hope the book may prove that neither the labour nor the study has 
been quite without effect towards the illustration of an interesting 
subject and in the cause of philology, it is now submitted to the 
judgment of the public. 

No one can be more sensible than the author of its many imper- 
fections and deficiencies. Many errors, many failures, many short- 
comings will inevitably be pointed out. Working alone and unassisted, 
as he has done, in a singularly remote district, far from any accessible 
collection of books which might have been of aid, or from habitual 
intercourse with cultivated minds, with the duties of a very wide Moor- 
land parish to attend to, with his children to teach himself, it could 
hardly fail to be so, however honest and hearty the labour bestowed in 
his not too abundant spare time might be. 

This is not written to deprecate criticism. He would, indeed, rather 
invite it. For fair and candid criticism might be an assistance to 
him if he should ever be in a position to carry out a plan, much more 
than half formed, of compiling a systematic Glossary of the great 


Northumbrian Dialect as a whole, or both as written in the past and 
as yet spoken in the present. It would be an assistance also to others 
whose object it might be to illustrate the dialects of their several 
districts as the author has sought to do for that of Cleveland. 

One of the chief difficulties in the task of compiling this Glossary has 
been in deciding what words were, and what were not, to be admitted. 
The principle which was finally adopted was not to admit any word, 
unless, either in its form, its application, its meaning or one of its mean- 
ings, it deviated sensibly from recognised or classical usage. This prin- 
ciple in some cases has seemed to require, rather than only to justify, 
the giving of the standard or classical definition of an admitted or clas- 
sical word, in order to trace the connection of that meaning which 
warranted or called for the insertion of the word itself as a provincial 
word. No doubt words have crept in which ought to have been ex- 
cluded : more than two or three such words have been noted while cor- 
recting the press. But it is hoped their number is not considerable. 

Not a very few words also, which were standard words at a given 
date past, which, in a sense, are standard words still, as resting on 
some such authority as that of the English Bible, words of which dtd, 
bidden are fair types, have been unhesitatingly admitted, because they 
have quite dropped out of use over possibly the greater part of the 
kingdom, although still in utterly familiar use in Cleveland. 

With reference to the definitions, they have been constructed with 
great care ; and it may be stated, as not quite wide of the purpose, 
that so far from having been drawn up fb suit the derivation (real or 
assumed) in each several case, a very large proportion of the whole 
had been composed, and fac-simile copies of them sent to the Secre- 
tary of the Philological Society for use in the preparation of the 
Society's Dictionary, before systematic enquiries as to derivation or 
connection had been, in the majority of instances, so much as 

* Some few modifications of the original definitions have, it is true, been made ; but 
the percentage of cases in which this is so is very small. In probably forty-nine out of 
fifty instances the MS. printed from has been the MS. from which the copies for the Phi- 
lological Society were actually taken. 


Besides the care taken in framing the definitions, the author has, in 
every case which seemed to require it, endeavoured to give effective 
illustration by the aid of copious — at least, of sufficient — examples of 
usage, a large proportion of which he had noted down as heard by 
himself at the mouth of some one or other of his Dales friends and 

As to the other illustration appended to a considerable proportion 
of the words constituting the Glossary, it must speak for itself; and it 
is perhaps not strictly necessary for the author, in conclusion, to dis- 
claim any intention to assume the mantle of the etymologist. He has 
simply sought to record, to derive or connect, and as far as his reading 
would allow, to illustrate. 



£)ORN and brought up in one of the Eastern Counties,. and translated, 
a few years after taking my degree, into the North, first into Berwick- 
sJiire, then permanently into Yorkshire, the diflficulties and whimsicalities 
attendant on the efforts after mutual comprehension between myself and 
the countryside northerners, with whom my clerical and other duties 
brought me into continual contact, were great enough, and often amply 
quaint enough, of themselves to induce, even had there been no natural 
liking and inclination, some notice of the circumstances in which our 
mutij^ complications originated. I did not comprehend their spoken 
dialect, and they did not understand my Southern English and pronun- 
ciation : and the reason was, not only that a very large proportion of 
their stock of current words, and especially in the case of elderly and 
untaught people, were not to be found in the English Dictionary, but 
that also the vowel and many of the consonantal sounds, as their words 
were spoken, were entirely different from those of the accredited 
English standard.* 

This statement, which is true of the North generally, is I believe, as 
strictly and emphatically true of Qeveland as of any other part of ancient 
Northumbria : perhaps I should be almost justified, from circumstances 
and facts to be mentioned below, if I said more true. 

* As fllnstrative of this statement I may mention a circumstance which occurred to 
myself within a short period after my commenced residence in the North. I had occasion 
to engage a servant, and as there were reasons which rendered it difficuh to fix a date for 
her coming, it was necessary to know her name and address. Her name was Charlotte 
Lamb, but the patronymic on her tongue sounded so utterly unlike Lamb to my untutored 
ear, that it was some minutes, and not without some trouble and evident annoyance on the 
poor girl's part at not being understood, that I came at last to the perception that, as she 
spelt it letter by letter, /, a, m, b, might in a northern mouth represent a sound very dif- 
ferent from that of Engh'sh lamb. The sound to my ear was lorm or kuim, in which every 
vocal element was altered except the initial /. 



On coming into permanent residence in Cleveland twenty-one years 
ago, it was natural that my thoughts should return from time to time to 
this subject, and equally natursd that the recurrence of such thoughts 
should lead to speculation and eventually to study; and it is now 
more than twelve years since I began to collect and compare, and, in 
a measure, to investigate. I had already made a fair beginning of the 
Cleveland vocabulary when the Whitby Glossary was brought under my 
notice; a book of which I may say here, that the fidelity with which the 
words, and even, in many cases, their spoken sounds,* are indicated, the 
general accuracy of the interpretations annexed, and above all, the inte- 
resting and instructive examples in many cases added — independently 
of the philological value of no small part of its contents — ^make it worthy 
of a noticeable place in the class of local Glossaries. Taking that book 
in a certain sense as my text-book, I have, during the period just now 
indicated, pursued the subject systematically, alike in the study and 
among the people, and some of the processes and results— and of both 
the study and the collection — ^will be found in the following pages and 
in the Glossary which succeeds them. 

Every language and dialect of a language, when duly interrogated, 
must always — and without dwelling on what it will reveal, if the enquiry 
be fully prosecuted, of the essential physical and psychical history of 
those who speak, or have spoken, itt — be able to give in reply much of 
its own history in connection with its origin, connection, and changes ; 
and it is impossible for any one fairly familiar with the dialect spoken 
in Cleveland, and only moderately acquainted with the Scandinavian 
languages and dialects, or even widi any one of them, not to be struck 
with the curious family likeness obtruded on his notice between no 
scanty portion of the Cleveland words and those in current use among 
the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes of our own day. And not only in 
the case of words: — idioms, modes of expression, habitual phnlses, 

* I refer to sach mstanoet at barxon, laabtU, sbarm; graavi, bita/, 8cc. (the true 
orthography of which is Blsen* litle, Shlvo ; srave, Hofe, Sec,) : the value of sach 
phonetic forms being often exceedingly great in the investigation of dialectical origin or 
peculiarities. See below, pp. xxiz, xxx, et seq., p. 318, &c. 

t ' The study of words may be tedious to the schoolboy, as breaking of stones is to the 
wayside labourer ; but to the thoughtful eye of the geologist these stones are full of int^ 
rest ; — ^he sees mirades on the highroad, and reads chronicles in every ditch. Language, 
too, has marvels of her own, which she unveils to the enquiring glance of the patient 
student. There are chronicles below her surface, there are sermons in every word.' Lee* 
tures on tbt Seunee ofLanguagt, by Max Miiller, 1st Ser. p. 3. 

* If a general destruction of books, such as took place in China under the Emperor Thsiiu 
chi-hoang (213 b. c.) should sweep away all historical documents, language, even in its 
most depraved state, would preserve the secrets of the past, and would tell future genera- 
tions of the home and migrations of their ancestors.' lb, p. 214. 


I^overbs or proverbial sayings are found to occur, which, in many cases, 
are so nearly identical that what is ordinarily called translation is scarcely 
requisite in order to enable the Clevelander to appreciate the Danish 
saying, or the Dane the Cleveland formula. Thus, Professor Worsaae's 
expression, ai pladske paa s^m, is our t' blash upo' t' 8eea;/f^ har 
vUei imod det, ova Ah hes nowght agen that; han Uver mie ved 
i&Dv nodd, our he deean't luik as if he lived upo* deeaf nuts; 
ig er bodrn iolv d&Ur^ our Ah was bodden (or boden) tolf pund: 
e heU by er boden tU ctrv§l, our t' 'heeal toon 's bodden (or boden) 
te t' burial, which last word half a century since would probably have 
been replaced by ArvaL All these phrases and numberless others 
must and do strike upon the observation of the Yorkshireman who is 
brought into contact with modem Scandinavian either by means of 
the written tongues or by oral communication; and when one begins 
to study the matter out, the coincidences, in a percentage of cases which 
is very large indeed, resolve themselves into identity. 

It is now several years since, having become mjrself thcuroughly inte- 
rested in the processes of collection and investigation of the constituents 
of the Cleveknd dialect, and wishing to interest some of my Dales 
neighbours and parishioners in the subject also, with the hope of, by 
that means, paving the way for the reception of some assistance in my 
researches from among them, I threw together notes for a lecture on 
' The Traces left by the Ancient Danes in Cleveland.' In the introduce 
tory portion of this lecture I drew an outline, necessarily imperfect, but 
still as faithful and accurate as I could make it within the narrow limits 
allowed me, and drawing upon both Danish and English historical 
sources, of ^e incursions and invasions of the Danes, ending, as they 
did, in permanent dominion in Northimibria — a dominion, moreover, 
which in many districts of the province in question most certainly rested 
upon systematic and effectual colonization of wide tracts. * Inasmuch, 
however, as Cleveland is not specially named in this page of history, 

• * After the deftraction of Repton, the Danes dhrided themsehres into two annies, one 
of which, under the command of Halfdene, marched to complete the conquest of North- 
ombria, whidi they aocompHshed during the ensuing winter, and extended their depreda- 
tions as far north as the country of the Picts and Strathclyde Britons. The lands were then 
parcelled out among the soldiers, who, growing weary of a marauding life, longed to possess 
settled habitations and fixed property of their own, and, exchanging the sword and battle- 
axe for the plough, applied themselres to cultivate and beautify the reafan which they had 
•o kmjg ddighted to devastate.' St John's Fwtr Omquuta of England, i. 265. This was 
in 870. In 880 a still larger body of military colonists recdred allotments in the same 
district and settled upon uem. The same thing would, of course, occur again and again 
without special historical notice where smaller numbers of settlers were concerned, and I hare 
only given the above extract as a soit of embodiment of statements that appear not infre- 
^piiauj in the pages of both andent annalists and nuxiem historians. 



I scarcely think it necessary to give even an outline of it here : it has 
been done by various hands, both English and foreign, and, with what- 
ever variation or discrepancy as to minor particulars, yet without any 
material difference as to the great facts of Danish occupancy, sove- 
reignty, and lasting local, and even national influence. * 

Of course what was true of Northumbria generally, of very consider- 
able tracts in Yorkshire particularly, was as likely, a priori, to be true of 
Cleveland individually as of any other part of the district ; and consider- 
ing the geog^phical position of the tract in question, with Tees-mouth 
at one extremity and the Esk- mouth at the other, even more likely still. 
Nay, the very name itself — Cleveland — the moment enquiry began to 
turn in the direction indicated, was capable of becoming a witness to 
the fact that our Dales country, with its fair and fertile valleys and nobly 
wooded hills, had not been overlooked by the Danish invaders and in- 
tending settlers. Camden held that Cleveland was ' so called, as it 
should seem, from precipices, which we call cliffs ;' and although others 
are found to contend that ' the primary and leading idea of the name 
is undoubtedly not cliff, but day, as descriptive of its soil' (Graves' 
Cleveland, p. 33), yet the existing Old Norse name, Klifflond, not only 
sets that question at rest by proving the correctness of Camden's sug- 
gestion, but places in a prominent position the facts that it is of Danish 
origin ; that the Danes took or obtained sufficient interest in the district 
to rename it ; and that their influence was sufficiently lasting and power- 
ful to give the new name currency and permanence. The merest glance 
beyond the name of the district itself, and directed at what the district 
contains or includes of the same nature, is sufficient to fix the attention 
upon the Saxon name Streoneshalh in the South-East, replaced by the 
Danish name Whitby, and Whitby itself one of a group of equally 
marked Scandinavian names, Prestebi, Stachtshi, Overbi, Neihrebi, 
Thingwala,^ HelredaU, Gnip or Hauchesgard, Normanehi, Berhvait, 

* * *' SweyD, king of Denmark, and Olave, king of Norway, a short time before invaded 
Yorkshire, and reduced it to subjection. For there is, and long has been, a great admix- 
ture of people of Danish race in that province, and a great similarity of language." Wal- 
lingford's Chronicle, Gale, p. 570. " Giraldus Cambrensis and John of WaUingford assert 
in direct terms that there was a strong infusion of Danish in the population and language 
of our Northern provinces." * Gamett's PhU, Essays, p. 187. 

+ The name Thingwala alone, which occurs in the Memorial 0/ Benefactions to Whitby 
Abbey, quoted entire by Young, pp. 908-913 : — * Villam et portum (Maris) de Witebi ; 
Overbi; et Nethrebi, id est Steinsecher; Tbingwala; Leirpel; Helredale; &c.': — this 
name alone is so marked that it is difficult to conceive it should never have attracted atten- 
tion from any local historian or antiquarian before. * Tingwall, hvor, som navnet {^nga- 
voUr) antyder, Oemes Hovedthing gjennem Aarhundreder blev holdt,' as Worsaae sajrs of 
the fimious Thingwal of Shetland, are words fully as expressive, beyond doubt, and as 
capable of application in the case of the Whitby Thingwala, as in Chester, Orkney, Ross- 


Setwaity Thordisa, and others, all included within the limits of what is 
now the parish of Whitby ; and, on the North- West, upon Midleburg^ 
now Middlesborough, with its neighbour Arusum^ Aresutn or Harhusum 
{Aarhttus)* now Airsome, together with the closely adjoining Lachembi, 
Leisingebt, Ormesbt, EngUbi^ Tormozbi, Lmthorp€y Arnodestarpy and the 
like, ail of them equally suggestive with the Whitby group of local 

In fact, the more closely investigation of this kind is pushed the more 
striking is the result ; and an analysis of the Cleveland names as given 
in the Domesday Survey, with occasional illustration or addition from 
other ancient documents, will I think prove not uninstructive. Taking 
Cleveland proper, together with Whitby and so much of the adjoining 
district as is grouped with it in the Domesday Summary of ' Langeberge 
Wapentac,' we have the following names of places, ending — 

I. in bi, 

Witebi (Whitby) 

Prestebi (lost) 

Kormanebi (Normanby, near Whitby) 

Ulgeberdesbi (Ugglebarnby) 

Baldebi (Baldby Fields, near Whitby) 

Staxebi (Stakesby) 

Bamebi (Bamby) 

Alewardebi, or Elwordebi (Ellerby) 

Michelbi (Mickleby) 


Bergelbi, Bergebi (Borrowby) 

Rozebi, Roscebi (Koxby) 

Asuluebi, Asvluesbi (i. e. Asolf 's-by, Aislaby) 

shire, of Shetland itself. It was, as sorely as in these other cases, the bovidtbmg or principal 
political and judicial meeting-place for the district ; and it speaks very intellinbly of the 
extent to whidi the district was not only under the influence of, but inhabited by, men of 
Northern or Danish origin, that such a place of meeting should have existed in Cleveland. 

* On the South Jutland coast there are two towns nearly adjacent, one of which is Midle> 
borKt the other Aarhuos. It is scarcely possible that the coincidence of name in the case 
of tne two Cleveland Danish settlements and in their S. Jutland neighbours should be merely 
acddentaJ. Again, the name Upsal occurs once in Cleveland, and, besides, just on the borders. 
I believe one Essex village has forty-eight representatives and namesakes in New England 
(Gcfi/. Mag, voL ii. 1863, p. 698), to say nothing of the literally innumerable examples of 
which Boston or Chelmsford is a type. Even our own Danby is bom again in Canada 
West, in the name given by an emigrant from hence to the settlement he has formed near 
Niagara. Beyond any reasonable doubt the same feeling and practice in the days of the 
Old Northmen originated such Cleveland names as those now under notice : in other words, 
that emigrants from Upsala, Aarhuus, Midleburg, named their new residences after their 
ancient or original ones. 


Bollebi, Bolebi (Boulby) 

Danebi (Danby) 

Lesingebi, Leisingebi, Lesighebi (Lazenby) 

Lachenebi, Lachebi (Lackenby) 

Normanebi (Normanby, near Eston) 

Ormesbi (Ormsby) 

Beraodebi (Bamaby) 

Esebi (Easby) 

Badresbi (Battersby) 

Tollesbi (Tolesby) 

Colebi (Coulby Manor) 

Maltebi (Maltby) 

Englebi (Ingleby HiU) 

Turmozbi, Tormozbi (Thornaby) 

Steinesbi (Stainsby) 

Berguluesbi, Bergolbi 

Turoldesbi, Toroldesbi (Thoraldby) 

Rodebi (Hutton Rudby) 

Englebi (Ingleby Greenhow) 

Cherchebi (Kirby, near Stokesley) 

Dragmalebi (Dromonby) 

Buschebi (Buzby) 

Feizbi, Fezbi (Faceby) 

Englebi (Ingleby Amcliff) 

Bordalebi, ISordlebi (Mount Grace Priory) 

To these may be added, from other sources : 


Newby (in Seamer) 
Yearby (in Kirkleatham) 
Netherbi, Overbi (in Whitby) 

II. in Ihorpe, 

Ugetorp, Ughetorp (Ugthorpe) 

Roschetorp, Roscheltorp (possibly Hailthorpe, near Sca- 

Amodestorp (probably Arnold's Toft near linthorpe, in 

Torp (Kilton Thorpe) 

Torp (Nunthorpe) 

Torp (Pinchingthorpe) 



Ainthorpe (in Danby)* 
Linthorpe or Leventhorpe 

III. in um, 

Jarum (Yarm) 

Morehusum, Morhusum (Moorsholm) 

Locthusum, Loctusum (Lofthouse) 

Westlidum, Wesdidf (Kirkleatham) 

Upclider (Upleatham) 

Lid (Lythe) 

Flonim, Flore (Flowergate, Whitby) 

Achelum, Aclun (Acklam) 

Laclum, Lelun (Lealholm) 

Toscotum, Tocstnne (Toccotes) 

Cotum (Coatham) 


* The history of this name is rather a curious one. In a Register of Burial, 1625, the 
Dame is written Armitthwaite ; in the map in Graves' CUvdand it is Armanthwaite ; in a 
plan of the Manor, dated a.d. 1751, and hanging in the entry of Danby Lodge, it is Arm- 
thwaite. But the tbvfoit* has completely given place to the tborpe, and in the customary 
(vonunciation in the mouth of a true Clevelander it becomes Ain-t'rup, the b being almost 
entirely suppressed. This provokes comparison with the like names so frequently occurring 
in Denmark, and in which the old )^orp has given place to the modem trup. 

f I look upon Westlid and Lid as unquestionably abbreviations for Westlidum, Lidum. 
It is worthy of notice that, independently of Domesday Westlidum, we have also another 
ancient form of the same name in Lithum, besides the forms Uplium and Lyum for 
Upleatham. It is a matter of tolerable certainty that all these names in -vm are simply 
datives plural. There is no doubt in such cases as Morehusum, Locthusum, Arusum or 
Arhusnm, Toscotum, Cotum, and Lidum. About Jarum, Achelum, Laclum or Lelun, and 
Ergum, it is necessary to speak with more reserve, from uncertainty as to their etymology. 
The locality of the last-^amed is uncertain. * Dimidium piscaris de Hergum ' is mentioned 
in the Whitby * Memorial of Benefactions' given by Dr. Young (p. 908), and, according to 
that author, the Ergum or Hergum in question is *near Bridlington' (p. 91a). As far as 
one can derive a suggestion from the geographical course taken by the Domesday scribe, 
the Cleveland Ergun may have been in the neighbourhood of Ayton. In the Summary, the 
order is Ormesbi, Upeshale, Bemodebi, Torp (Pinchingthorpe), Ergun, Atun, Neuuetun, 
Mortun, Torp (Nunthorpe), &c. In the notice of the King's Lands, it is Upesale, Torp, 
Ergun, Atun, Neuueton, Mortun, Torp. The only existing name, however, anywhere in 
the vicinity, which presents any resemblance or analogy to Ergum is Arcan, given in Ord's 
Map : — Arcan Hill, a little way north of Seamer. The Ordnance map makes this Barker 
Hill ; but unfortunately local names have been put in so recklessly in these otherwise ad- 
mirable maps that that authority is less than nothing in such questions. It may be men- 
tioned, however, that the * Ergum or Hergum near Bridlington' is no doubt coincident with 
what is written Argam in the Ordnance nups. 



Arusum, Aresum, Harhusiim (Airsome) 

IV. in ch/, 

Crumbeclif, Crumbeclive (Crunkley) 

Roudeclif, Roudclive (Rockcliff) 

Jemeclif, Gemeclif, Emeclive (Amcliffc Ingleby) 

V. in borg. 

Golborg, Goldeburg (Goldsborough) 

Ghigesborg, Gighesborc, Ghigesburg (Guisborough) 


Mydelburghe, Midlesburg (Middlesborough) 

VI. in dale. 

Childale (Kildale) 
Camisedale (Commondale) 


Basdale, Basedale 
Glasdale, Glasedale 
Handale or Grendale 

VII. in gti/. 

Grif (Mulgrave) 


Skynnergrefe, Skinergreive, Skengrave (Skinningrove) 

VIII. in al. 

Upeshale, Upesale (Upsal) 

Wercheshala, Wercesel, W3n*eshel (Worsall) 

Tonestale, Tonnestale (Tunstal) 

IX. not admitting of classification. 

Ghinipe (* Gnip, i. e. Hauchesgard ;' Gnipe Howe near 

Hawsker, youngs p. 909). 
Figelinge, Figlinge, Nort Figelinge (Fyling Dales) 
Breche, Brecca (Brackenridge, near Whitby) 
Semer, Semers (Seamer) 


Mersch, Mersc (Marske) 
Donesla, Dunesle HDunsley) 
Ildreuuelle, Hildreuuelle (Hinderwell) 
Berewic (Berwick) 
Cratorn, Cratorne (Cratbome) 
Stocheslag, Stocheslage (Stokesley) 
Codreschelf, Codeschelf (Skutten^elO 

X. in Adtn. 

Neuham, Neuueham, Niweham (Newham in Acklam) 
Neoham, Neueham (Newholm, near Whitby) 

XL in hn or fun, 

Snetune, Sneton (Sneaton) 

Hotune, Hotone (Hutton Mulgrave) 

Neutone (Newton Mulgrave) 

Egetone v^gton) 

Scetune, Scetun (Seaton Hall) 

Esingeton, Esingeton (Easington) 

Liuretun (Liverton) 

Steintun, Esteintona (Stanghow) 

Chiltone, Chilton (Kilton) 

Brotone, Broctune (Brotton) 

Scelton, Scheltun (Skelton) 

Midleton, Middeltone (Middleton, near Guisborough) 

Hotun (Hutton Lowcross) 

Tometun (Thornton Fields) 

Wiltune, Widtune (Wilton) 

Astun, Astune (Eston) 

Atun (Great A3rton) 

Atun alia (Little Ayton) 

Neuuetun, Nietona (Newton) 

Mortun (Morton) 

Martun, Martune (Marton) 

Himelintun, Himeligetun (Hemlington) 

Steintun (Suinton) 

Torentun H'homton) 

Tametun (Tameton, or Tanton) 

Hiltun, HUtune (Hilton) 

Mideltun, Middeltun (Middleton) 

Fostun, Foztun (Foxton, High and Low) 

Broctun, Broctun magna (Great Broughton) 


Broctun alia (Little Broughton) 

Hotun (Hutton Rudby) 

Carletun (Carlton) 


Gotun, Goutun, Golton (Goulton) 

Winieltun (Whorlton) 

Rontun, Rantune (Rounton) 

Lentune, Leuetona (Kirk Levington) 

Leuetone alia (Castle Levington) 

Apeltune (Appleton on Wiske) 

On the whole, there are in the above list 119 names of places as given 
in Domesday, of which thirty-eight end in -dy, six in -forp, twelve in -urn, 
three in -cit/f two in -dorg, two in 'dale^ one in -grt^, three in -al, all of 
which are indisputably of Danish origin. There are besides eleven not 
admitting of classification, of which, however, several must be Danish ; 
aSy for instance, Ghinipe, Figlinge, Semer, Mersc, Cratome, Codreschelf ; 
and also, two in -ham, thirty-nine in -fan. Of the latter it is only neces- 
sary here to say, that, while it is a mistake to assume -fan to be an 
exclusively Anglo-Saxon termination in names of places {fun being also 
an Old Norse word and still used in Iceland in connection with a 
farmer's residence), in not a few cases among these Cleveland names in 
'fun or 'fan we find the same prefixes as are met with in other names 
of undoubted Danish origin and etymology. For instance, Childale, 
Chiltune; Sceltun, Scalethwaite, Skelderskeugh ; Mideltun, Midelburg. 
Others again — for instance, Carletun, Astim, Tometun — as in the case 
of such names as Baldersbi, Leisingebi, Danebi, Cratom, leave but little 
doubt that the former element in them is Danish; and thus, on the 
whole, we come to something like the conclusion that at least seventy- 
five per cent, of the Domesday names of Cleveland localities is certainly 
Old Danish, and very possibly a larger proportion still. 

But independently of the names recorded in Domesday there are mul- 
titudes of others, an enumeration and examination of which advance the 
conclusion just stated more convincingly yet. The names of the several 
townships of the divers parishes not separately specified in the Domes- 
day record are, in many cases, more decidedly Old Danish than even 
the names of the parishes themselves. Thus in Whorlton parish are the 
townships of Swainby, Huthwaite, Scarth or Scarth-wood, Potto (Pot- 
howe), Trenholm, Scugdale ; — aU, without an exception, of distinct or 
exclusive Northern origin. In short, of some twenty-four or twenty-five 
such Cleveland names, we have three in -fy, one in -fhwaife, two in 
-fhorpty three in -hcwe^ one in -holm^ five in -dale^ one in -grif^ six 
in 'Wicky one in -burny one in -car, three not classed, of which one — 


Staithes — is surely Norse Sfod (see Staith), leaving Picton as almost, 
if not quite, the only name of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

But, supposing the investigation to be pushed further yet, and espe- 
cially with the aid which ancient documents give in addition to the in- 
formation derivable from still existing or identifiable designations, the 
result is even still more conclusive. Thus in the case of Whitby as 
above noticed— Overbi, NeArebi, Thingwala, Hehedale, Gnip, Bertwait, 
Setwait, Sourebi, Thordisa, aU appear in deeds connected with the 
Abbey, as the names of Whitby localities. In the parish of Danby, 
again, besides Ainthorpe, already named, is the township of Glaisdale, 
as also Danby Botton, Dale Head, Clitherbecks, Butterwick, Fryop, 
Houlsyke : and this without mentioning similar names — ^that is to say, 
all of direct Danish origin — distinguishing local divisions of lesser im- 

But the evidence derivable from the local terminology of the district, 
striking and conclusive as it is as to the facts of the effectual and per- 
manent occupation of Qeveland by the Northmen, is not only supple- 
mented, but rendered vastly more striking and unquestionable, by a mass 
of testimony of a different kind, and supplied by the Domesday volume. 

At the time of the survey therein recorded, or, rather, shortly pre- 
ceding it, the owners of landed property in Cleveland were almost exclu- 
sively distinguished by Danish names. 

Hauuard (Havard) had possessions in Yarm, Kirk Levington, 

Easby and Battersby. 
Siuuard (Siward or Sigur^r) in Ugthorpe, Liverton, Lofthouse, 

Upleatham, Acklam. 
Ulf in Crathome. 

Ligulf in Kildale, Ugthorpe, Normanby. 
Archil (Amkell) in Faceby, Thoraldby, Marton. 
Ulchel rUlfkell) in Ayton, Nunthorpe, Guisborough, Marton, &c. 
Aschel (Askell) in Ayton. 
Torchil (ThorkelH in KUton. 

Orme or Orm in Ormsby, Appleton, Kildale, Danby, Commondale. 
Leising or Lesing {Leistngr^ a freed man) in Faceby, Tunstal, 

Tameton, Guisborough, Normanby, Busby, Acklam, &c. 
Gamel in Skutterskelf. 
Game (? Gamel) in Ugthorpe. 
Tor (Thor) in East Rounton. 
Altor (Althor) m Wilton. 
Carl (Karl or Karle) in East Rounton. 
Aluer (Alfr) in Hilton. 

C 2 


Turorne ^Thorarinn) in Ayton. 

Norman {Nor^ma^f a Norwegian) in Ayton, Broughton, Hinder- 
well, Marske, Kirkleatham, Wilton, Upsal. 

Suuen (Sweyn) in Egton, Lythe, Goldsborough, Mickleby, Bor- 
rowby, Roxby, &c. 

Walteof (Valtheofr) in Eston. 

Malgrim in Ingleby Amcliffe. 

Gospatric in Whorlton, Carlton, Seamer, &c. 

Aldred in A)rton. 

Uctred in Stokesley, Seaton, Skelton, Brotton, Moorsholm, Guis- 
borough, Stainsby, &c. 

Edmund in Ayton, Pinchingthorpe, Marton, Toleby, Stainton, &c. 

Magbanec in Newton. 

Lieuenot in Lazenby. 

In all, we have here twenty-seven names (without allowing for possible 
duplicates, the existence of which may be suspected in one place, if not 
in more) : of these twenty-seven, Magbanec would almost seem to be 
Celtic ; Lieuenot, unless it be Norman-French, is hard to class ; Edmund 
and Aldred are Anglo-Saxon ; all the rest are Danish : and, what is 
remarkable, with one exception — that of Orm — diflferent from those of 
the original nomenclators of the settlements or properties or manors 
possessed by them — a fact that shews most conclusively not only the 
extent or prevalence of the Danish colonization, but aiso its secured 

* This may be the best place to advert to a singular and extremely interesting confir- 
mation of the views advanced in the text, which has been afforded during the latter half of 
the year 1867 by the disclosures made in the course of the works connected with the 
rebuilding of Kildale Church. In digging for the foundations of the new north wall, and 
also in excavating along the middle of the nave for the reception of the warming-apparatus, 
a number of skeletons, in perfect preservation, were dug upon, in company with several of 
which were objects of bronze, and weapons of iron (swords, daggers, and a Inttle-axe) of iodi 
a distinctly marked character that there could be as little doubt of their origin as of their 
antiquity. They were unmistakeably Danish, and there could be no room left for uncer- 
tainty as to the fact that the mediaeval church, the last remains of which had t>een so lately 
removed, had been built upon the site of a cemetery which had been such from the ninth 
century, downwards. It may be also mentioned that among the skulls obtained, but not 
from the skeletons in connection with the arms— only in company with them as co-tenants 
of the same burial-ground — were some of such singularly marked dolicho-ce{4ialic diaracter 
as to raise the question whether they could be accounted for otherwise than by supposing 
them to have been the heads of captives or * thralls' brought from the remote North by the 
immigrant Danish appropriators of the place in question. All these weapons and other 
objects passed under the hands of the writer, and the skulls were measured by him, and his 
accounts and measurements submitted to some of the most eminent archaeologists of the 
day, as well as to the London Society of Antiquaries ; his conclusions being admitted, on 
all hands, to be entirely satisfactory and well established. 


But nol only were the lords of the soil thus unmistakeably Danish at 
the time of the Conquest, the inferior orders or sons of the soil must 
have been so as well. For in a charter of Henry I, confirming certain 
gilts to Guisborough Priory, made by members of the Lascelles family, 
we find specified, among such gifts, certain persons and families, who, as 
villanes, were transferred hke so much stock of any other description, 
and whose names were as follows : — Robert, the son of Ketell ; Godwin ; 
Ervice, the son of Aslac ; Wigan, the son of Gamel ; Robert, the son of 
Ralph ; Ralph, the son of Godwin ; Ingeberg, the son of Aslac ; Alice, 
the wife of Serb, with their followers (children) ; Ralph, the son of 
William, the son of Turgis, with all his followers; Gunilda, mother 
of the same. 

Ketell, Aslac (two of the name), Ingeberg, Gunilda, Gamel, Ralph, 
Turgis, Godwin — but little in the way of comment is required when 
such names preponderate. They speak very intelligibly as to the ori- 
ginal nationality of no small proportion of the lower orders of the popu- 
lation in certain districts of Yorkshire some two generations later than 
the Conquest 

After the production of such a mass of evidence as that which has 
thus been closed we can have no hesitation about admitting such state- 
ments as John of Wallingford*s touching the ' great admixture of people 
of Danish race' in Yorkshire, and applying them especially to Cleveland ; 
and the further allegation as to the ' great similarity of language,' follow- 
ing necessarily as a corollary, must be admitted with equal frankness. 
But still the question remains as to the measure or degree of ' similarity' 
between the Scandinavian tongues and the Old Northumbrian, even on 
the admission that it was really ' great;' and the question is one which 
has been differendy dealt with by different writers, and consequently fur- 
nished with different solutions. Some would make Northumbrian a 
Scandinavian dialect, and others ignore no small proportion of what in 
it is certainly Scandinavian or notlung. And even in the case of others 
more moderate and impartial, and perhaps also better qualified, by their 
general learning as well as by their philological attainments, to pro- 
nounce with some decision upon the subject mooted, there is no little 
difference as to the relative amounts of the elements which go to make 
up the mingled mass they agree in calling a Dano-Saxon dialect. Thus 
Mr. Gamett decides that because ' in the Scandinavian dialects the de- 
finite article is uniformly postpositive and coalesces with its substantive,' 
and in the Northumbrian dialects the same article is a distinct prepo- 
sitive term, therefore the said article is not the Scandinavian article.* 
Mr. Peacock, on the other hand, contends — and the fact that his con- 

* Gamett's CoUecttd Essays, p. 49. 


elusions are published in the Transactions of the Philological Society 
lends them a positive weight, which otherwise they might not carry — ^not 
only that the grammar of the dialects in question is in many particulars 
Scandinavian, but that ' the first and most remarkable characteristic of 
Northumbrian is the definite article— or more properly the demonstrative 
pronoun, V — which is an abbreviation of the Old Norse neuter demon- 
strative pronoun htf, Sw. and Dan. e/J * * There have been retained,' 
he continues {Id, pp. 6, 7), ' amongst the Northmnbrian dialects certain 
expressions which are identical with Scandinavian ones at the present 
day, and these leave it beyond doubt that the word so abridged is no 
other than the Scandinavian neuter art Aii or ei, . , , In Tauchnitz's 
Swed. and Eng. Dictionary (pocket ed. Leipzig 1861) under the word 
brosi = Eng. breast^ among other phrases connected with that word, we 
find ^'Ait gifoa barnei broskt — To give the child suck" (lit to give the 
child the breast). 

' In N. Lonsdale and in Westmoreland the same phrase would be 

" At give 't bam 't brfest" 

where we find the two expressions identical, word for word, except for 
the postpositive situation of the Swedish article ^/, which twice occurs as 
a siiffix to the nouns barn and brost. Now suppose, by way of illus- 
tration, we make the Sw. art. /r^ositive instead of /^j/positive, the 
sentence would then stand thus : — Sw. Ait gt/va ei barn et bros/, 
Northumb. At give 't barn 't brfest, and the identity of every word is at 
once apparent; the only difference being that the initial letter e in the 
article suffers aphaeresis in the provincial of Northumbria.' t 

Mr. Peacock further considers the apparent ' outrage on the Scandi- 
navian idiom' herein involved, the result of an * amsdgamation of their 
languages' among the two races — ' the established Saxon settlers,' and 

* Some leading CbaraeterisHes o/tbe Dialects spoken in Ancient Northumbria, p. 5. 

f Mr. Peacock's want of fiill acquaintance with the Scandinavian tongues disqualified 
him for perceiving the fallacy of his argument, not to say its intrinsic worthlessness, origi- 
nating in the circumstance that he argues on the supposition that all nouns are simply 
neuter. It so happens in the sentence quoted that both the nouns, bam and brdst, are 
neuter, and therefore both take the postpositive et. But what is to be said of sluttningenss 
Northumb. ' t' slope/ bistorien = * t' history,' both feminine and both occurring in the first 
sentence of the first Swedish book lying near enough to me to be opened? Of kroppen^ 
* t* body,* bamnen = * t* spirit' (or uncorporeal part), brodren=* t' brother,' &c., all mascu- 
line, and to say nothing of the inflections, in the ^ural, of these masculine and feminine 
nouns — ^nay of the neuter ones also ? The fact is, Mr. Peacock's theory scarcely applies to 
one case in twenty that would occur in every-day, homely talk in a Swedish company, and 
becomes less available still as applied to the Old Norse definite nouns, as the merest glance 
at Rask's Grammar by Dasent, pp. 74, 75, abundantly shews. Out of the sixty-four case- 
endings of definite nouns given there, precisely four are found with the final / or it. 


the invading Northmen— <:ondequent on their eventual intermixture. 
He assumes ' a fusion of language, the grammar as well as the voca- 
bulary, continuing to g^vitate until it came to something common to 
both.' The definite article would have of course to be dealt with among 
other things, and would present one of the greatest difficulties, but the 
difficulty would 'end in a compromise in which the Saxon adopted 
the Scandinavian article, and the Northman became reconciled to the 
Saxon mode of placing it/ (lb, p. 8.) 

But not to dwell upon the unnecessary ingenuity displayed in thus 
accounting for the form of the Northumbrian definite article, it may be 
observed that the writer, equally with Mr. Gamett, overlooks the fact 
that the prepositive definite article is ftof unknown in the Scandinavian 
dialects ; in other words, is not ' uniformly postpositive,' does not ' uni- 
formly coalesce with its substantive.' 

* The most striking peculiarity about the South Judand dialect,' says 
Mr. Kok, ' is that it does not apply the coalescing {vedhasngk) or definite 
post-posidve article {endear tik^f). Either no article at all is employed, 
as om Dag, om Nai, om Summer, &c., or it is replaced by den, det, de^ 
as dm Hostruper, the Hostrup man, de T»nderingery the T0nder folks ; 
or, what is most common of all, by simple e or cb, which is used pre- 
positively and is the same for all genders and numbers; as, eBy, eBarn^ 
e Bynder, the farmers, e hele Hus* * 

The same writer, in reply to the remark that the article in question, 
the prepositive ^ or £?, is a proof of German, Frisian, Anglo-Saxon or 
EngUsh influence, proceeds as follows : — * In our oldest Dajiish — that of 
the thirteenth century — the postpositive article -«i, -ei, -eWy is of very 
rare occurrence; a circumstance which, as Molbech observes, may 
very well corroborate Grimm's remark, that the usage in question " may 
weU appear to be one of later introduction and originally unknown in 
the Northern speech, but which becomes of more frequent occurrence 
the lower we come down in the stream of time."t In Henrik Harpe- 
streng's (died 1244) LcBgehog it is met with only two or three times. 
Much the same is true of the Haderslev and Flensborg Stadsretter, the 
latter bearing date 1284, the former 1292, and both written in the speech 

* Dcf Bansht FMesprog in SwtderjyUand, ved Johannes Kok, Sogne prsest i Barkal 
ved T«nder, p. 161. 

t ' It is also concluded that the final article was not in use in the more ancient periods 
(of the speech), and that it was at a comparatively later time that it came into that general 
use which we are accustomed to. Even as it is, in certain cases it is dropped in familiar 
language ; for instance, in neuter nouns in «, where the suffixed / is not sounded, as in 
Bdtt{() ; and also in feminines in a, where the added n in all cases drops out, as in hloiha 
for HMan* Aasen*s Nonk GrammaHJt^ P* 157* 


of the burghers of that time. The postpositive article occurs from time 
to time, but frequently it is either omitted altogether, or else replaced by 
the pronoun fhan, iluBi^ te (den, det, de) ; as the Bynun^ the townsmen ; 
then By, the town or village, the Born, the bairns ; iha mt^ha ihefrcender 
ei icJuB the Bom truth thercB gooz iJhera gonuB, utan thefrcmder gara/uU 
wisscB : in that case the relatives must not take the children into dieir 
guardianship, except the relatives give full security, &c. 

* From the pronoim them, that, the* continues Mr. Kok, * the article 
e 01 (B has been derived on this wise: hurried articulation has first 
dropped the final n or /, and next the aspirated or lisping initial conso- 
nant th (]>), so that nothing but e oi cb was left remaining. Correspond- 
ing rejections of the final ;i or / are of continual occurrence in the 
common speech of Norway, in the dialect of Funen, and in North 
Jutland, and even, finally, in the ordinary or every-day conversational 
speech of the Danes, as de mand, de Hus, But, perhaps, the most con- 
vincing proof that the article e is thus derived is found in the South 
Jutland dialect, which still employs den, det, de, where the standard lan- 
guage uses the postpositive article ; as, det er de Pikers Lam : that is the 
girl's lamb, for det er Ptgernes Lam; de Tendringer, de Abollinger, 
de Skotter, &c. ; and, in the Bible, de Ramere, de Korintier, &c. This use 
of the pronoun den, de can only be regarded as a trace still remaining 
of a once general Danish mode of speech which the Jutlanders have 
omitted to change as time rolled on.' • 

This may serve, perhaps, to throw some light upon the true nature, 
or origin and history, of the Northumbrian definite article. On the one 
side, Mr. Gamett's statement is seen to be by far too sweeping. On the 
other, there seems to be no necessity for subscribing to Mr. Peacock's 
theory of amalgamation and compromise. It is a fact that up to the 
end of the tenth century the influx of the Danes had not materially 
changed the written dialect of Northumbria. * In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, however, the innovations, alterations and additions due to them 

* * It appears that the admixture of the Northmen in the population of the Northum- 
brian provinces had not produced its fiill effect upon the language in the tenth century ; as, 
with ^e exception of one or two isolated words, there is nothing that can be satisfactorily 
referred to that class of dialects, either in the Durham Texts or the Rushworth Gospels. 
In the fourteenth century the traces of this influence become much stronger. The * Cursor 
Mundi' and the Northumbrian metrical version of the Psalms abound with words totally 
unknown in the Saxon dialects, but of regular occurrence in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish. 
One of the most remarkable of these is the Scandinavian prefix to infinitives, at tbink, at do, 
instead of to think, to do, which is an unequivocal criterion of a purely Northern dialect, 
and an equally certain one of the Scandinavian influence whereby that dialect has been 
modified.' Oamett's PbU. Essays, p. i88. The author then proceeds to give several other 
illustrations of Danish words and grammatical forms. But neither he nor any other writer 


had been fully effected, although at what particular epoch in the interval 
we have no evidence to shew. The inevitable inference, of course, is, 
that the change which is faintly becoming sensible in the tenth centiuy 
goes steadily on and is accomplished within the next two or three gene- 
rations ; in other words, becomes un fait accompli at a period somewhat 
antecedent to that of what Mr. Kok calls 'our oldest Danish' {celdste 
Dansk), when the postpoative article was of very rare occurrence and 
open to be characterised as an innovation unknown to the original 
Northern speech (en sildigere for de Nor dish sprog oprindelig ubekjendl 
Indreinmg), and when, in the Danish writings still extant, the preposi- 
tive definite article perpetually took the form of ihe^ or more rarely ihcL 
If we further bear in mind that our English sound olf th was unknown — 
almost impossible — to the Scandinavian tongue ; that as Thor was and 
is sounded almost as we sound Tor, * so the must have been sounded 
nearly as our te; we arrive at the conclusion that the Northumbrian 
definite article, after all, may be, or rather almost certainly is, the Old 
Danish definite article, but that its proper form is /', and not V, as 
Mr. Peacock would write it. 

Again, while strongly asserting the importance of the particles in 
indicating the origin of a dialect or language, Mr.Gamett seems scarcely 
to allow for the number actually existing in the Northumbrian dialects, 
and still less for those which may have once been in use, but have since 
passed out under the inevitable influence of advancing knowledge and 
intercourse with the more Saxon parts of the kingdom. * The presence 
or absence of a few Norse particles,' he says, * proves nothing decisive 
either way. Those which are wanting may have become obsolete, and 
those which actually occur might be introduced by the Danish invaders.' f 
But our question being — * How much in our dialect is due to the in- 

OQ the subject seems to make any allowance for what not only may, but must, have been 
lost. In this one district alone the author of the Wbithy Glossary and myself have noted 
probably not less than fifty words hitherto unrecorded, of which the great majority may be 
pronounced to be exclusively Scandinavian. A few years more and these would have been 
finally lost. Nay, it is a common remark among many of the more intelligent of the 
Cleveland Dalesmen, when led to speak on the subject, that their dialect has lost not only 
sensibly but very considerably within their own recollection — a fact that I am myself able 
to bear personal testimony to. And it is idle to suppose that Cleveland affords an excep- 
tional case in this particular. Probably many hundreds of words, which have never been 
written, are lost for ever, and a slow but perpetual change in idiom and construction has 
DOW nearly reached its last stage ; namely, that characteristic of mere ordinary or homely 

* Note the name Tor in the Domesday list of owners of land. 

t PbiJ. Euaytf p. 51. The author is contesting the position that Lowland Scottish is to 
be regarded as a Somdinavian dialect; and regarding, as he of course does, Scottish as 
' itanding in the closest affinity to that used on tha bank of the Tees and the Tyne ; being, 



fluence of the Danian invaders?' the reasonable course appears to be to 
enquire how many of our existing particles are either certainly or most 
probably Scandinavian in origin, and what likelihood there is that others 
may have become obsolete. 

I. As certainly Scandinavian I specify — 

aback, behind, in the rear of, O. N. d^, 

amell, between, O. N. 4^i7/i, 

amid, among, O. N. dnudal. 

at, to, O. N. at, apud, ciun, quod attinet ad. 

an, than, O. N. an, Sw. an, 

an, if, O. Sw. cm, 

at, that, O. N. at, Sw. j//, &c. 

at efter, afterwards, N. atefier, Dan. efter at, 

efter, after, O. N. epiir, eftir, 

flra, frav, from, O. N./r(f, which as spoken becomes frav before 

a vowel, 
for, for, O. N. fyfyfyrir, 
i, iv, in, O. N. i, 

of, oflf, * of, from, out of, Dan. af, 
intil, intiv, into, Sw. infill, 
tn, tiv, to, O. N. til 
wi', wiv, with, O. N. vi^, Dan. ved, 
holder, rather, in preference, O. N. helldr, 
inoo, inow, presently, Dan. / et nu, 
baokling^, t backwards, S. Jutl. baglcengs, 
parlous, greatly, terribly, T>2in, /erlich, 
sae, so, Sw. sa, Dan. saa. 
sair, very, exceedingly, Dan. saare, 
hine ! be off, away with you, Dan. hedan, 

II. As probably Scandinavian : — 

a, X in, on, O. N. d, in, upon. 

The compounds with a, as afoore, aside, asteead, &c. 

off on. 

out in (perhaps Dan. utan), 

in fact — like that — Northumbrian Saxon, with a strong infusion of Danish/ what he ad- 
vances with respect to the former must be, in the main, held to be applicable to the 

* As in the phrase * A foal off yon meear.' 

t This is a representative of a numerous class; as, nearlings, maiftlings, fliir- 
lixics, &c. 

X In such phrases as ' It ligs a that hand.' 


noo, now, Sw. nu, 

oft, offens, often, Dan. o/ie, 

sen, syne, Sw. sedan. 

Both these lists might be increased : the latter largely so. The pecu- 
liar Northern interjections a ! eh I, and the adverbial forms in som, * as 
what'som, hcw-som, in whatsomever, howsomever — compare Dan. 
hDodsomhelsiy &c. — are almost certainly Scandinavian, and so also are 
the assentative and negative particles ay, neya (Sw. nej^ &c.), not to 
mention other less obtrusive forms. 

But independently of what actually remains, what presumption is there 
that the Northumbrian dialects still retain aU the particles originally in- 
troduced by the Northern invaders ? 

Mr. Gamett adverts to an ' inscription commemorating the foundation 
of the edifice, or more probably of a preceding one,' still extant in Ald- 
borgh Church, Holdemess, in the following terms — Ulf hei arcean 
cyricefor hannm and for Gunthara saula : Ulf bid erect the church for 
him and for the soul of Gunthar, as remarkable in a philological point of 
view. The word hanum is the O. N. dative of hann (he), Sw. hononif 
' a form unknown in all the Saxon dialects.' t What has become of that 
dative? This Aldburgh inscription is the sole remaining testimony to 
what we know, as well as if oiu* own ears had listened to the speech of 
those days, must have been the almost exclusive equivalent for our 
modem io ox for him. Again, amell has nearly passed out of use. 
I have not heard it myself once in the twenty-one years of intercourse I 
have had with the Cleveland Dalesmen ; that is to say, as a word con- 
tinuing in familiar use. Many of them are still familiar with its meaning, 
and it remains in the compound word Amell-door ; but another gene- 
ration will not know either its sound or its meaning. Arval, too, has 

* * Another remarkable Scandinavianism is the particle sum in the sense of as^ Dan. som : 
e. g. " Swa sum we forgive oure detturs." This form appears to be now obsolete.' Gramett, 
P£/. Essays, p. 189. 

t Pbil. Essays, p. 188. It is worthy of notice that another and like inscription, dis- 
covered in 1 77 1, over the south door of Kirkdale church, near Kirby Moorside (Young's 
Wbitby, p. 741)* ^^^ fixing its own date to about 1055-1064, is conceived in Anglo-Saxon 
words although commemorating the pious deed of Orm the son of Gamel ; names as exclu- 
sively Scandinavian as the Ulf of the inscription commented on by Mr. Gamett. It was 
perhaps natural, not to say necessary, in the relative conditions of intellectual culture of the 
resident Anglo-Saxons and the invading Danes, that the language of the former should be, 
so to speak, the language of literature, and the repository of most of the records which it 
was desirable to make. There is abundant reason for supposing that the invaders and the 
invaded found little difficulty in making themselves mutually intelligible, and this would 
iumish another reason why Anglo-Saxon might by common consent continue in use as the 
written language, for even some considerable time after the spoken language had become 
almost or even far more Danish than Saxon. 



gone quite, and I question if there be two men in the existing population 
of this parish who can remember having heard it in common use. The 
common English word * burial,' with a sufficient latitude of meaning 
assigned to it to make it imply ' entertainment on occasion of the 
burial/ has replaced it. Probably the history of our dialect, in common 
with its co-members of the general Northumbrian tongue, has been for 
some centuries one of slow alteration, due to the substitution of English 
words and forms for Northumbrian ones; the substitution itself origi- 
nating in the greater diffusion of the standard tongue by means of 
books, enlarged intercourse with people who used it, attendance on the 
public ministrations of the Church, and the gradual innovations of in- 
creasing connection with the outer districts. It might be a work of 
time ; but most of the causes specified have been more or less strongly 
in operation since the Reformation, and some of them would begin to 
operate from the time that the provinces began to be really and effec- 
tually constituent parts of one consolidated kingdom. And thus not 
only hanum would give place to A. S. and O. E. him^ hine^ but igjennem 
would yield to \urh (through), leaving only gain^ gain-way as its repre- 
sentatives ; among ^ amang would encroach upon amell ; or^ nor, owther, 
nowther, and so forth, assiune and maintain their present exclusive 
right of usage.* 

Aljowing then for the tolerably lengthy list of particles of Northern 
origin which are still in use (or only just obsolete) and for the inevitable 
loss of sundry others, there must have been originally not simply * a few/ 
but a goodly number of these 'winged words' introduced by the old 
Danish invaders. 

A few words next on the subject of accents t may perhaps not be out 

^ Some twelvemonth ago, on going through Towtul. Myst, again, I jotted down the 
words which, appearing in it, from their absence in the local glossaries seemed to be no 
longer current either in West Yorkshire or any other part of the county. The list, thoagh 
formed with no special object, and therefore somewhat loosely and carelessly made, numbers 
forty-eight words, and a selection made almost at random shews the nature of the gaps 
indicated : — and, spirit, breath, O. N. andif Dan. aande ; ro, rest, O. N. r6, Dan. ro ; 
syn, sinew, O. N. sm, Dzn.$ene; rose, rouse, praise, celebrate, O.N. brdsa, Dan. roM; 
bodworde, precept, O.N. bodord; skete, quickly, O.N. skjoti, Dan. ekJ9t; layn, conceal, 
O. N. leyna, N. hyna, Sw. D. lona; and so on. A similar examination prosecuted carefully 
and systematically in Hampole's writings. Sir Oawayne cutd Grene Knigbt, E. Eng. AUit. 
Poems, and other like sources, would, there is no doubt, give a very long Ust indeed of 
purely Scandinavian words which have dropped out of use during the last four or five 

f Mr. Garnett, Pbil. Essays, p. 62, remarks upon ' the importance of the aeeents of 
words in etymology,* and proceeds to illustrate the subject as follows ; — * Frav, Frev, from 
Craven Gl., Cumbrian. Barbarous corruptions ! many of our readers will say. They are 
nevertheless genuine descendants of the Scandinavian Jrd, still pronounced /rav in Iceland. 
We may add, that in the Icelandic Lexicons we find d (agna, ovis feminina) a word to all 


of place, nor without some value in indicating something more as to the 
measure in which our dialect is indebted to the ancient Danes. 

We have two words which are homon3rms for ' little/ lile and lahtlOy 
the former of which is referred to Dan. lille* and the latter seems at 
first sight to be a mere phonetic freak. A reference to the A. S. Lexi- 
con gives us the form lyiel^ with the y sounded as m * mystery.'f The 
synonyms from the Germanic and Scandinavian tongues are South 
Germ, litzel, luizel, O. Germ. lusitUr, PL D. liUi, lilije, Fris. IMich, 
Dan, liUe, lidm^ Sw. lille, liim, neither of which suggests any solution 
for our puzzle. O. N. //////, however, at once dears the matter up. The 
long or accented i in the first syllable retains its proper power in our 
word, and gives us the form which, for want of better exponents of 
sound, is by some written * lahtle.'J The same principle explains the 
twofold form of the preposition yr^, /rat;, the latter of which is noticed 
in a preceding note from Gamett's Essays. In his translation of Rask's 
Old Norse or Icelandic Grammar, Dr. Dasent notices the two soimds 
of d, the one like av or a«, the other more like that of Sw. aaox'E.o : 
the latter is the sound of our preposition before a word beginning with 
a consonant, an aspirate, or a y, the former before a vowel. In the 
same way, with our preposition i or iv, in, we say (the sound of the t 

appeaiance utterly unlike any known synonym. But when we obseire the accent, and 
learn that it is pronounced aw or av by natives, we immediately perceive its identity with 
the Sanscrit aim ; Gr. ti$ (i. e. Sfu) ; Lat. avis ; Prov. Germ, auw ; and our own iWi. It 
would be easy to multiply similar instances : the above will shew the power of the Scan- 
dinavian accents/ 

* Cf. Gamett's PbU. Estays, p. 189. 

t Bosworth's Comp. Anglo-Saxon Dtct.^ letter Y. 

t See the remarks upon the word in the Glossary below, under LItle, where the illus- 
tration is fully given. The tendency of our dialectical phonesis is to make all long Ts take 
the sound of ab (or Gr. d<, more nearly), although in many cases the words are pure English 
or of late introduction. Still, this is simply a consequence of the principle that the sound 
in question depends entirely upon the accented t in original Norse words. I believe the 
principle admits of much wider illustration than is attempted in the text. Thus we have 
what is sounded Gralip (Sc. graip), a fork used for agricultural purposes. But we also 
say grip, grtp-ho'd, the O. N. vb. being gripa. There is no doubt that there is a long 
Towd involved in the former of these words, the Sw. and N. equivalents being grepe, grtip, 
both probably from O. N. grtip ; while, as to grip, we find that in all compound words the 
sense of which involves the notion of a completed act of seizing, the unaccented t is found 
in the prefix in question, as grip-fugl, a bird of prey, grip-deild, the act of plundering. 
This is precisely the sense in i^p-ho'd, and no less in our verb grip also : there is a 
rapidity or suddenness of action — begun and completed in the same instant, as it were — 
implied in grip which is not in the slightest degree conveyed by Eng. gripe. I conceive, 
therefore, that our grip depends upon the derivative grip of the Scandinavian tongues, 
instead of upon the simple verb at gripa. Cf. N. grip, sb., specially noticed by Aasen 
as pronounced with t short (aab. t), g^pa, adj., and gripaUgt besides the vb. gripa, grip, 
where the long vowel is found in the pret. greip. 


being very nearly that of ee somewhat shortened) i t' hooBy i plaoeB, &c. ; 
but iv all, iv ony case, for ' in all/ ' in any case.' This too is a case 
of an accented vowel, the Old Norse preposition being I. 

But what Mr. Gamett calls * the power of the Scandinavian accent' 
is not fully seen until we notice the effect of its absence upon other 
words in the dialect. On the one side we have lahUe, Shahve (shive), 
BahEn (bisen), on the other binnd, blinnd, finnd, winnd (vb.), 
minnd, &c., from O. N. dinddj blindr, firma^ vinda^ nutma^ which all 
present the unaccented vowel. I suppose it would be impossible for 
any one only accustomed to the standard pronunciation not to be struck 
with the sound of wind, vb., in the mouth of a true Clevelander, as con- 
trasted with that of wind, sb. The latter receives the accent which is 
given in reading poetry, and of course with more or less of the aJi sound ; 
the other is as short as wind, sb., in ordinary refined conversation. And 
so, in the harvest fields it is the Binnder who binds the ShaflOi. We 
hear no other pronunciation of the words in the original of which the 
short or unaccented /' is found ; and the class is not a small one. 

While touching upon this subject of accents, another class of vowel 
sounds, namely those which replace the sounds of o and oo in £ng., 
naturally craves our attention. Thus stone becomes both stane and 
steean;'*' home, hame, heeam, yamm; loaf, leeaf; fool, feeal, &c. 
This divergence of form induced by sound may at first sight seem rather 
perplexing, but the difi&culty will be found to disappear on examination^ 
or rather to admit of easy and interesting explanation. Kok remarks 
that, in the S. Jutl. dialects, long e takes the sound of an /' before it ; as 
sien (stone), ben (bone), del (a share, division), lef (a loaf), a peculiarity 
observable also in the O. Danish writings of the fifteenth century, 
which afford such instances as stien for sien, dielle for dele, dieres for 
deres (theirs), my en for men (to think, suppose). But the Scandinavian 
€ takes much the soimd of English a, as in ' fate.' Danish sten, then, 
corresponds with our Stane, South Jutland and O. Dan. stien precisely 
with our Steean. 

* It is almost impossible to represent this sound intelligibly. It is, in fact, exceedingly 
dijfficult, by the aid of only type, to represent any sound to a reader whose ear is unaccus- 
tomed to it. Neither m, 7, nor y are adequate exponents of the sound in question, though 
it seems to partake of the phonesis of each. On the whole, after much consideration, and 
attentive listening to the speech of the Cleveland people, I conceive that te comes, if any- 
thing, rather nearer the mark than either of the other two signs ; only it must be under- 
stood that what is meant is rather an impulse in the direction of the sotmd of et in * feet,' 
than the prolonged sound itself. There is little doubt that the sound in question is that 
of jf, Danish y; but while m, with the qualification just named, more nearly represents the 
desired sound than jr, it has also the additional merit of not making the words written with 
it look so outlandish as if y were employed. This will be seen by comparing steean with 


Now Bosworth's remark on the long or accented A. S. <i is ' that 
words containing this long or accented d are now represented by English 
terms with the vowd somided like o in no and bane. The following 
words have either the same or an analogous meaning, both in English 
and Anglo-Saxon : hdm, home, dn^ one, bdn^ bone, hdn, sidn, sdr, rdp, 
Idr, gdst^ ivrdi. Sometimes the accented or long d is represented in 
EngUsh by 0a, as cCr, an oak, gdd^ a goad, Idd, rdd^ brdd, bdiy Sec. Occa- 
sionally d becomes oe in English; as ^, a doe, /d, a foe, rd, /d, wd; 
but the ^ in these words has the sound of in no. The same may be 
said of M in boar. Hence it appears that the A. S. d is represented by 
the modem English 0, oa, oe, which have the sound of <? in no, — ^Deut. 
Gram, von Jacob Grimm, Vol. I. pp. 358-397. 3rd edit. 1840.'* 

There is then a presmnption, probably a strong one, that A. S. d may 
have been originally sounded as in ' no,' and sidn therefore would have 
been 'stone' in utterance.! O. N. sieinn, O. Sw. sfeny however, as well as 
Dan. sieen, Sw. sim, would be more like our stane, and the same of O. N. 
ben (bone), Dan. ben^ Sw. ben ; O. N. hetmr (home), Dan. hjem, Sw. fteiUj 
and the like. The coincidence between the Qeveland forms stane, 
hame, bane, &c., which are frequently heard still, and the correspond- 
ing Scandinavian words would, by itself simply, be extremely interest* 
ing ; but, with the additional coincidence afforded by the Jutland usage, 
it becomes not alone interesting, but suggestive in a high degree. For 
it not only points to Danish influence in the material and formation of 
the dialect under notice, but also points with some degree of precision — 
and quite independently of any direct historical testimony tending to 
the same point — ^to the particular or local source of such Danish in- 
fluence, namely the Danish peninsula.t 

ifjMN, beeam with byam^ deeal with dyai, and so forth. It must be farther observed 
that the final syllable — for the single syUable of the long vowel is expanded into two by 
the process onder mention — is dealt with as of minor importance ; the on in steean, for 
in<fann% has precisely the momentum that an would have in the sentence ' he saw an 
image.' In the same way, al in feeal is merely as the a/ in * general' in a distinct reader 
or q)eaker's mouth ; and so of the other instances in which the m sound is introduced in 
our dialect. 

* Comp, A, S, Diet. p. 11. 

i* In die Semi<Sazon of Lajramon's Brut we have several examples of the commencing 
transition in spelling from A. S. d to Eng. as in * no,' or its equivalent sounds oa^ oe, which 
is probably an additional if not a conclusive argument that this was the original sound of 
the vowel in question. Thus wa (woe) takes the additional forms w<e, waOt wo; /a (foe), 
Jo; bar, bar (boar), bor; ba, boKe (both), 60a, bofSt; baldt, b€eldt (bold), bolde; 030, 
a^ime (own), 03^, o)M#, otcw, oicwm. See. And what is worthy of remark is that the 
instances in o are hx more frequent in the second text than in the first. 

X No one could compare the very quaint proverbial expressions quoted in a preceding 
page, cotnddent alike in idea and in expression, and conent alike in Cleveland and in 


But, further, it is to the point to observe that words which in English 
are in long a, in the Cleveland dialect follow the rule of those in o ; 
thus dak becomes deeal, almost (fyai or cfyel, the stress being on the 
' help vowel,' and scarcely at aU on the final syllable, ga/e, geeat, ka/f, 
keeal, kave, keeav. This too is of perpetual occurrence ; the following 
instances being met with on simply opening Costello's Poems: seeam 
for same, dkeam for blame, ageean for again, y^^am for fame (pp. 214, 
215). I take braid, or brade (to resemble, or ' take after,' as a child 
resembles or takes after his parents), as an instance of this class. The 
Wh. GL example and orthography is, * you breead o' me, you don't like 
noise.' Now here the original being O. N. bregda, Sw. Dial, brdgdd^ 
Sw. bras (imp. brdddes)^ the vowel, by the syncopation of the original 
word, is necessarily long. And in this case, then, as in that of the Scan- 
dinavian /, equivalent in sound to English d, our dialect, following the 
rule of the Jutland e, takes in the Danish y, or our ee soimd, before, and 
partly instead of, the proper soimd of the vowel. 

Here again, however, Uie rule makes no exception in favour of such 
words as have come to us from sources very divergent from Scandi- 
navian tongues or dialects, or, in other words, are of later introduction 
than the formation of the dialect. Thus fame becomes feeam, and 
danuy deeam, quite as fully as same (O. N. samr), seeam, lamlf (O. N. 
iama)y leeam, name (O. N. nq/h, Sw. namn), neeam, &c. 

But, further, with neeam, deeal, seeam, for name^ dale, same, com- 
pare shamm for shame, gamm for game, darr for dare, and a few other 
instances of the same kind. It is certainly remarkable that, while A. S. 
has sceamuy sceomu, PI. D. schaam, Fris. scame, Eng. shame, &c., the O. N. 
word is skomm, skamm, the Dan. skam, skamme, beskcemme ; as also 
O. N. gaman, Dan. gammen, against Eng. game. Mid. Saxon game, gome, 
A. S. gamm ; O. N. yora (the unaccented), Dan. ier, Sw. for, against 
Eng. dare, A. S. dear. 

But let us revert for a moment to a word which, in its several forms, 
has aheady passed under review, but did not meet with all the attention 
which, in the matter now under consideration, it deserved. That word 
is home, which in this dialect takes the forms hame, heeam, yamm. 
With home A. S. hdm may be collated ; with hame, O. N. heimr, O. Dan. 
?um, Sw. hem, Sw. Dial, hem, haim : and with heeam, Dan. hjem. But, 
as it would appear, the presence and influence of another principle has 
to be looked for in the case of the third form yamm : and that prin- 
ciple is not, as I conceive, an assumed transition under strong aspira- 
tion (strong aspiration is scarcely the rule in Northumbrian diaJects 

Jutland, without being led to think on the connection between the two districts, and what 
it had been, to lead to such a singularly striking correspondence. 


generally, and certainly not in the Cleveland dialect) of the hee into ye, 
so that heeam becomes ye-am and eventually yamm, so much as the 
same which accounts for yan, ya (yah) for one, yall for ale, yak for 
oak, and so on without end. 

Mr. Kok* remarks of the South Jutland dialect that in it, as well as 
in that of North Judand, all vowels admit of that extension of sound 
which is developed by the preinsertion of y (alk selvlyde kunne udvides 
vtd etforamaij) ; and, among the instances he gives, zi^jen for en, one, 
jyver for yver, udder. Compare our Cleveland yan, Yuro, merely bear- 
ing in mind that Dan. j is almost exactly equivalent in soimd — in such 
a position, that is — to our^. 

Mr. Kok further observes that a like extension of sound obtains in 
certain Norse dialects, and even in the later Islandic speech, while in 
fifteenth-century Danish J is frequendy found inserted before e. The 
insertion of the J therefore is not a peculiarity affecting barely the Jut- 
land dialects, however true it may be that it prevails more extensively 
and fuDy in the peninsula than elsewhere. 

It is of course impossible that the peculiarities of dialect adverted to 
in what has been advanced above, and evidentiy so susceptible of reduc- 
tion to rule, could have originated independently of some specific source ; 
and I think it is almost equally impossible to observe the general corre- 
spondence, and even, in many cases, minute coincidences, between the 
peculiarities in question and the sufficiently marked characteristics of 
Scandinavian tongues and dialects, without being led to the conclusion 
that in all the particulars specified the Cleveland dialect is indebted to 
the Old Danish tongue, and, in a marked manner and no small degree, 
to the Jutland forms in particular. 

As a sequel to, and commentary on, this conclusion, I append the 
following translation from Professor Worsaae's Minder om de Danske og 
Nordm^nderu i England, Skoiland og Irland : — * The popular speech in 
North England is specially remarkable for its correspondence with the 
dialects current in the Danish peninsula. Many words occur which are 
common to N. England and Jutiand, but which, otherwise, are not found 
in the Danish tongue. For instance, in North England the shafts of 
the various carriages employed are called ItmmerSy which word is most 
evidentiy of the same derivation as our Juttish Item, a broom, both of 
them being derived from O. N. limiy a branch, spray. But, besides, the 
broad pronunciation makes the likeness even more striking and extra- 
ordinary. Thus in N. England, styanf (sieen, Eng. stone), yen {een, 

* S. JyUand Dantkt Fdhetprog^ p. 97. 

t It is scarcely necessary to observe that Prof. Worsaae simply uses y where we, for 
reasons given above, have preferred to substitute et. 


Eng. one), welt (vcBl/e, Eng. to upset), swelt (svelle*, Eng. overcome 
with heat and exercise), maw (move, Eng. stomach), low (lu£, Eng. flame), 
donse (dandse, Eng. dance), fey (feiej Eng. to remove the earth), onse, 
(oxe, Eng. ox), raim (rogn^ Eng. roe of fishes), war and war (pcerre og 
vcerrcy Eng. worse and worse), with many others of the same sort, are 
just pure Juttish.t 

' In fact, the Jutland dialects resemble the English language more 
nearly than any other section of the Danish tongue. The West Jut- 
landers use the article a before the word in the same way as English 
the is applied, although the Danish tongue otherwise is unacquainted 
with such an article ; % and the broad open w which the folks of Funen 
and Sealland can only enunciate with the utmost difficulty, falls from 
the Jutlanders as easily as from an Englishman.'§ 

It would have been easy to have pushed illustrations of the kind which 
have been so far adduced considerably further. Thus the soimd of the 
Cleveland a in such words as hand, man, &c., is utterly unlike any recog- 

* The word vammctgU occurs here in the original, and is eridently a misprint 
I have replaced it by svtlu from Molbech's Dialect Lexicon, which is cnnent in 
Falster with the signification, to die slowly or of exhaustion. I might also add that 
Kok's Juttish form y^n is more to the point than Worsaae's ttn in the line aboTe, that 
in which wdt occurs. 

f It would have been very possible, indeed easy (and apart from the broad pronunciation 
under mention), to make the above parallel much more striking by leaving out such words 
as twtlu which occurs in Semi-Saxon and Middle English (not to mention E. swelter also), 
maw, dance, and inserting in their stead such words as flan, Garsel, Scran, aooooe, 
loraflle, Begg, Sec, — words which are unknown to Danish and English alike, but are com- 
mon to Cleveland and Jutland. In fact, the number of such words is very considerable, 
and the illustration of our dialect derivable from a study of the Danish dialects, and espe- 
cially of those current in Jutland, most important. Scarcely second, indeed, to that from 
the Swedish dialects at large. 

t This statement, as has been seen at a former page, must be received with some 

i At a subsequent page (257) the same author, speaking of the Lowlands of Scotland, 
says, — ' According to a tradition widely spread in this loodity, the Lowland speech is so 
like the Scandinavian forms that seamen from the Lowlands, who chance to be wrecked on 
the coasts of Jutland or Norway, have no difficulty in making themselves understood by 
the use simply of their mother tongue. That is no doubt a great exaggeration, but so 
much is certain, that the Lowland dialect contains a still greater proportion of Northem 
words and idioms than that even of North England.' While demurring to the perfect 
accuracy of this statement, I may take the opportunity of recording that an English 
clergyman, bom and brought up at the eastern end of Cleveland, and who had not 
only spent a great deal of time in Norway, but spoke Danish with entire facility, men- 
tioned to me that, on many occasions, he had been most forcibly reminded of the ver- 
nacular of the Cleveland people and their mode of speaking it by the words and the 
accent equally of one and another of his attendants in his fishing and other excursions. 
He repeated several of these sentences to me, and they certainly sounded like very pure 
and good ' Yorkshire.' 


nised vowel-sound in English. The ordinary orthography hond, man* 
entirely fails to give any adequate idea of it. But, I imagine, it would 
require a nice ear to discriminate the vowel soimd in Dan. haand from 
that in hand as spoken by a true Clevelander. 

Again, there is a remarkable softening of the hard g sound in many 
of our dialect words into 2,v oi f sound, or possibly only into that of 
gh^ which nms parallel with many like cases in modem Danish or Danish 
dialects. Thus, Eng. plough^ in Cleveland is plewf or pleeaf. Compare 
Dan. fdaVy S. Jutl. plcfv^ plove (to plough), sounded pldvVy with O. N. plogr^ 
0. Dan. plogt ploug. Low, again, a flame or blaze, S. Jutl. loge (sounded 
liw)^ Dan. lue^ as compared with O. N. logi^ N. loge, Sw. l^a. 

But, however interesting, and even suggestive, such instances are 
in themselves, and however numerous they may be in the aggregate, 
yet they scarcely illustrate principles of such wide application as does 
what has been advanced above; and, consequently, they afford rather 
detached pieces of testimony than an array of weighty and organized 
evidence towards the decision of the question with which we are 

Some analysis of the verbal constituents of the dialect, however, may 
suggest itself as not unlikely to yield valuable results in the prosecution 
of our enquiry : and I think one thing will make itself very apparent to 
any one a little familiar with English in its more archaic forms, as soon 
as he begins to examine and analyse our vocabulary. He will find a 
variety of Old English words and expressions, and several which scarcely 
appear, or possibly do not appear in Early or Middle English at all, but 
which are still to be found in Anglo-Saxon. But, for a few of this 
description, he will find a very considerable nimiber that are not to be 
found either in Anglo-Saxon or any stage of English ; while a not in- 
considerable proportion of the whole will be found to consist of vocables 
which are either met with individually, or by some representative of their 
stock, in both the Scandinavian and Germanic languages and dialects. 

* * We would particularly recommeDd the perusal of the Craven Glossary to our dn« 
matists and novelists, who, when they introduce a Yorkshire character, generally make 
him speak something much more like Hampshire — occasionally, even, broad Somersetshire.' 
Gamett's Pbil. Essays^ P* 55' I smi afraid this recommendation is as much needed still as 
when it was written. Mr. Browdie's ' Yorkshire' would be not too intelligible in Yorkshire, 
either in form or mato^ial, while the dialect in Sylvia's lA)verSf the scene of which is sup- 
posed to be laid in or near Whitby, would certainly not recommend its speaker to the 
kindly notice of the Dalesmen as a fellow-Clevelander. Mr. Browdie says bond and Aot, 
and so forth, but he makes, among many others, the unpardonable mistake of saying * 3ran 
day,* while the staple of his discourse is ordinary English in masquerade, with scarcely a 
single characteristic Yorkshire word introduced, and much less any of the peculiar idiom 
and racy pregnancy of meaning which characterise the true Yorkshireman's familiar dif* 

e 2 



It must be my effort to give some kind of analysis in a few following 
pages such as may serve at once to justify and to illustrate these 

In the first place, out of 218 words taken in sequence from the com- 
mencement of the following Glossary, omitting none but those which in 
point of derivation might be justly looked upon as duplicates of one 
already admitted,* 28 appear to be A. S., 97 Scandinavian,! 42 com- 
mon to A. S. (and other Germanic tongues) and Scandinavian, 5 Cel- 
tic, J II Mediaeval Latin or Norman French, 18 Old English, 10 cor- 
rupt or familiar English, and 7 the origin of which may be doubtful. 
Again, out of 359 from the latter part of the Glossary (under letter .9, 
indeed), 21 seem to be A. S., 129 Scandinavian, 103 common or mixed, 
4 Celtic, 8 M. Latin or French, 17 archaic English, 60 corrupt or 
familiar English, and 17 doubtful. Estimating these figures on another 
principle, the tabulated results will be as follows : — 

In each 100 words in the first and second selections from our Glos- 
sary, respectively, there will be, exclusive of fractions — 





Old Eng. 



M.L. orFr. 

= 100 
= 100 










This result is remarkable in more respects than one. In the first 

* Thus I take Baim, but omit baimiah, baimishness, &c. Should, however, a 
compound word occur, which appears as a compound in A. S. or any Scandinavian tongue 
or dialect, it has been included, although a representative of its class might already have 
found place : Baim-teaxn being a case in point. I should observe that the work of classi- 
fication was by no means easy, and the difficulty was not lessened by the foregone con- 
clusions existing in my mind. For, with the years of study I had bestowed upon the 
enquiry, it was inevitable that my own decision upon the nature and constituents of the 
dialect should have been arrived at long since ; and that, as word after word passed under 
review, and so large a proportion of all pointed so distinctly, and so many of them so 
strikingly, to the impression produced by one particular class of influences, the effect upon 
my thoughts should have been very distinct and decided. But I think I may say that I 
strove to be strictly impartial, and even to allow for any insensible bias. It may be added, 
first, that the analysis of these 550 words was the work of nearly two days with the com- 
pleted MS. before me ; and, secondly, that in selecting the letter S, a letter has been taken 
which occupies a conspicuous place among the other letters in all tongues of Gothic origin. 
In Haldorsen's Lexicon words beginning with S take up almost 14} per cent, of the entire 
space; in Dalin's Swedish Dictionary about 18 ; in Molbech's Danish Dictionary nearly 16; 
in Bosworth's A. S. Dictionary about 14J; in Hilpert's German Dictionary nearly 17^; in 
Richardson's English Dictionary only about II ; and in our Clevel. Glossary about I4f. 

f O. N., Swedish, Danish, or occurring in some dialect of either. 

i Gaelic, Welsh, Bret., &c. 


place, we remark upon the decided preponderance of words of Scan- 
dinavian original over those of Anglo-Saxon. Secondly, we have the 
noteworthy particular that the sum of the three first columns is seventy- 
six in the first line, seventy-one in the second ; and that, after allowing 
for this coincidence, the main difference will be found under the head of 
corrupt or familiar English phraseology. But the presumption surely 
is, that, when in the one case we have thirteen A. S. terms against forty- 
four Scandinavian, and in the other, six of the former against twenty- 
nine of the latter, that in those terms — nineteen in the one case, twenty- 
nine in the second — ^which are due to vocables common to the Scan- 
dinavian and Germanic classes of languages, the real derivation in the 
proportionate majority of cases must be from the former rather than 
from the latter. 

Put this conclusion side by side with the names of places in Cleveland, 
according to the results of examination stated in a former page, with the 
names of owners at the date of the Domesday survey, with the presumed 
names of serfs or villanes sixty or seventy years later, with the conclu- 
sions drawn from our previous remarks upon the Northumbrian definite 
article and from our notice of the power of the Scandinavian accents 
and other pronunciational peculiarities brought under review, — and I think 
it will be impossible to come to any other conclusion than that, wherever 
the Cleveland dialect diverges from the ordinary or standard language, it 
is indebted to the Scandinavian tongues and dialects for certainly not less 
than sixty per cent, of such divergences. 

Of course, the figures on which this conclusion partly rests may be 
regarded as merely an approximation, but still I am convinced that for 
all practical purposes it is a safe and sufficient approximation ; and it is 
certainly one that is entirely consistent with the suggestions which are 
perpetually offering themselves in the course of continued and attentive 
study of die elements of the dialect. It is a remarkable fact, that, with 
all the striking illustrations of Cleveland words, phrases and sounds 
which are met with in the Danish dialect, and especially in that of South 
Jutland, yet there are almost more and more striking ones dispersed 
throughout the entire volume — a most admirable one — in which Dean 
Rietz has collected the peculiarities of the Swedish popular speech 
throughout the various provinces of the entire kingdom.- At first sight 
it seems scarcely reasonable to anticipate any such result. We hear of 
the Danes and the Northmen as the invaders and ultimate conquerors 
of England. We identify the Jutes as forming no small comparative 
proportion of the invading and colonising hosts. We recognise the 
successful chieftains, who, with their men, settle on the lands granted or 
conceded to them in Northumbria, and Yorkshire especially, as, gene- 
rally speaking, Danes ; but we hear of very few Swedes, either as among 


the troops or the leaders. Not that we doubt there were Swedes 
among them. It could scarcely have been otherwise. But what I 
mean is that the proportion of Swedes among the Scandinavian 
cruisers and marauding or invading parties must necessarily have 
been so small as to be insignificant, and that, as forming or taking 
any part in the various expeditions directed against our English 
coasts, the Swedes engaged must have been simply present more as 
recruits in a Danish force, and in no sense as a separate or independent 
auxiliary force. * 

And still the Northumbrian dialect, and the Cleveland form of it in 
particular, unquestionably indebted to Scandinavian speech for consi- 
derably above one half of the peculiarities which constitute it a dialect, 
is illustrated as much by existing Swedish dialects as by Old Norse or 
existing Danish or Norwegian forms, even if not almost more. 

Anomalous as this seems, yet in reality it admits of easy explanation. 
There can be no doubt that at the time when the Danish conquests in 
the North of England were becoming consolidated, and acquiring more 
and more of Danish form and consistency, as well as population, that 
the original Scandinavian tongue, supposed common to the Danes, 
Northmen and Swedes, was already undergoing considerable modifica- 
tions, which in one direction resulted in Old Danish, leading down into 
Modem Danish; in another, into Old and Modem Swedish. But it 
must be observed that, in the case of Danish, the modification adverted 
to is much more thorough and operative, and has resulted in a much 
greater divergence from the original, than in the case of Swedish. The 
latter is the child in whom almost all the features of the parent are 
reproduced, and not a few of his peculiarities of personal habit or 
gesture : in the former the likeness exists, and strongly, but it is not so 
obtrasive, and often presents itself rather, as it were, to the thoughtful 
and comparing beholder, than thrusts itself on every passing eye. 
I would say that Swedish, and especially the Swedish dialects, may be 
in a sense (and that not a misleading one) regarded as a kind of instan- 
taneous photograph of a transitional state of the Old Norse tongue, the 
period of transition being not very far removed from the date at which 
the Northumbrian dialect began to assume distinct consistency and 
form ; a date we cannot fix, even very approximately, from internal or 
locally historical data, except in so far as we assume, on seemingly very 
sufficient grounds, that it must have been subsequent to the middle of 
the tenth century. And hence the simple explanation of the fact that 

* ^ Professor Worsaae's remarks upon this subject, and his explanation of the fact, in 
the opening pages of his able Mindir om dt Dansht &c. 


the Swedish and the Northumbrian dialects still retain a very large pro- 
portion of words common to both, not a few of which moreover occur 
in no other dialect or vocabulary besides these two. 

Another illustration of the extent to which Northern elements still 
prevail in our vocabulary has been obtained by the careful collation of 
the Semi-Saxon Ancren Rtwk* and Layamon's Brui;\ and, secondly, 
of the Early English Piers Ploughman's VisiofitX with the Qeveland 
Glossary. In the first-named there are 215 small 4to pages rather 
closely printed, in the second 32,200 short verses, and in the last 
14,700, together with 1700 in the Creedy in all 16,400; while the Glos- 
sary contains about 3920 words. The result of the collation is that 
in Ancren Riwle there are about 235 words which either are found 
in the Glossary or are nearly related to some that are there met 
with: in Layamon the number of such words scarcely amounts to 
more than 200 : while in Piers Ploughman the number scarcely ex- 
ceeds no. 

This result is, it must be admitted, a somewhat remarkable one. The 
average percentage of pure Anglo-Saxon words in the Glossary can 
scarcely be set down at less than 10 (and it is probably more); 
and yet in Ancren RiwU scarcely 5 J per cent, of our words or their 
connections occur, in the Brut only a little over 4^, while in the 
Vision 0/ Piers Ploughman the percentage dwindles down to about one 
half of that 

And what makes this perhaps somewhat more remarkable is the occur- 
rence in the Semi-Saxon writings named of certain phrases or modes of 
speech which not only retain their cmrency to this day in Cleveland, but 
retain it to the entire exclusion among all the older people of any 
parallel form of expression. Thus, one very striking — at least to a 
Southern ear — mode of expression here is, to sit upon one's knees, 
as an equivalent for ' to kneel.' I had compared this with Dan. sidde 
paa hug, simply as regards the external form of the phrase, but the 

* * This work was probably composed, if not in the latter part of the twelfth, at leut 
▼ery «arly in the thirteenth century, and is therefore nearly contemporaneous with the 
Chzooicle of Layamon, to the earlier text of which it bears much refemblance.' Marsh's 
LKturn on tbt Origin and History o/tb€ English Language, p. 169. 

t < There is neimer internal nor external evidence by which the date of the poem can be 
fixed with exact precision, but there are allusions to events which occurred late in the 
twelfth century ; and, on the other hand, the character of the diction and grammar justify 
OS in szying that it could scarcely have been written after the commencement of the thir- 
teenth.' lb. p. 156. 

t • The precise date of the poem called the Vision of Piers Ploughman is unknown, but 
there is little doubt that it was given to the world between the years 1560 and 1370.' 
lb, p. 295. 


following passage from Lay, ii. 506 unmistakeably suggested a truer 
connection : — 

• )?eo$ herc-J>rTgc8 J>rco : These host-chiefs three 

comen to )>an kige, Came to the King 

8c setten an heore cneowen :— And sat on their knees 

before )>an kaisere/ Before the caiser. 

Again, to mention but one other like instance, we find our common 
expressions gan nor stand, gan or ride (equivalent to * walk or stand/ 
* walk or ride'), not only in Layamon, but the latter also in Piers 
Ploughman, the idiom, in the Vision, corresponding to the former being 
sfefipe ne stand, 

I turn now to ask attention to a very few grammatical peculiarities. 
The definite article has been already dealt with. Some few plurals in 
en yet remain ; as owsen, housen, een, (eyen). Childer is also heard : 
but beyond these forms there is no deviation from the ordinary English 
noun forms, except indeed as to the genitive. The Cleveland man 
invariably says bird nest, not ' bird's nest,' men names, not ' men's 
names,' stee foot, bank top, instead of * foot of the Stee' (ladder), 
'top of the Bank' (hill) — a construction of frequent occurrence in 
Chaucer, and met with in P, Ploughm,^* Merlin, Halt Metdenhad, 
S, Marherete, &c., as well as in Tcwneley Myst, and other books of 
Northumbrian origin, passim. 

The relative pronoun at (see At, below, in the Glossary) is still in 
full use, while wheea, corresponding to O. N. hverr, supplies the inter- 
rogative form. The second personal pronoun, thou, is of continual 
use among the people themselves, hM\,you, noXye, plural. 

Among the adjectives are a few which are compared by the addition 
of more and most as suffixes, instead of in the ordinary manner, as 
bettermore (usually bettermy or bettermer), nearmer, farmost, 
backmost, &c. The forms farr =- further, narr = nearer, flEtrr'st, 
neest = furthest, nearest, are also in continual use. 

In the class of verbs, there are some noticeable deviations from 
English usage. Thus sleep, creep, hear, in their preterite forms 
become sleep'd, creep'd, hear'd (sounded heerd : not as £. heard is). 
Wash, wax, snow, make wesh, wez, snew. Freeze gives fraze, rise, 
V. a., rase, rive, rave, steal, stale, swear (pr. sweer), sware, speak, 
spak, break (pr. breke), brak; while teach, if used at all (leam 
is the word in almost invariable use in the sense to teach), makes 
teacht, hold (pr. ho'd), hodded, heave, heaved (hove being some- 

• • J>at breke)> mennt begges* Skeat's edit. p. 76. * And se)>)>en seth and his susttr sed,* 
lb. p. 118. 


times heard), weave, weaved and wove. Find (pr. finnd) again 
makes faa'^ ftin', bind, bun', wind, won'; but blind gives blinded, 
ding both ding'd and dang, hing (for hang) hing'd and hung 
(tt as in *bull').* 

But it is m the p. participle that the greater number of peculiarities 
is observable. Stand, stooden, get, gitten, cleave, clowen, shear, 
Bhoren, creep, oroppen or oruppen {u as in * bull' or 2^ oo\n^ stood'), 
sleep, aleppen, cheeas (for choose), chozzen or ohossen, knead, 
knodden, freeze, firozzen, come, cnmmen, rive, rowen, swear, sworen, 
weave, wowen, break, brokken, drive, drowen, thrive, throyven 
and throdden, hold, hodden, take, takken, tekken or tnkken 
(u as the (^ in 'took'), bind, bun' and bnnden, \vind, wunden, find, 
ftin' and funden, &c. 

Traces of the pres. participle in -and are met with also, but they are 
now only traces, unless indeed the universal suppression of the final 
g be looked upon as tantamount to the continuance of the and form. 
Gannan I look upon, from its unmistakeable sound, as really gannan(d) 
and not gannin(g) ; wakan' (pr. wakkan) too, I think it is, and not 
wakin' ; and so of a few others, as laitan', lakan', &c. But ridln', not 
rtdan\ flytin', not flytan\ helpin' and not helpati is, I am sure, the rule, 
and so of the great preponderance. 

The inflection of the present tense of verbs conforms pretty closely 
to the general Northumbrian rule ; as — 

Swo. Plur. 

I (Ah) is. We is. 

Thou is. You are. 

He is. They is. 

Ah gans. We gans. 

Thou gans. You gan. 

He gans. They gans. 

The imperfect of the verb substantive is — 

SiNo. Plur. 

Ah, thou, he, wnr. We, you, they, wur. 

Emphatic, the word becomes war (sounded like the E. sb.). 

* Seen as the pret of ' see,* is not in infrequent use ; as, Ah seen 'im a week syne, 
M pawky a lahUe ohap as iwer Ah seen. So also gaed is of perpetual occurrence 
as the pret. of gae in preference to E. wtnu Bteead for stood, deean for done, are 
merely phonetic variations. 



What is called the gerundial construction is of perpetual occurrence, 
as in he'll be to lite on, they 's to lait, bad to beat, ill to see, &c. 
The future of intention or purpose is frequently rendered by s\ as in 
thou s' ha'e, Ah s' gan, for thou shalt have, I shall go, where I look 
upon s' as imdoubtedly the result of a double contraction of the usual 
Northumbrian form sal, first into s'l, the / being slurred as in ordinary 
talk, and then into s\ the / being dropped altogether. Wheea s' aw 
or owe P is also explained on this principle. 

The future of necessity is rendered in a slightly different manner. A 
man may say to another, thou has t' gan, implying the necessity of 
his going, and the * has ' may be rendered emphatic. But thou is t* gan 
is equally good Cleveland, and not infrequently the form as actually 
sounded is simply thoust gan ; thus, Miles, t' maaster says thoust 
gan te Stowsley t' moom, where the emphatic form would be, thou 
is t' gan, a' t' same. 

At, as the sign of the infinitive mood, is lost, or so nearly so that it is 
unrecognised among the people themselves. I sometimes hear the 
form what 's a* deea now P in which I believe the a stands for at, and 
I have suspected that the expression nowght t* say might rather be 
written, judging by the sound, as nowght *t say, that is, nowght at say» 
or * nothing to say.' 

The tendency of the dialect to use adverbial forms in -lings has been 
remarked on. Adjectives in -somey as ridsome, viewsome, langsome, 
fearsome, are fully as characteristic as adverbs in -lings, -ment also, 
as a common termination of nouns, deserves notice; as perishment, 
dazement, trashment, muokment, minglement, and very many 

A few remarks upon the vowel and consonant sounds may, perhaps, 
be not quite uncalled for. 

A has the four sounds noted below : — 

1. Long, or as in fate. 

2. Short, or as mfat; in yal, Mally, dander, &c. 

3. Broad, or as between the in * hole' and au in *maund;' in 

such words as hand, man, land, stand. 

4. Before /, that of aw, the consonant being suppressed, as in 

cau'f for calf, sau't for salt. 

E has the ordinary long and short sounds of English e, as in perching 
(pr. peerching), pettle. 


/ has three sounds : — 

1. Long, as a + f, or Gr. ai. See above, p. xxix, and under 


2. Short, as in * hit,' * pit/ 

3. Before r (as in * bird'), that nearly of <? in ' Boz,' as ho't = hurt, 

bo'd = bird. 

has five sounds : — 

1. Long, as eea dissyllable; the ee as in 'feet,' but with a 

quick impulse of the voice, the a as in missal^ or the 
short a at the end of Latin words; as stone, steean, 
bone, beean, &c. 

2. Short, as in * hot/ 

3. Before r, as with i before r, when the sound is as in ' word,' 

not in * lord/ 

4. Long, before /, as au, suppressing the consonant, as cau'd, 

bau'd, for * cold,' * bold/ 

5. Short before /, as in 'sod/ suppressing the consonant, as 

ho'd for ' hold/ 

U has five sounds : — 

1. Most generally as u in £. bullj as in lumbering (pr. loom- 

mering), olunter, cluther, omnber (pr. coonmier), &c. 

2. As in E. ' dull,' in a few words only, as duzz, changed from 


3. Before r, as 1 and before r. 

4. The peculiar sound noted under Tuflt or Teufit, nearly 

approaching to, if not coincident with, that of Dan. y. 
The transition from this sound into that of Clevel. 00 in 
' fool,' * school,' * door,' or of long <? as in * stone,' * bone,' 
or of long fl as in * dale,' seems a very easy one. 

5. As in bou'k for * bulk.' Cf. howk, vb., with Sw. hulke, 

£oy in * yeoman,' is sounded as ^, as yemman. Compare ' weapon.' 
£t\ in * eight,' much the same as in E. height. 

Oo has two sounds :— 

' • As in * door,' * school,' * fool,' and the name Foord, as long ; 

cieear, scheeal, feeal, Feeard. 
^' ^^''^^times, as in ' book,' ' nook,' as eu. But the forms beeak, 
^®©Qi, obtain more generally than beuk, neuk. 

f 2 


Ou has two sounds : — 

1. As in 'hound/ not as in 'wound/ as loiind, stound, ought, 

nought, outher, nouther, &c. 

2. As in huff, as in through (pr. throfQ, sough, &c. 

For the consonants, it may be noted that b after m is either suppressed 
as in numb, or changed into another m, as in slumber, cumber, lum- 
ber (pr. sloommer, coommer, loommer). 


1. In the middle of a word is very frequently sounded as th 

hard (¥), as in dither, dother, flither, for didder^ dodder ^ 

2. Final, as in and, and in the preterites and p. participles 

of verbs, bound, bund, fund, is slurred over or sup- 

3. After n takes the sound of a second n in some words, as 

in thunder, sounded thoonner. But in winder, sunder, 
it is soimded with distinctness, and slurred rather than 
changed in blunder, blundered, &c. 


1. After n is sounded as in Germ. schlangeUy Dan. anger, as 

in angered, nang-nail, &c. 

2. Final, is almost invariably suppressed; thus both the ^'s in 

hinging-mind are subject to these two rules respectively. 

3. Guttural, or as in Eng. through, Dan. plog, becomes a labial, 

as in thruff, pleaf or pleuf, beuf or beeaf (bough). A 
very considerable number of Cleveland words depend upon 
this principle, and in some of them the form ch or gh, 
intermediate between an original g and our ff, is not easy 
to trace. See Arf, Mauf, &c. 

4. Simply guttural as in eneugh, of which *enew' does not 

fairly represent the soimd. Sc. eneuch is nearer. 

K before j, either immediately or with a silent vowel intermediate, as 
in Stokesley, is softened into w, as Stowsley. 

L after a, <?, «, ou is usually suppressed as in * calf,' ' balk,' * old,' 
'cold/ 'mouldie,' 'bulk/ which become oau'f, bau'k, au'd, oau'd, 
mou'die, bou'k. 

Qu is changed into w, as in ' quick/ wick, * quaint,' went or 
waint, &c. 


^ after a is in some words suppressed, as a't for 'art/ a'm for 
' arm/ pilt for ' part/ ga'n, gain, for gam, gaim, ' yam/ &c. 

7* in the middle of a word in some cases becomes /A, as in daugh- 
ter, pronounced dowth'r. 

7^ at the commencement of a word in the mouths of many is 
sounded simply as /, as trone for ' throne,' trow for ' throw,' while / by 
itself in the same place sometimes sounds as M, as in thrixnml for 
* tremble.' 

Wh initial is usually spoken with a strong aspirated breathing, as in 
wheea, woU, for * who,' interrogative, * whole.' So also in whewt. 

X, or the sound of k before j is in many words softened into ws or «, 
as in owse, owsen, BouBby, aasel, for * ox,' * oxen,' * Roxby,' * axle.' 

FT and -Fare frequently prefixed to words beginning with a, o,2ls m 
wots ((? as in ' hold,' but sounded short), wossel, wost'iis, for ' oats,' 
' hostle,' ' host-house,' yal, yan, yacker, yabble, for al (ale), an (one), 
' acre,' ' able.' 












S. G. 

Old Norse. 
Lexicon Islandico-Latino-Danicum, B. Haldor- 

sonii. Havn. 1814. 
Egilsson's Lex. Poeticum Antiq. Linguae Sep- 

tentr. Hafn. i860. 
Altnordisch. Glossar, von Dr. Th. Mobius. 

Leipz. 1866. 
Rask's Icelandic Grammar, by Dasent. Lon- 
don. 1843. 
Old Swedish. 


* HaYing made by far the most use of Haldorsen's Lexicon, until within the last two or 
three years, I have in the majority of instances quoted O. N. words with his orthography. 
Greater correctness would haye been obtained by altering all the </'s in words properly spelt 
with ^5, and so also of words which by Mobius and Egilsson are written with a J instead of 
the I ezdnsiyely employed by Haldorsen. Remarks of the same kind apply to Molbech's 
Danish and Dialect Lexicons in reference to the employment of 1 instead of the more 
approved j of the present day, and instead of o. As a rule I have simply copied the 
words quoted fiiithfuUy from the pages of the author in whose book I found them. 


Sw. D. ^ 
Prov. Sw. i 

Ihre. Gloss. Suio-Gothicum, &c., auct. Joh. Ihre. 

Upsaliae. 1769. 

Swedish Dialects. 

Rietz. Ordbog ofver Svenska Allmoge-sprSket af Joh. 

Ernst Rietz. Lund. 1862-8. 
Sw. Swedish. 

Dalin. Ordbog ofver Svenska Spraket. Af A.F. Dalin. 

Stockholm. 1850. 
Tauchnitz' Pocket Swedish-English Dictionary. 
Dan. Danish. 

Molb. Dansk Ordbog af C. Molbech. Kiobenhavn. 

Ferr. Ferrall og Repps Dansk -Engelske Ordbog. 

Kj0benhavn. 1861. 
Rosing. Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog af C. Rosing. K0ben- 

havn. 1863. 

Dan. D. ) 
D.Dial. } 
D.D. J 

Danish Dialects, Provincial Danish. 

Molb. Dansk Dialekt- Lexicon ved C. Molbech. 

Ki0b. 1 84 1. 
Kok. Det Danske Folkesprog i S0nderjylland, v. 

J. Kok. K0b. 1863. 
O. Dan. Old Danish. 

Molbech, Dansk Glossarium. Ki0benhavn. 1857. 
N. Norse. 

Aasen. Ordbog over det Norske Folkesprog af Ivar 

Aasen. Kristiania. 1850. 
Norsk Grammatik af I. Aasen. Christiania. 
A. S. Anglo-Saxon. 

Bosw. Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, by 

Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D. London. 1838. 
Compendious ditto. 1855. 
E. English. 










O. H. G. 

M. H. G. 

L. Germ. 

O. Fris. 
N. Fris. 








M. Lat. 







Old English. 
Middle English. 
New Dictionary of the English Language. 

London. 1856. 
A Dictionary of English Etymology, by H. 

Wedgwood, M.A. London. 1859-67. 
A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial words, 
by J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. London. 1850. 
Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 
guage, by John Jamieson, D.D. Edinburgh. 

Old High German. 
Middle High German. 

Piatt Deutsch, Nether Saxon, Low German. 

A Dictionary of the German and English Lan- 
guages, by J. L. Hilpert. London. 

Frisian, Old Frisian, North Frisian. 




A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, by W. 
Owen Pugh, D.C.L. Denbigh. 1832. 

Latin, Middle or Mediaeval Latin. 








French, Old French. 





Gam. Dan. Mind. 


War. och Wird. 


Flateyarbok. En samling af Norske Konge- 

sagaer. Chrisdania. i860. 
Islands Landnamabok. Havniae. 1774. 
Gamle Danske Minder in Folkemunde ; af Svend 

Grundtvig. Kj0benhavn. 1855-61. 
Minder om de Danske og Nordmaendeme i 

England, Skotland og Irland, af J. J. Worsaae. 

Kjob. 1 85 1. 
Den Danske Erobring af England og Nor- 

mandiet ved J. J. Worsaae. Kjob. 1853. 
Warend och Wu*dame. Ett forsok i Svensk 

Ethnologi, af G. O. Hylten Cavallius. Stock- 
holm. 1863. 
Ame, af Bj0mstjeme Bjomson. Bergen. 1859. 
Die vier Evangelien in Alt-Northumbr. Sprache 

von K. W. Bouterwek. Gtitersloh. 1857. 
The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with 

the Wycliffe and Tyndale Versions, by Rev. 

J. Bosworth, D.D. London. 1865. 
The same. 
La3amon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, ed. by 

Sir F. Madden. London. 1847. 
The Ancren Riwle. Ed. by James Morton, 

B.D. London. 1853. 
The Ormulum. Ed. by R. M. White, D.D. 

Oxford. 1852. 
The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman. 

Ed. by Thos. Wright, M.A. London. 1856. 
Townel. Myst. The Towneley Mysteries. Surtees Society ed. 

London. 1836. 

North. Gosp. 

A. S. Gosp. 

Ancr. Riwle. 


P. Ploughm. 


Pr. of Consc. The Pricke of Conscience. A Northumb. Poem. 

Ed. by R. Morris for Phil. Society. 

E. E.T. S. Early EngHsh Text Society. 

Skeat's P. Ploughm. The Vision of William concerning Piers Plow- 
man. Ed. by Rev. W. W. Skeat 

E. E. AUit Poems. Alliterative Poems in the West Midland Dia- 

lect. Ed. by R. Morris. 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. Ed. by 

R. Morris. 

Rel. Pieces. Religious Pieces, in Prose and Verse, Ed. by 

Geo. Perry, M.A. 

Gen. and Ex. The Story of Genesis and Exodus. Ed. by 

R. Morris. 

H. Meid. ) HaH Meidenhead. Ed. by Oswald Cock- 

Hal. Meid. j ayne, M.A. 

S. Marh. Seinte Marherete, the Meiden ant Martyr. Ed. 

by Oswald Cockayne, M.A. 

Merl. Merlin, or the Early History of King Arthur. 

Ed. by H. B. Wheatley. 

K. Horn. King Horn, with Fragments of Floris and 

Blauncheflur, and of the Assumption of 
our Lady. Ed. by J. R. Lumby. 

Kn. of La Tour- Landry. The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry. 

Ed. by Thos. Wright, M.A. 

Man. Voc, Manipulus Vocabulorum, by Peter Levins. Ed. 

by H. B. Wheadey. 

Percy's Fol. MS. ^ Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript. Ed. by 

J. W. Hale and F. J. Fumivall. 

Phil. Soc. Trans. Transactions of the Philological Society. 

Gamett. Philological Essays of Rev. R. Gamett. Lon- 

don. 1859. 

Tylor. Early History of Mankind, by E. B. Tylor. 

London. 1865. 

Kelly, Curiosities of Indo-European Traditions and 

Folklore, by Walter K. Kelly. London. 1863. 



Patr. Purg. 





Burnt Njal. 

Orig. and Hist. £ng. ) 
Lang. / 

Lect. on £ng. Lang. 

Dip. Angl. 

Gloss, of Architect. 

St Patrick's Purgatory. By Thomas Wright, 

M.A. London. 1844. 
Observations on Popular Antiquities, by John 

Brand, M.A. Ed. by Sir H. Ellis. Lon- 
don. 1 84 1. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

J. W. Ord. London. 1846. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

Rev. J. Graves. Carlisle. 1808. 
The Works of Geoflfery Chaucer. By John 

Urry . London. 1 7 7 1 . * 
The same. Bell's Edition in the Aldine Poets. 

8 volumes. 
Deutsche Mythologie, Von Jacob Grimm. 

Gottingen. 1854. 
The Story of Burnt Njal. Translated by 

Geo. Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. Edinburgh. 

The Origin and History of the English Lan- 
guage, by George P. Marsh. 1862. 
Lectures on the English Language, by George 

P. Marsh. New York and London. 1862. 
Lectures on the Science of Language, by Max 

Mtiller. London. 1 86 1 . 
Diplomatorium Anglicum -^vi Saxonici, by 

B. Thorpe. London. 1865. 
History of the Four Conquests of England, 

by James Augustus St. John. London. 

A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, 

Italian, and Gothic Architecture. Oxford. 


* The references to this editon are usually made by the number of the page* sometimes 
to the number of the line in the separate Poem or * Tale' quoted. 



Hist of Whitby. 
Pr. Pm. 


Carr, or Cr. Gl. 
Wh. GL 

Lincolns. Gl. 

Joco-Scr. Disc. 

A History oC Whitby and Streoneshalh Abbey* 
by the Rev. Geo. Young. Whitby. 1817. 

Promptorium Parvulonim sive Clericonim. 
Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus princeps. Ed. 
by Albert Way, A,M. London. 1864. 

A Glossary of North Country Words in use, 
by John Trotter Brockett. Newcasde-on- 
Tyne. 1825. 

The Dialect of Craven, with a Copious Glos- 
sary, by a native of Craven. London. 1 8a8. 

A Glossary of Yorkshire Words and Phrases 
collected in Whitby and the neighbourhood, 
by an Inhabitant. London. 1855. 

Provincial Words and Expressions current in 
Lincolnshire, by J. Ellett Brogden. Lon- 
don. 1866. 

A Joco-Serious Discourse, in two Dialogues, 
between a Northumberland Gentleman and 
his Tenant, a Scotchman. London. 1 686. 

I will only add further, that the books which I have found most useful 
in my inquiries touching the origin or derivation of our various dialect 
words have been Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary of English Etymology^ 
Dean Rietz's Swedish DiaUct Dictionary ^ Aasen's Norse Glossary ^ and 
Molbech's Danish Dialect Lexicon, I have found Mr. Wedgwood's 
book most suggestive and full of varied learning and material, which, 
even where I was unable to agree with him in his conclusions, was sure 
to be of use, and instructive, in the general course of study and research. 
My obligations also to the Swedish Glossary named are very great in- 
deed. It is, I think, the most carefully compiled and comprehensive 


book of the kind I am acquainted with, and, in countless instances, so 
complete an account of the word under notice and its various cognate 

words in other languages and dialects is given, that a perfect word- 
study is afforded at a glance. It is impossible to speak too highly of 
this excellent book. Aasen's Dictionary is also an admirable work, and 
it is to be hoped that it will before long be given to the world in its 
second edition. One feature in the book, that of giving the synonymes 
of the words dealt with as well as their varying forms, might be imitated 
with advantage in all like publications. 







A ! int. An exceedingly common interj., expressive of different emo- 
tions, siuprise, spnpathy, &c. : sometimes used singly, sometimes in 
conjimction with another word. See A I but. 

' A t man : that war a yarker 1' 

* A Diesu Crist, Lorde, fall of myghte.' Ret. Pieces, p. 67. 

A, nmn. adj. (pr. yah). One. 

O. Sw. a, one : — * in Dalekarlia, Westrobothnia, Gothlandiaque unitatis nota est.' Ihre ; 
written ae by Jam., Scott, Sec. Under A the former observes that it. A, * is used by our 
oldest writers in the sense of one. The signification is more forcible than that of a in 
Eog. before a singular noun, for it denotes not merely one out of many, but one exclusively 
of others, in the same sense in which eu is vulgarly used.' But it must be observed that 
CI. d (pr. yah) and one (pr. 3ran) are not interchangeable, and therefore are not equivalents. 
Ame may stand by itself, absolutely or pronominally : a never does ; it is always adjoined to 
a noun expressed, as, ' yab day,' ' yab lass :' while, on the other hand, it is, ' yan iv 'em,' 
* niwer a yan,* and so forth. The same remark applies to Sc. ae and ane, and is borne out 
in regard to a in all the quotations from early writers adduced by Jam. 

**'You have two daughters, I think, Mr. Deans?" ** Ae daughter, sir; — only ane." * 
Heart of Mid Lothian. 

* Ony ane or two o' ye come forward.' Black Dwarf. 

* Ae body at a time.' lb. 

* Ah seen yan o's brithers, a week gone Saturday.' 

* They're twea lads an' yab lass in family.' 

Cf. • The Trynjrte .... thre persouns and a Godd, es maker of all thynges . . . . Haly 
Kirke oure modere is hallyly ane thorow oute ]>e werlde.' Rel. Pieces, p. 3. 

The usage, however, in these writings is not strictly uniform ; as the line, p. 59, * a god 
and ane Lord yn threhed,' shews. 

Abaok, adv. Behind, in the rear. 

O. N. dbak, dbaki ; O. S. onbae. 

* pe justise for schyndisse : nolde loke ^erto. 
Ac bihuld abac and toumde his ejen.' Seinte Margarete, p. 28. 


* Thou shalle abak, bewshere, that blast I forbede.' Toumel. Hfyst, p. 241. 

* Deean't t'e thrust sae mich abiick there.' 

Cf. * Ok kuomu ]>ar er \>eir menn voru er Lappir beita, i>at tr a btik Finnmork; and 
arrived at that place where the men who were called Laps were. That is aback of Fin- 
mark/ Flat. I. 219. 

Abaok-o-beyont, adv. At an indefinitely great distance ;- too remote 
to be within reach or accessible from. 

* I wish they were all aback o* beyont ;' of persons occasioning annoyance. Wh. Gl, 

* We were all thrown aback o* beyont the day through ; ' could never recover the ground 
lost by delay in the morning. lb, 

Abear, v. a. To endure, to put up with. 

Abide, v. a. To endure, to put up with. See Bide. 

A. S. bidan, abidan, 

* Abide and abie (like guide and guy, Prov. gvidar and guiar^ It. gridare^ and Fr. crier) 
are essentially the same verb under different forms, of which abide has descended to us from 
our Saxon ancestors, while abie has come to us through the medium of the French.' 

Able (pr. yabble), abable (pr. yabbable), ablish (pr. yabblish), adj. 
I. Competent or possessing a sufficiency, in respect to bodily strength 
or ability. 2. Possessing a competency, in respect of property or worldly 

O.N. ajl; O. Sw. q/f, afwel; A.S. ohcd^ ability, power of body. O.N. afia signifies 
both I can, I am able, and, I get or procure or acquire. Ihre says, * As the Latin idiom 
applies parere to the acquisition of any matters, so also afla ftB means to get property ; 
whence is derived aflan^ ofling^ what is gotten or acquired. Thus, aflinge gods, acquired 
property, is opposed to ar/, byrd^fcBdemes-jord, 8cc., hereditary possessions. 
I. ***A yabble kind of a man ;" a strong, stout person.' Wb. Gl, 
a. * Neea. Nanny B. is nane sae needful ; she 's a yabble body eneugh.' 

* " They 're a yabblisb lot ;" a rich family.' Wb, Gl, 

Ablins (pr. ablins), adv. Perhaps, possibly. 

Comp. O. N. afla, I am able ; the idea being that of possibility. 

Aboon, abune, prep. Above, higher in respect of place or position. 

A. S. be^fan, bufan, abufan. 

* The Queen 's aboon us all.' Wb, Gl 

* Will you ax my lord ? He *s over mich aboon us.' 
Cf. also, • Godd >at es abouene hym.' Rel. Pieces, p. 45. 

* Godd is abouen all thynge,' lb. p. 46 ; and, • large and wyde abowne,* lb. p. 48. 

* With floodes that from abone shal falle.' Toumel, Myst, p. 33. 

Aboon-heeady adv. Above, over one's head. 

« " It wets aboon-beead:*' it rains.' Wb. Gl, 

A I but. Used interjectionally, but with a tacit reference to some 
mental comparison or remark of the speakers. 

* A ! but, that was a big yan;' big compared to all the others. 


Ac-corn, sb. (pr. yak'ron). An acorn. 

Pr. Pm. * Aceorng, or archade, firute of the oke. Glaus.* 

Addle, V. a. To earn, acquire by labour. 

A. S. edUoH, tBdUan^ a reward, recompense, requital ; whence the vb. edle<Bnan, edUanian, 
to reward, recompense. But cf- espedally O.N. odlaz, to obtain, make one's own, 

* Ah *s nowght bud what Ah oddits ;' I have nothing beyond my earnings or wages. 

Addlings, sb. Earnings, money got by labour. 

* •• Poor addlings;** small pay for the work done.' Wb. Gl. 

* Hard addlings;* returns laboriously obtained. lb. 

* Saving 's good addling ;* the terse sense of which is obvious. lb. 

Afore-lang, adv. Before long, soon. 

Comp. the ptraDel fomii among^ bimong in the following passage, Aner. RiwUt 103 : 
* fn ueir bimong wummen, and bimong eagles ]m meiht don >«rto : >u schalt sikcr elles 
hwar beon ueir nout on« among wummen, auh among engles.' Chaucer writes to/ore, as 
well as aforet a/omt, a/oren. A. S. atforan. 

Observe the idiomatic use of our word in the example. • 

* ** It will happen afort long gans ;' before any long time elapses.' Wb. Gl. 

Afterbirth, sb. The placenta. 

O.N. eftirburdr; O. Sw. efUrhhrd; Dan. efterbyrd. 

Agaity agate. Astir, agoing, on the move. 

See Gate, Qtit. Rich, remarks that the word gait * is spplied not only to the way 
gons, but also to the going, the motion in going.' Hence a-gait or on-gait, implying the 
action of ffoing or moving. 

* They ve getten fairly agate;* they have well begun. 

* Thou 's early agati this morning.' 

Agee, ^ee, adv. To one side, awry, askew. 

Jam. observes that Serenius ' gives Sw. gaa as signifying both to budge, and to ti/rn 
round.* Gee is here, as elsewhere, the carter or ploughman's word to his horses when he 
desires them to turn to the right. No doubt the connection of the word is with O. Sw. g&, 
and cognate verbs, and that originally some adjoined particle decided the predion of the 
motion when it ceased to be straightforward. Comp. the terms used in directing the move- 
ments of oxen by their driver : when he desired them to turn from him, or to the right — 
the same as when gee is used — the word was bop, or bop off; the turn to be made being a 
turn to what is termed the offside. Gee thus derived, agee would be formed as are a-ikew, 
a-wry, and the like. 

* •• It was all ageef quite crooked.' Wb. Gl. 

Agin, conj. As if. 

Probably a contracted Pr. of as gin. 

Ahint, adv. (pr. ahint). Behind; i. In respect of place or position. 
2. In respect of time. 3. In respect of advantage. 

The pronunciation of our word is its chief peculiarity, and one which deserves notice, 

B 2 


inasmuch as it retains the short t which belongs to all its etymons, as also to the modem 
Germ, binter, 

1. 'He's close abint,* 

2. • " I 'm afraid I 'm late?" ** Nae, thou's nane sae mich alnnt:* * 

3. • " They say Josey 's come badly on ? - " Nae, he 's not that far abint,** ' 

Aim, V. a. i. To intend or purpose. 2. To presume, suppose, or 
conjecture. 3. To expect or look for, to anticipate. 

Gamett remarks, Pbil. Essays, p. 60, * Aim is from the Germ, abmen; Bar. amen, 
bdmen, properly to gauge a cask, also to fathom, measure. This is eridently the sense in 
Mr. Boucher's second quotation from Langtoft ; — 

** A water in Snowden rennes, Auber is the name. 
An arm of the sea men kennes, and depnes may none ame.** 
We are not aware of its ever being used by the Germans to denote computet reckon, as it 
seems to be in the passage, — 

*' Of men of armes bold, the number they ame** 
The connection between the two ideas is however obvious enough. A diligent examination 
of our old writers would perhaps decide whether our mm comes immediately from this 
source, or more indirectly so through the medium of the Fr. esmer* Mr. Wedgwood takes 
the latter view. 

1. • Ah aims t*gan.* 

* Ah *s secar he aimed o* coming.' 

2. * I aim that is the place.' Wb. Gl. 

* What o'clock is it, aim you?' Ih. 

3. • I aimed he 'd be here by now.' 

* I never aimed he wad ha' ganned yon gate.' 

Aim, sb. Iron. 

O. N. iarn, O. Sw. and Dan. iern. 

Airt, airth, sb. Quarter of the heaven, direction or point of the 

O.N. dtt; O. Sw. a//, quarter of the heaven, district, country. Cf. Suduratt, the south 
quarter ; Norduratt, the north. 

* The wind is in a cold airt* 

* •* Did ye hear t'guns at Hartlepool, yesser neeght, John?" ** Ay, I heerd a strange 
lummering noise. I aimed it cam' fra that airt." * 

Airtlingfftpcpl. (Pr. of ettling). Aiming or intending to proceed in a 
given direction. See Ettle. 

Aither, sb. A ploughing. Wh. Gl, gives, as the meaning of this 
word, * furrowed ground,' and then, as the instance of usage, a sentence 
which clearly refers only to the act of ^ploughing, and not at all to the 
land or * ground' ploughed. See example. I believe the meaning to be 
restricted to the ploughing or furrowing. See Arder, in Brock. 

O. N. eria, yria, imp. af^i, or 7/r^i ; O. Sw. (sria ; M. G. arian ; A. S. erian ; O. H. G. 
erren ; Germ. eren. Cf. also A. S. yr^, ploughed land. The connection with the Bible 
word ear is evident ; * He will take your sons, . . . and will set them to ear his ground,* 
1 Sam. viii. 12. • The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground,' Is. xxx. 24. 

* •• The first or second aitber ;" the first or second ploughing.' Wb. Gl. 


Ak, sb. (pr. yak). The oak. 

O. N. eik, eyk ; Sw. ek ; Sw. D. tik ; Dan. eeg^ tg ; A. S. or, «c. 
' A piece o* brave aud yak: Wb. Gl, 

Akwert, awkert, adj. (pr. ockert or orked). Perverse, difficult to 
deal with, hard to manage. 

* He 's bad to do with : he *8 as awkert as awkert ;' he is difficult to deal with ; he is as 
penrerse and impracticable as possible. 

Akwertness, awkertnessy sb. Perverseness, obstinacy, impractica- 

* Ah niwer seen nowght like his awkertness: 

Al, sb. (pr. yal). Ale. 

O. N. '61; O. Sw. o/; A. S. eaU, 

The Pr. of this word suggests a Scandinavian derivation ; inasmuch as A. S. eale presents a 
long syOable or sound in contrast with the shorter and sharper sound of the word in either 
of its three northern forms. Comp. Al-UB. 

* A jill o'yal;* half a pint of ale. 

Ale-draper, sb. An alehouse-keeper, or publican. *A term now 
obsolete, but occurring in the Whitby parochial register a century ago.' 

m. GL 

This word probably owes its origin to a corruption of the sense of the word draptr, 
which converted it from a merchant-worker in doth, into a retailer, simply ; the word alt 
being then prefixed. 

Almisse, almose, almoiiSy sb. (pr. ommus, awmous, or awmas). 
I. Alms; an almsgift. 2. A small quantity or proportion; a definite 

O.N. dimusa; O. Sw. almusa; Sw. almosor; Dan. almisse: A. S. {glmesse, telmysse; 
O. H. G. almes, alms, gifts bestowed in charity. * Almesse, or almos. Elimosina^ roga, 
Almesse of mete.* Pr. Pm, The second sense or application depends upon the first, the 
sequence of ideas being that an alms may either easily degenerate into a pittance, or at least 
be regarded as such by the recipient. And what is alike curious and interesting is that a 
like sequence of idea obtains in the case of the O. N. homonym, only there in reference to 
a person instead of to a gift. Thus Hald. gives bomuncio as a second meaning for blmusa, 
and the legend of Olaf Tryggyason's meeting with Thor, Flatey, i. 397, affords a good 
illustration of such meaning. Thor, under the form of a strong, powerful man of lofty sta- 
ture, youthful, handsome and red-bearded, has caused himself to be taken aboard the king's 
ship, which had formerly belonged to a hero called Raudr. The visitor had soon begun, 
what would be called now-a-days, * chaffing' the crew, telling them they were not fit to b« 
attached to so famous a king, or man such a splendid ship ; that the ship's company was far 
* more like ' when Raudr the Mighty had her, and that that leader would scarcely permit 
such a man even as he (the speaker) was, to join the crew except it were in the post of 
jester or as a jolly companion : * and yet, all you,' he continues, • are but mere dwarfs or 
mannikins, ommuses, by the side of me 1' En nu eru \>er ]>o aulmusur bea mer. So, in 
Cleveland a messenger is sent to a shop for, suppose, a shilling's-worth of such and such an 
article, and returning with what seems to the purchaser a very small proportionate quantity, 
is greeted with the remark, ' Why what an ommui thee has getten ;' as if, like alms, it had 


been sparingly or grudgingly doled out. Cf. the Lincolnsh. use of the word quoted by Hall. : 
* When a labourer has been filling a cart with manure, com, &c., he will say at last to the 
carter, " Have n't you got your awmous ? " * 

I. ' *' Pray you can I beg my aumas of you?" Formerly the ordinary address of the 
mendicant : now, rarely if ever heard.' Wb. GL 

* Those that trow in my myght and luf welle almus dede, 
Thay shalle shyne as son brighte, and heven have to thare mede.' 

Toumel. MyU. p. 393. 

All out, adv. Altogether, utterly, beyond comparison. 

« " Yon 's t' best. Joss." " Ay, all out,** * 

Comp. the usage in Aner. Riude^ p. 22, where the writer is giving directions for the 
ordering of the anchoresses' private devotions : — 

* £t (at) Placebo je muwen sitten vort (as far as) Magnificat, and also et Dirige, bute 
(except) et le lescuns & et te Miserere, 8c from Laudate al ut* 

All-to-nought (pr. aw-to-nowght). A phrase occurring with diflfer- 
ences of sense and application, but always as implying an approach 
towards nothingness more or less real and effectual. 

* *' He has gone away all to nowgbt;** he has wasted away to a mere shadow.' Wb. Gl. 

* ** Ah aims yon 's t' best stirk, Jooan." *' Ay, man, it beats t' ither all to nowgbt." ' 
Cf. ' Secundus demon. Alas, that ever cam pride in thoght. 

For it has brought us alU to nogbt.* Townel. Myst. p. 5. 

Along of, prep. In consequence of, owing to. 

* It 's all along o' his deeins we 's i' this needcessity.' 

* Jostpbe, soliloquising on the circumstance that the V. Mary was '* found to be with 

* Certes, I forth3mk sore of hir dede, 
Bot et is long of yowth-hede, 

Alle siche wanton playes.' Toumel. Myst. p. 78. 

* And bad heom leoten weorpen : 
Sc fondien leod-runen, 
whaeron hit weore ilor^ : 

|>at [>e wal \>e wes swa strong, 

ne moste niht longes : 

nauere istonden.' Lay. II. 225. 

Al-us, sb. (pr. yall'us). An alehouse. 

Comp. S. Jutl. eVs^Bl-bus. 

Amaist, adv. Almost. See Ommost. 

A' mak's (pr. au-macks). All sorts, of all descriptions or kinds. 
See Mak\ 

Amang, prep. Northumbrian form of among. 

* And for |>at it wounte to be thus in manges mene, ^at )>e ffadir was mare ffebill kza. |>e 
sone for his elde, and ^e sone mare vnwyse ^n )>e ffadire for his jouthe.' Rel. Pieces, p. 45. 


Amang-handfl. A phrase or qualifying expression applied descrip- 
tively to work or business of such a nature as to admit of being carried 
on or completed coincidendy with other work or business. 

• *• We can do it anumg-bands ;*' that is, wc can do it together, or at the lame time, with 
oeitain other woric we have on hand.* Wb. GL 

Amell, prep. Betwixt, between, in the midst. 

0. N. dmUU, O. Sw. gmeUan, Dan. imdhm, Dan. D. (S. JaU.) amdlt, (gmelU, 

' Thej cam' amOl seven and eight o'clock.' Wb. Gl. 

' Chop in ameil;* direction to a CoiUy or sheepdog. 

' He fiuid it amdl t' shaffs ;* he found it among the sheaves. 

' Seevmdmi rnHis. My Lord, ye have a manner of men 

That make great mastres us tmdU' Townd, Myst. p. 55. 

Amell-doorSy sb. Doors between the outer door and that of an 
inner room. 
Anoe, adv. (pr. yance). Once. 

Comp. JotL/OTs, which is ahnost exactly coincident with our yana, 

Ande-bandB, sb. Sandals, the support for low shoes so called; 
leathern straps for the shoes, to which they are attached behind, button- 
ing in front over the instep. Wh. GL 

Ane, num. adj. (pr. yan). One. See A. 

O. Sw. an ; O. N. euui ; Dan. ten ; M. G. <un; O. H. O. and N. Germ, tin ; Dut. ten ; 
A. S. a», CM. The S. Jutl.7eM, which corresponds almost precisely in form and sound with 
our yan, is especially noteworthy. 

Ane : t' ane replied to by t' ither ; but, more frequently, t' tane or 
the t' anOy answered by t' tither or the tither. 

< Tak' thou the font, an' Ahll Uk' the Htber: 
Cf. * When thou ministers at the hegh autere 

With bo&e hondes thou serve tho prest in fere, 

The ton to stabulle the toiber 

Lest thou &yle, my dere brother.' Bohe of Curtasyt. 

* (Tor it kennes vs to knawe \>t gud and ]>e ill, and alswa to sundire ]>« tone fra >« /o^.' 
Rd. Pieeet, p. ii. 

Tbe io\>er, in the sense of tbe ueendy is of perpetual occurrence in the writings last 

Anenst, prep. Against; i. In the sense of near to. 2. In the 
sense of opposite or over against. 

Jam. says, ' Some derive this from Gr. dyarrc, oppositimi. Skinner prefers A. S. nean, 
near. The Gr. word, as well as ours, together with M. G. and, Alem. aii<fi, S. G. and, 
anda, contra, seem all to claim a common origin. But I suspect that anens is corrupted 
from A. S. ongean, ex adverso.' Comp. the forms following,— /ora« ongean, opposite, 
Bosw. ; foran gen, foran gen Mddry\>e teker; over against Mildred's field, 'Thorpe's 
Diplomat, p. 341 ; Scottish fore-anent, /omens, afarenent, &c., and I think we may see how 


angnst — written anenee in R§1. Pieces^ pp. a, 5— originates, without much trouble. The 
last reference is interesting in another connection. It nrns, * Of the whilke tene (commande- 
mentis) >e thre >at ere firste awe us hallyly to halde anenee oure Godd, and >e seuene >at 
ere eftyre anenct oure euen cristene ;' and it gives an instance of what may be called the 
transitional meaning between * ouer against, opposite to,' and * touching, or pertaining to,' 
as in Sc. antni^ tbereatunt^ (ononi in Halt Meidatbad, pp. 9, 1 7, Ancr, RiwUy pp. 4, 10, 1 10.) 
Comp. also the forms again, against, and the meaning, by the Side of, of the latter. 

1. * I sat close anenst him.' 

2. * There, set your name in this spot, anenst his ;' over against his. To a witness about 
to attest a man's signature to his wilL 

Mr. Wedgwood thinks the word anenst shews a northern influence, from the Isl. gitgnt, 
Sw. gent, opposite ; gent ojwer, over against. It is more than possible, notwithstanding the 
passage from Thorpe. 

Angry, angered, adj. (pr. with a suppressed gy or with the sound 
that letter has at the end of the words pang, flingy &c.) Of a sore, 
I. That looks very red and inflamed; 2. That is very irritable and 

0. N. dngr ; dngra, grief or pain, anguish ; to give uneasiness ; O. Sw. dngra ; Sw. D. 
anger, sorrow, pain, anguish ; N. D. angersom, painful. Nu befir mig angrat sOSan/rost: 
the froit has occasioned me much suffering since. Flat. I. 330. 

* Jesu Criste ^at tholede for me 
Paynes and angers bitter and felle. 
Late me neuer be partede fra \>e 
Ne |>ole \fe bitter paynes of helle.* R^. Pieces, p. 7a. 

* Holy seintes. 
What penance and poverte 
And passion thei sufirede 
In hunger, in hete. 
In alle manere angre^* P. Plougbm. p. 31 1. 

For the Pr. it coincides precisely with the Dan., Swed., O. N^ and Genn., as in leengere, 
Anger, scblangen, &c. 

1. ••• Hoo 's Willy's leg t'moom?" "Whyah, it's nac better. It's desput sair an* 
angerd.** ' 

a. * It leeaks desput angered an a'.' 

Anon, non. An interrogative exponent of uncertainty, whether as 
to the meaning or the substance of the words addressed, on the part 
of the person to whom they were addressed ; and equivalent to * What 
did you say. Sir?' or, * What may that mean, Sir, if you please?' 
Anan in former times, and even yet in coimtry places more to the 

Hall, says of the latter that it is ' a corruption of anon, immediately.' I think it is cer- 
tain that it is not so : the etymology of anon (A. S. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine 
intermissione — Lye) settles the question. Anon or afian is much more likely to be an 
interjectional sound of doubting enquiry, similar to the utterly inexpressible (by letters) 
sound of assent or attention which is employed by many Yorkshire people when listening to 
m narrative or a remark where verbal observations are unneeded. 


AnonBker, adj. Eager, very desirous, set upon a thing. 

O.Sw. 6tuka; O.N. dtka, to wish, almost or quite to the extent of prayiDg for; A. S. 
mnseam^ whence our current English word wish. Comp. also Dan. ensJee^ to wish. 

* Thej have set the lad ammskir about gannan' to sea.' Wb. GL 

AnotherkiiiB, adj. Of another or a different kind or character. 

Comp. Lane. anoAtr'gatei, bearing nearly the same signification : though this seems to 
look more to the manner of action peculiar to the person qualified, while the Clevebnd 
word adverts to the mdoles, the peculiarity of nature or breed of the actor. The kins in all 
these compound words, mu kins, onny kins, &c., it hardly need be observed, is the genitive 
case, following the old usage. 

* He was anoAtrkins body te t' ither chap.' 

Anthers, ananthers, enanthers, conj. In case that, lest. 

Corrupted from N. Fr. avenhtre, which occurs in the form auntrt in Chaucer. Comp. the 
fonn perawnttr, Rd, Pieces, p. a, and peradventure. Hall, gives aniers in the senses, both 
conent in the North, of i. In case that ; a. adventures. Compare auntrous, adventurous, 

• Thon 'd best tak' f umbrella, anantbers it rains.' 

• I weant be for anthers he comes.' 

The an is scarcely a reduplication of the first syllable : but probably a corruption of on ; 
thus, OH auntre, on adventure. Cf. on a venture, at a venture. 

A-qaart, adj. In a state of variance, or mutual opposition. See 

* «• 

• What, then, Marget an' her man hae getten aquart agen ?" " Ay : they 's had another 
dififiering-bont." ' 

Arf, arflah, adj. i. Afraid or fearful. 2. Reluctant, backward. 

Brock, quotes A. S. yrbiS, sluggishness, cowardice or dread, and gives the form air:b as 
well as arf, adducing as example, * an airthfiil night ; i. e. a fearful night :' but there can 
be no doubt that the words oi/ and airtb are both but other forms of the word which Jam. 
writes areb, argb, airgb, ergb (guttural), and which bears aknost exactly the same signi- 
fications with arf ; and thu is etjrmologically the same as O. N. argr^ as well as quite 
coincident in meaning ; O. Sw. org, a coward ; A. S. earg, earb, timid, slow or slothful. 

I. • Ah felt arfisb in the dark.' Wb. QL 

a. • Ah 's arf zbout gannin'.' lb. 

• Nis he erub chaumpion >et skirme'S touward \>t uet ?* Is he not a cowardly champion 
who strikes at the feet? Aner, Riwle, p. 274. 

In another text the word is written arcb; in Lay. i. 185, e<Br\b; iii. 266, ar'^ ; and in 
/v. Pm. arwe, arbwe, arowe. Repeated instances of the substitution in our dialect of the 
/-sound for the guttural cb, g, or gb will be met with in the following pages. Cf. the form 
wrtb, as also O. £. grucb, our gn^ 

Argoiy, V. a. To argue, dispute. 

• It 's t* nae use argujying the matter.' Wb. Gl. 

• " He 's ower fond o' argufying ;" too ready to gainsay or dispute.' lb. 

ArleSy sb. Earnest-money given to a servant on concluding the con- 
tract of service or hiring. Elsewhere, arles-penny. See Gtod'B penny, 

• Aries is m diminutive from Latin arra, which is itself an abbreviation from arrbabo. 


formed as in many other cases by adding the termination U* Arrbabo or arrba denoted, in 
general terms, an earnest or pledge for the completion of any contract, and at the same 
time implied or, in a sense, proved, the contract to have been made. 

Arr, sb. i. A scar or cicatrix, a mark left by a wound or ulcer. 
2. Hence a guilty recollection, as if a mark left on Uie conscience. 

0. Sw. <Brr ; O. N. brr ; Dan. or. 

1. * I'll gie thee an arr thou '11 carry t* thee grave.' Wb. Gl. 

2. * It 's nobbut a black arr, thae deeings o' &zhn (thine) wi' t* aud man ;* the way you 
dealt with the old man must have left a black mark on your conscience. 

Arridge, sb. i. The edge of a squared stone or piece of timber. 
2. * The ridges of furniture,' Wh, GL 3. The edge or selvedge of a 
piece of cloth or cotton, &c. 

The derivation of this word seems uncertain, as also its orthography. Jam. gives ' arras, 
arress, the angular edge of a stone or beam. Lothian.' Hall, gives ' arridg§t the edge of 
anything that is liable to hurt or cause an ar;* an etymological definition which at least ha^ 
the merit of simplicity. In some MS. annotations on Brockett's Gl. which have come into 
my hands, with permission to make use of them, I find arisb given as a Durham word, and 
signif3ring an edge ; while, further, it is derived from arele (Old French aresU) : * L'angle 
saillant que forme deux faces.' Diet, de VAcad. It seems more probable that the Yorkshire 
arridge, Durham arisb and Lothian arras all originate in the same older word, from which 
also the French ar^e may descend through another channel. I suspect a connection with 
O. fi.jalSarr oija^ar, Sw. D.jlider, an edge, extremity, list or selvedge, but cannot make 
it out. 

Arse-end, sb. Lower or bottom-end, of a sheaf of com, for instance ; 
of what stands on a lower end, generally. 

O. N. and O. Sw. ars ; S. Jutl. arts, abs, ats, the hinder part of man or beast. * Mdlem to 
stole Jailer artz paa jorde .*' between two stools, See. ; artslangs, in a backward direction, 
with which comp. arselins, Norf., given by Halliwell. 

* Pick thae stooks doon, and let t' arsends o' t* shaf!s lig i' t* sun a bit.' 

Arsey-varsey. Topsey-turvey, in confusion, contrariwise. 

• Etymology obvious.' Brockett. 

Arval, sb. A funeral entertainment. 

' In the North the funeral feast is called an arval or arvU-supper ; and the loaves that are 
sometimes distributed among the poor, arval-hrecui* Donee's lUustrationSy II. 203. Halli- 
well says, * Arval supper is a funeral feast given to the friends of the deceased, at which a 
particular kind of loaf, called arval-bread, is sometimes distributed among the poor. Arval- 
bread is a coarse cake, composed of flour, water, yeast, currants, and some kind of spice ; in 
form round, about eight inches in diameter, and the upper surface always scored, perhaps 
exhibiting originally the sign of the Cross.* Jam. remarks that * The term arval may have 
been left in the north of England by the Danes : for although A.S.^/'denotes an inheritance, 
I see no vestige of the composite word in this language.' There can be no question that 
arval — heir-ale, as Dr. Dasent Englishes it — is a Soindinavian term. S. G. arfiil makes so 
much quite apparent ; while Wormius gives the combination ar/io&l as an ancient Danish 
term, the modem Danish form being arvel. 

As to what the arval or arvel was, Dasent tells in a few terse words, as follows : — ' On 
great occasions, as at the Yule feasts in honour of the gods, held at the temples, or at arvd 


-.*« heir-aJe'* — feasts, when beirs drank themselves into their ftUher$* land and goods 

there was no doubt great mirth and jollity, mach eating and hard drinking of mead and 
fresh-brewed ale/ The osage — which seems to have had the force of a law — was that no 
heir could take possession of his inheritance before giving the arval feast. In the early 
Christian times, the complete funeral rites were solemnised on the day of the funeral : after- 
wards on the seventh day after, then on the thirtieth day, and ultimately at the expiry of 
the jrear from the death ; and the inference from Ihre's statement on the subject is, that the 
day thus set apart was also fixed upon, by use and custom, as the day on which the division 
of the deceased man's goods was formally made, and on that account the occasion was 
designated arfil or arfioUU. Besides these northern etymologies, the Celtic term for full 
funeral rites is stated as arwyU 

That the observances still kept up at our Cleveland funerals, and, certainly not less, some 
of those which have only recently passed into desuetude, evidently descend from the old 
Scandinavian arfil, will be sufficiently apparent from a brief account of them, for a part of 
which I am indebted to the Whitby Glossary, though most of it is of wonted occurrence in 
my own parish and in the country part of the district at large. 

On the occasion of the death of an inhabitant, one or more persons, according to the 
extent of the deceased person's acquaintance, or the esteem in which he was held, go 
through the parish to the several houses of the neighbours and relatives, and of others who 
are to be invited, to bid them to the burying. These persons are designated the Bidders. 
OccasionaUy the friends and others thus hodden or boden amount to two or three hundred, 
and the provision that is necessarily made for them is of a proportional magnitude. On 
more than one occasion within the last ten years, in the author's parish, the number of 
stones of beef and ham provided for the funeral of a well-known or much-respected 
parishioner has been specially quoted afterwards. Compare the above extract from 
Dasent's Introductory Chapter to Burnt Njal, and this from Landnamabok, Part III, ch. x. 
■ That arval {erfe) which Thorward and Thord held in honour of their father, was the most 
famous ever known in Ireland. ITiey bade {bwh) all the principal people round, and the 
ntmiber of those that were bidden (Jbodtmenn) was twelve hundred ;' and it must be borne 
in mind that the hundred was what is still known in Cleveland — having been introduced by 
the countrymen, perhaps kinsmen, of these very Icelanders — as the liang-hundred, or six 
score. The company assembled — and the bidding is usually for an hour preceding midday — 
the hospitalities of the day proceed, and after all have partaken of a solid meal, and before 
the coffin is lifted for removal to the churchyard, cake, or biscuits, and wine are handed 
round by two females whose office is specially designated by the term Servers. ' At the 
funerals of the rich in former days,' says the compiler of the Wb. GL, * it was here a custom 
to hand Burnt wine to the company in a silver flagon, out of which every one drank. This 
cordial seems to have been a heated preparation of port wine with spices and sugar. And 
if any remained it was sent round in the flagon to the houses of friends for distribution.' 
Reference is also made to the disinclination, on the part of many of the older inhabitants, to 
be carried to their last home in a hearse : they prefer ' to be carried by hand and sung 
before' as their fore-elders had been. * Uncovered coffins' of wainscot were common some 
years ago, with the initials and figures of the name and age studded on the lid in brass- 
headed nails ; but coffins covered with black cloth are now commonly seen. The coffin is 
almost never borne on the shoulders, but either suspended by means of towels passed under 
it, or on short staves provided for the purpose by the undertakers, and which were custo- 
marily, in past days, cast into the grave before beginning to fill it up. The author saw 
one of these l>earing-staves dug out when re-digging an old grave in August 1863. Men are 
nsoally borne by men, women by women, and children by boys or girls according to sex. 
Women who have died in child-birth have white sheets thrown over their coffins. In the 
case of an unmarried female, the custom, until recently, was to carry a Garland, composed 
of two circular hoops crossing each other, dressed with white paper cut into flowers or 
leaves (Young's Hist, of Whitby), or in the form of m wreath of parti-coloured ribbons, 

G a 


having a white (paper ?) glove in the centre inscribed with the name, or initialt, and age of 
the deceased. This garland was laid on the coffin during its passage from the church to 
the grave, and afterwards, at least in some cases, suspended from the ceiling of the church. 
In the chancels at Hinderwell and Robin Hood*s Bay some of these garlands were still in 
being only a few years since. Compare with all this, the pictiu-e drawn by Shakspere of m 
Damsh damsel's funeral : — 

' Her obsequies have been as hr enlarged 
As we have warranty : her death was doubtful ; 

• • • • • 

Yet here she is allowed her virgin crants, 

Her maiden strewments, and the bringing home 

Of bell and burial;' 
where crantt is simply the O. N. and S. G. krans, a garland or chaplet. Truly our Cleve- 
land custom is here figured forth, as vividly as the arval-feast in the * funeral baked meats,' 
which did ' coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.' 

Other peculiarities in the conduct of a Cleveland funeral are yet, or have been till lately, 
that when the corpse of an unmarried female is carried to the churchyard, the bearers are 
all single, and usually young women dressed in a kind of uniform, in some places all in 
white, in others in bUck dressy with white shawls and white straw bonnets trimmed with 
white. The SexTom also alwa3rs precede the coffin as it approaches the churchyard, or is 
borne to the grave, sometimes in white, more usually in black with a broad wlute ribbon 
worn scarf-wise over one shoulder and crossing over the black shawl ; or else with knots ot 
rosettes of white on the breast. Verses of a hynm or psalm— often selected before death by 
the person about to be buried — are sung at lifting the body, as houses are passed on the 
way to the church, and on approaching the church-gate more nearly; and the chief 
mourners kneel round the coffin, which is usually laid in the chancel — in former times juit 
in front of the altar railing — during the reading of the Psalm and Lesson, the males with 
their hats always on ; and after the Lesson three verses of a Psalm are usually sung before 
leaving the Church. 

Arval-bread, sb. (pr. averil-breead). A species of bread, or rather 
cake (see Spioe-bread), specially prepared in days gone by for con- 
sumption at the Arval or Burying. Confectioners at Whitby still pre- 
pare a species of thin, light, sweet cake for such occasions. 

Asher, adj. Made of ash, ashen. 

' An asber pail ;' * an cuber broom.' Eglon Sword Dance Reeit. 

Ask, hasky esk, sb. The newt, eft, or water-lizard, supposed by 
those who know no better to be venomous, as is noticed also by 

Gael ase. It is somewhat singular that the Celtic name of this creature should have 
mainuined itself against any competitor from the northern dialects. A. S. apexe and Oerm. 
Hdecbse are the nearest in sound perhaps : Old N. gdla, S. G. 6dla do not seem to approach 
in any particular. See Fleein'-hask. 

AflSy sb. Ashes. 

O.N., O.Sw. asia; Dan. ash; M.G. atgo or as/a; O.H.G. asca; G. and Dut. asebe; 
A. S. asce, axi, axst, abst. The sound of the double consonant seems to have been softened 
down as in several other cases ; e.g. asstl for axU, Stawslty for Sioiidey, Routby for Roxby, 


and thns asia or omm hms become ost; a change which seems to have already, in Anglo- 
Saxon times, taken place in some degree, if we may found a surmise on the form oisf . 

• •• Burnt tiv an ass ;** burnt to a cinder/ Wb. Ol, 

* Clamed wiv ass ;' smeared over with ashes. 

Afls-oard, ass-oaird, sb. A fire-shovel for cleaning or carding up 
the hearth-stone. See Card. 
AsB-ooupy sb. A kind of tub or pail to carry ashes in. See Coup. 

Aflsel-treey sb. An axle-tree. 

Brock., besides adducing Fr. assetd and Ital. assUe^ in both of which the x of axle is simi- 
larly softened, quotes also Gael. aisU, The change is one which occurs not infrequently in 
the CL D. ; as owsen for oxin. See also the instances quoted under Am. 

Ass-hole, ass-pit, sb. The place provided for receiving the ashes, 
usually a hole or pit, and so differing from the dust-heap of the South. 
Also applied to Ihe square hole beneath the fire-place devised for 
collecting the ashes. 

Assil-teeth, sb. The grinders. 

CS. jaxlar, dentes molares, maxillares; Sw,D, aksla-land; Sw.oxeltand; Dan. a««/- 
iamd. For the softening of the »-sound comp. Sw. oxd, N. asall, names of the 
Sof9M$ ana. 

-manner, sb. Ash-manure : manure, so called, of which the chief 
constituent is ashes, especially peat or turf ashes. 

Ass-midden. The heap of ashes collected by the daily casting forth 
of the ashes of the household. See Midden. 

Ass-riddling. Riddling or sifting of ashes ; on the hearth, namely. 
On St. Mark's Eve the ashes are riddled on the hearth, for the super- 
stition still lingers, though it may be partially veiled under the guise of 
laughing incredulity, that if any of the inmates of the house be going to 
die within the year, the print of his, or her, shoe will be found impressed 
in the soft ashes ; — a superstition which has led to many a thoughtless, 
but very cruel and mischievous, practical joke. See Cauff-riddling, 
Marks E'en. 

At. Now rarely used before the infinitive instead of A?. 

Common to the Scand. tongues. Cf. Dan. D§ gave tnig eddike at drikht; they gave 
me rinegar to drink. Ferguson gives an instance or two in which ai still takes the place 
of ft), with the infinitive, in the Cumb. dialect ; and I have, though rarely, heard it in 
CleveL, in such phrases as * What 's at do, now ?' Hall, gives two instances out of the many 
afforded by MS. Lincoln, ' I have noghte ai do with the,' and * that es at say,' that is to 
say. There is little doubt that the idiom was common throughout this district fifty 
years ago. 

At, rel. pr. That, which. 

It is usually supposed, or rather taken for granted, that this is merely a vocal corruption 


or contraction of tbeU, However there U no question (see Jam. in v.) that in the Northern 
dialects it was of old continually written at; for instance : 

' Claudyus send Wespasyane 
Wyth that Kyng to fecht or trete, 
Swa that for luwe, or than for threte, 
Of fors he suld pay ai he awcht.' Wyntoum, v. 3. 89. 

It is, in fact, the O. N. rel. pr. a/, unaltered. Thus, bvar er sd ai gait where *s him ai 
gat it ? And it is used indifferently in either number ; sd ai, he that ; )»»> eU, they that. 

* " Is there nought ai Ah can dee ?'* ** Nowght, ai Ah can tell." * 

Cf. • That ai is dry the erth shalle be,' Toumel. Mysi. p. 2 ; and, • hot if we make assethe 
in >at ^ we may,' Rel. Pieces, p. 6, side by side with * ffor as many we sla in kzt ai we 
may, als we slaundire or backbite.' lb. 5. 

At, conj. That. 

O. N. ai; O. Sw. and Sw. aii; Dan. ai. Jag will aH tu gar ibai: in the Clevel. form. 
Ah wishes ai thou wad dee it. Ok sua uar geri ai benni uar geri annai bal, en Sigurdi 
annai; and so it came to pass that one bale-fire (funeral pile) was made for her, and 
another for Sigurd. F/a/. 1.355. 

* Ah said ai Ah wad, an' Ah ded.' 

* Weean't ee ? Bud Ah 11 see a/ thou diz.' 

At, prep. I. To. 2. Of or from. 3. With, a person namely (the 
sense of the Lat. apud) ; as with the intent of urging a suit, or hearing 
a purpose or resolution. 

0. N. ai, ad, usque, apud; Sw. D. ai; Sw. <!/, to, at, with; A. S. <e/, at, to, with, of, 
from : * because you approach a person or thing when you wish to take something away, as 
they szy in and about Nottingham ; Take ibis ai me, i. e. from me.' Bosw. 

1. ' Ah caan't dee owght mair ai it ;' spoken by a workman of a job of work he had 
been labouring at. 

* What did he do ai thee ?' A very conmion formula. 

Cf. * What aileth this same love ai me. 

To blinde me so sore?' Chaucer, Rime of Sir Topaz, 

2. ' T' maaster wur here a bit syne, an' he wur speirin' ai me about apples.' 

Cf. O. N. Nema ai monnum, to learn from men ; A.S. JEi bwam nimaff eyningas gafol 
o'{^« ioUf of whom do kings take custom or tribute. Matt. xvii. 25. And hegeai med 
bis smeb wrencan . . <e/ Sieorran ; and with his sly tricks obtained of or from Steorra. 

Tborpe*s Diplom. A.S,^, 339. 
' Gabrielle. Mary, madyn heynd 

Me behovys to weynd. 

My leyffl/the I take.' 7W»m/. Afys/. p. 75. 

3. ' Well, I was ai my lord agen, laast neeght, an' he said he wad nae hev it sae ;' he 
would not permit it to be so. 

' Ah was ai t' priest about it, but 't wur te na use.' 

At after, adv. and prep. After, afterwards. 

An archaic form which is met with in Chaucer and other early writers, in both its 
characters. See At under, and comp. at our, <= at-over, in the senses over or beyond, 
and moreover. Jam. 


* I trust to see jou att-after Estur 

As conning as I that am your master.' MSS. Raud. C. 258. 
' All things i' their proper places : ploughing first, sowing eU after* Wb. GL 
Cf. also at hefort, in the following lines from Robert of Gloucester, quoted by Mr. Marsh, 
Origin and Hist, of Eng. Language^ p. 33a. 

* Wateres he ha> eke gode ynow, ac at before alle o^ ^re 
Out of ^e lond into fd see, armes as )>ei be.' 

Athout, prep, and conj. Without 

A corruption of witbout. Jam. gives beAout as a Fifeshire form, adding that ' it may be 
analogous to A. S. be-utan, sine.* Home Tooke observes that ' but and wUbout have 
exactly the same signification ; that is, neither more nor less than be-out. And they were 
both originally used either as conjunctions or prepositions,' which renders such an analogy 
more than possible. BeAout may form the link between witbout and atbout, the be initial 
getting changed, in course of time or use, into a, as in the case of ahint for bebint, atwixt for 

Alter, atterily sb. i. Purulent matter from an ulcer or sore. 2. The 
fiir on the tongue in cases of fever, &c. 

A.S. dttor, otter ^ poison, matter, pus: Bosworth. Comp. O. N. eitr; O. Sw. etter, 
eiter; Dan. edder; O. H. O. and Germ. «t/<r; Dutch eyter: both the latter bearing the 
sense, matter or pus. The original application of the word in each of these tongues seems 
to have been in the sense of poison, the root being supplied (see Ihre in v. Etter) by the 
O. H. Germ, eiten^ urere, from the ' eating' or consuming nature of many poisonous sub- 
stances. In connection with this the O. N. word a/a, which signifies both a consuming 
efficacy and a cancer or ' eating' sore, deserves notice. 

1. • •• Whyah. Willy's ban's brusscn then?" " Ay : an' a strange vast o' bloody atter 's 
cooroed frae it." ' 

• A thick yellow atterU.* Wb. OL 

2. * Mally *s varrey dowly te day : her tongue 's a' covered ower wiv a thick white atter* 

Atter-copy sb. A spider. 

It would be strange if this word, which is familiar in Northumb., Durham, Cumb., and 
South Scotland, should not be retained or remembered in Clevel. According to all analogy 
it must have once been freely current here, but it is now of very rare occurrence. 

A. S. atter-coppa. Jam. writes, * evidently from atter venenum, and copp calix : receiving 
its denomination partly from its form, and partly from its character : q. d. a cup of venom' 
No doubt atter, venenum, is the prefix in the word in question, but the rest of the pro- 
posed etjonology is less satisfactory. Upon the O. Sw. kopp, which, he says, survives only in 
the word koppe fund, occurring in an ancient legal enactment, and there means bee, Ihre 
remarks that it must once have had a wider signification, and denoted all kinds of insects. 
* I conjecture this,' he adds, * from the fact that in other Scythian dialects the word is used 
for spider ;* and he quotes the Germ, spinnekopp for the creature itself, besides E. cobweb, 
Bdg. kopwebbe ; and he might have added Dan. edderkop, O. Sw. eterkoppa, Wal. adargop, 
and Sw. D. etterhoppa, ederhoppa. He also adduces the Welsh cop or coppin, in the word 
gwer-coppyn, spider's web. On the Germ, spinnekopp his comment is, that it does not mean 
caput (one of the meanings otkop or tkoppe) filuin ducens, but an insect possessing the power 
of such production. Rietz, however, thinks etterkoppa may properly signify ^ter-p&se — that 
is, venom-bag — from the great bag of eggs the spider is wont to carry, the Dalecarlian word 
kuppe being synonymous with pose, bag, pouch. Palsgr. gives addircop as equivalent to 
*■ spinner's web,' which according to Ray is the case in both Cumb. and Yorkshire. 


In Toumd, My it, p. 113, the word haiHn stands for spiders :^- 

• But battirt ^ 

I can find no flesh, 
Hard nor nesh, 
Salt nor fresh, 

Bot two tome platters, 
Whik catelle bot this, tame nor wylde 
None, as I hare bl3rsse.' 

Audy anldy adj. Old. 

A. S. aJdOt aid, eald. The corresponding O. N. noun is alldr, Dan. alder, Sw. 6lder: 
but there seems to be no Scand. adj. from the same root. 

Aud-farrandy adj. i. As applied to adults, sagacious with the saga- 
city of experience. 2. As applied to children, gravely or quaintly wise 
or sagacious beyond their years; 'old-fashioned,' as copying the manners 
and expressions of their elders. 

0. N. and O. Sw./ara; O. H. Q.faran^ to gain experience, become used to a thing, or 
experienced in it. Comp. er/artnbei, skill or use, acquired by practice. Brock, quotes 
Dan. erfartn, Dutch ervaren^ experienced. 

1. ' Ay, he 's an aud-farrand aud chap : he 's oop tiv ought.' 

2. * A-but she 's an aud-farrand lihtle hissie I She 's like a 14htle gran'mother I* 

Aud-lady Aud-sorat. Names for the devil, prompted perhaps by a 
feeling of unavowed fear, or a disinclination to mention the being in 
question by his more forcible appellation. 

O. N. skratti, a fiend, an evil spirit ; skrattm, the deril ; Sw. D. skraU, skrat, dtret, a spirit* 
ghost, nisse ; skrattm^ the devil ; O. H. O. seraio, a ghost, bugbear ; M. H. G. scbraie, 
sebratze; Cam. scbratt; Slav, tbkrai, id. ; Boh. serei, cobbold or nisse. Hence, no doubt, 
the English by-name Old Scratch, The common E. name answering to T* aud lad, ia ' th« 
Old Boy,' as often heard in the South. 

Aud-like, adj. Having the appearance of age. 

* *• He b beginning to look varrcy aud4ike:" to become much aged.' Wb, Gl, 

Aught, ought, sb. (pr. owght). Anything; opposed to nothing. 

* Ought or nought ;' something or nothing. 

* He 's owther ought or nought ;' of any profession or none : that is, virtually of none, an 

Aund, aimed, awned, adj. Fated, destined, ordained. 

The instance of usage given by Jam. in v. An almost justifies the assumption that that 
word and the word awn or aun used in Cleveland, as well as in other parts of Yorkshire and 
the North, are the same ; — * Y take that me God an* which is thus explained, * What God 
owes me : i.e. means to send me.' How ' What God means to send me' becomes equivalent 
to ' what God owes me,' or how it is right or correct, in any sense, to say that * God owes' 
anything, is another question. To justify it at aU, an is derived from S. G. egna and 
assumed to mean ' to appropriate, to allot as one's own.' Certainly egna does mean to 
appropriate, to make one's own, but the action is in the person appropriating, not in 
another : the idea being strictly of taking, and not of receiving. This, however, is the 


direct conrene of the sense of our word autud, and of the word an in the quotation adduced. 
A more probable etjrmology might perhaps be sought in O. Sw. ana, animo praesagire^ominari ; 
Dan. ane. Germ, tdmen. Still, I beUere the origin of our word will be found elsewhere. Mr. 
Hj^ten Cavallius, speaking of the relics still to be met with in South Sweden of the heathendom 
of remote antiqui^, says there is still a very deep-rooted conviction in Warend of the existence 
of a blind, all-controlling destiny, called Ode; and on the next page goes on thus : — ' More- 
orer in the popular language of the district the word odm, den, on is still in common use as 
applied to what is destined or ordained by fate ; as, for instance, — ** dst ja a oen te & loiva 
tess den daen hommer :" if I am auned to lire till that day comes ; ** ban va inte ben te &f& tot 
aia boira vdxena:** he was not auned to see his sons grown up.' Cf. O. N. audid: * audid 
9erdr ^ess :* it is auned to happen. This is not the only curious instance, by many, of illus- 
trations of Cleveland words from the expressions or practices of Warend, in South Sweden. 
See Kaok-reeL 

Auntersome, adj. Adventurous, bold, ready for any risk or ad- 

See Anantheni or Anthers. The sense is precisely that implied in auntre in Chaucer's 
line, — 

* I wol ar3rse and auntre it, by my fay.* 

Pr, Pm. ^Auntron, aventryn, Fortuno,* * To aunter, put a thing in danger, adven- 
ture.' Palsgr. 

* •• Dinnot be ower auntersome ;" do not be too rash.' Wb. Gl. 

Awantixigy adj. Needed, required. 

* ** WeU, I hope, Mr. B., its going to take up and be fine weather." Mr. B. " It 's to be 
hoped sae. It 's sair awantmg** ' 

Away-gannan-orop, away-going-orop, sb. The crop of com which 
an outgoing tenant is entitled to sow and reap on his late farm, in con- 
sideration of, and in proportion to, the quantity of land duly fallowed 
and manured by him during the last summer of his occupancy. The 
rules which regulate the proportion of land thus appropriated vary 
slightly, I believe, according to the district 

Awe, v. a. To own, to possess, have belonging to. 

A. S. agon, eegan ; N. S. egen ; Fris. agenje ; Dut. eigenen ; O. H. G. eigan ; O. N. eiga ; 
Dan. ^e ; Sw. ega. 

Latham, Engl. Or, ii. 309, says that the word oum, which he distinguishes from oum, 
to a^nowledge, by calling it *otcw (possidentis),' had no n until after the time of Elizabeth. 

* This is no sound 

That the earth owes.^ Temp, i. 2. 

* . . . . Thou dost here usurp 
The name thou oweU not.' lb. 
In older times still it was awe. Thus, — 

* Ffor Qodd awe vs to lufe hally with herte, with all our myghte, with all our thoghte, 
with worde and with dede. Oure euyne crystcne als swa owe vs to lufe vn-to |>at ilkc gude 
>«t we lufe oure-selfe.' Rel. Pieces, p. 7. 

With this form cf. O. N. pres. a (of eiga), A. S. 3rd pers. pres. ab. Sec "WTieeas a' P and 
cf. O. N. bverr a t which is exactly equivalent in form and sen^c. 


Awebun', awebundy adj. i. Under restraint or discipline, so as to 
be orderly, obedient, attentive. 2. Submissive to authority. 

Jam. * hesitates whether to view this as formed from the tb. awband, or as compoimded 
of awt and bound,* Atoband is a Lanarkshire and Lothian name for a peculiar apparatus 
used for fastening unruly cattle by the neck to the rudstakt. And there is an IsL word 
bdband, which signifies a ligature (of hide) applied to the legs of sheep in such a way as to 
prevent them from leaping or straying far. The similarity of sound and application between 
atuband and bdhand is certainly suggestive, and probably, if not surely, supplies the derira- 
tion of the sb. aweband in the sense of, i. check or restraint; and, 2. a moral restraining 
influence. The word awebund, however, can scarcelv proceed from this source ; for the 
verb is not awbind^ but awband, O. N. at bdbenda^ still in use in Lanarkshire ; and one is 
accordingly thrown back upon the more obvious compound derivation. 

• •• Thae bairns are sadly ower little aiuebun* ;** too little under disc^line, Hi-trained.* 

* ** They were awebun nowther wi* God nor man ;" disregarded all precepts human and 
divine.* lb, 

Awf, sb. I. An elf, or fairy. 2. A fool, a silly or half-witted person. 
See Awflsh. 

O. N. al/r, alfi; O. Sw. «//; Dan. tdft; A. S. tdf, cdf, • The word «//,* says Sir Walter 
Scott, Minstrelsy, ii. 1 10, * which seems to have been the original name of the beings after- 
wards denominated fairies, is of Gothic origin, and probably signified simply a sfMiit of a 
lower order.' To these spirits were attributed the various operations of nature, and conse- 
quently various kinds of elfs were distinguished. The Scandinavians divided them into 
svari cdfar and lios cdfar, black elves and white. The Anglo-Saxons * had not only dunrdfen, 
berg-el/en and munt-el/en, spirits of the downs, hills and mountains ; but also fdd-€i/en, 
vmdu-elfen, sat^lfen, and VHEter-elftn, spirits of the fields, of the woods, of the sea, and of 
the waters. And in Low German, the same latitude of expression occult ; for night-hags 
are termed cduinnen and aluen. But the protot]^ of the English Elfii to be sought chiefly 
in the berg-elfen or duergar of the Scandinavians. From the most early of the Icdandic 
Sagas, as well as from the Edda itself, we learn the belief of the Northern xutions in a race 
of dwarfish spirits, inhabiting the rocky mountains, and approaching, in some respects, to 
the human nature. Their attributes, amongst which we recognise the features of the 
modem fairy, were supernatural wisdom and prescience, and skill in the mechanical arts, 
especially in the fabrication of arms. They are frirther described as capricious, vindictive, 
and easily irritated,' Minstr. ib. This ' harsher character of the Elves* seems never to have 
quite passed away in the folk-lore of this district, as in Southern England, giving place to 
the gentler, more amiable, though still, possibly, capricious attributes of the Fairy proper — 
a circumstance which stands out strongly in the notions connected with the words next fol- 
lowing ; the explanation of which probably is that the traditions of the district, under the 
one name • Fairy,* confound the persons of the Dwarf proper and the Elf proper. The 
Fairies in Cleveland make and wash butter, and even tub it, or put it down for keeping ; 
wash their linen industriously, nay often noisily ; fire their bolts at animals ; dance around 
the fairy-ring ; are capable of inflicting mischief on mankind ; take charge of deserted chil- 
dren, rear them to manhood, protect them through life, and bury them when dead ; abstract 
children ; stand in need of the services of human midwives ; resist the building of churches, 
destroying the work done in the day and flitting the materials to a spot less objectionable to 
themselves, by night ; haunt certain tumuli or Houes as their chosen residence ; live xrnder 
ground ; and the like. The author has collected various legends embodying all these 
notions, and all with a distinct locality assigned to them. Claymore Well, a certain spring 
in Baysdale, and a stream in the vicinity of Egton Grange, besides Fairy Cross Plains in the 


parish of Danbj, and other pbces in the neighbourhood, are specially famous in the fidry- 
lore connection. But most of these legends point distinctly, as an attentive study of the less 
disintegrated folk-lore of North Continental Europe abundantly shews, to the Dwarf or 
Troll as the agent, and the small remainder to the Elf proper. Thus the Dwarf or Troll 
does not dance, the Elf does. The Elf uses its supernatural artillery, the Dwarf does not. 
Bat while the abstraction of children is a trick of the Troll or Dwarfs, the detention (or re- 
tention) of mankind in fairy haunts may belong to either Troll or Elf. AU stories, how- 
erer, which involve the practice of any handicraft or manual operation seem to belong to 
the Dwarf society by special prescription. As to our Clevel. form Awf, comp. the form 
m^bt, and * Oberon, that is, Aubtron for Albertm* Grimm, D. M, p. 421. 

Awflfih, awvish, adj. i. Half-witted, silly, dull. 2. Out of sorts, in 
the sense of not feeling well without being positively poorly ; neither sick 
nor well. 

This most sorely be referred to auf, oupbe, iif, alf, al/r, &c. In the Cant. Tales. Pro- 
log* to Sin TbopaSf is a description which is taken as a sketch of Chaucer's own appear- 
ance and demeanour : — 

* Thou lokest as thou woldest find a hare ; 
For ever upon the ground I se the stare,' 

says the host to the poet ; and then of him this : 

* He seemeth elviscb by his countenaunce. 
For unto no wight doth he dalliaunce.' 

The thoughtful look, with eyes fixed on the ground, combined with absence and reserve of 
manner, are certainly the characteristics described by the word elviseb, which, in the Glossary 
to Bell's Cbavegr, is expbined by * like a fairy, shy, reserved.' It is, in fact, not an 
unlikely remaik to be passed on either a very absent or a very shy person, that he seems to 
be ' not all there,' or, in other words, not so wise as he might be. And from this the tran- 
tttxon to half-witted, or weak in intellect, is easy. It is further supposable that in the 
meaning of awviflh, which is given second, there may be a reference to the fancied connec- 
tion between the fairy and nunkind ; on which indeed, according to Ihre, Andrew Oud- 
mundsson founds his etymology of alf; deriving it, namely, from balf, the elf being 
sopposed ' semi-human.* On this principle awvish, elfish, would naturally mean half-and- 
half, neither one thing nor another; and so the transition to the sense in the example 
would easily follow ; — 

' Ah feels quite queer an' awvisb* Wb. Gl. 

Awf-Bhoty sb. An arrow-head of flint, or other like material, of 
pre-historic origin, but alleged by popular superstition to have been 
fabricated and used (in malice) by the Elves or Fairies. See Awf-shoty 

Awf-shot, awf-shotten, adj. Stricken or affected by an Awf-shot ; 
' shot by fairies.' Jam. 

O. N. clfir and tkiota; O. Sw. <e{/'and skjuta. Under the word ikott, Ihre states that it 
is the Swedish name for a disorder which sometimes attacks cattle, and under which they 
die as suddenly as if struck by lightning ; adding, that it is vulgarly attributed to super- 
natural agency. The Norwegian name for the disorder is alhkaadi, and the Danish elle' 
tkud; both words meaning awf-shotten. The same superstition prevails to a marked extent 
throughout the Northern districts of England and Scotland generally ; only, alike in Scot- 
land and the Engliih home of the belief, the malady is not msUntaneously fatal, if at all. 

D 2 


Jam. states, on the information furnished by a friend, that the disease consists in an orer- 
distention of the first stomach, and mentions the mode of cure adopted in Clydesdale ; while 
elsewhere he notices the more prevalent notion as to the efficacy of the arrow-head itself in 
curing the eif-sbot animal. * In order to effect a cure the cow is to be touched by an df- 
sbot, or made to drink the water in which one has been dipped.' Pennant's Tour in Scot- 
land. Comp. the following from the Wb. Gl. for Cleveland : * to cure an awf-ahotten 
animal it must be touched with one of the shots, and the water administered in which one 
of them has been dipped.' It would appear also, that in Upper Germany the disease which 
* instantaneously deprives a person of his senses is called alp or alpSiiehen ; literally the 
pressure of an elf.' I place side by side with this the following extract from Landnamabok^ 
p. 1 19 : *Or kom 1 Tborarinn • . . oc banuidUt bann :* the arrow, that is, the df-dfoi, came 
upon Thorarin and he went distraught. In one district of Jutland it is believed that cattle, 
when d/sbot, become stiff and surdy die unless speedy help is at hand. The quickest and 
surest remedy consists in driving the beast up out of the moss, and firing a shot over it ; 
only care must be taken to fire ^om the head in the direction of the tail. 

Awxnons-loaves, sb. Alms-bread, distributed in the church to the 
poor after Divine Service; usually provided from money specially be- 
queathed for the purpose. WA, GL 

Awmiis. See AlmiBse. 

Awn, V. a. To own or acknowledge, as a friend or acquaintance, 
that is ; to visit. 

* You never awn us now ;' you never come near us to pay us a visit. 

* T' au'd dog put a pheasant hen aff her nest Sunday was a week, an' she 's niwer owned 
it nae mair.' 

Awns, sb. The beards of corn. 

O. Sw. agn ; O. N. ogn (in the pi. agnir) ; Dan. avne ; N. agn ; M. G. abana ; O. H. G. 
agana ; the idea of pointed (like a spear) supplying the radical sense in each case. 

Ax, ex, vb. To ask. 

A. S. dxtan, dcstan, dbdan. The etymons in the cognate languages are O. Sw. asia, 
O N. cesiba, Dut. etscben. Germ, beiscben. But the form of the A. S. verb is decisive, and 
we find the word in the earliest English writers, with some little variation of spelling but not 
of sound. 

*And fSd be ana waSt bine axodon iSat bigspell iSe twel/e iSe mid bem VKoron* A. S. Gosp. 
Mark iv. 10. 

' And when he was singuler the twelue that weren with hym axiden him for to eiq)Owne 
the parable.' Wycliffe's Transl. 

* When he was alone, they that were aboute hym with the twelve axed hym of the simi- 
litude.' Tyndale's Transl. 

:*d, pcpl. I. Invited or bidden, to a funeral especially. 2. Pro- 
claimed or announced; in reference to the publication of banns in 

Wb. Gl., after noticing the second application, states that ' formerly in our Moordale 
churches, after the clergyman had proclaimed the marrying parties, it was customary for the 
clerk to respond with a hearty " God speed them weel." ' In the Lineolnsb. Gl. a distinc- 
tion is made, in a note, betwecd axed and axed up; as also, in the text, between axed up 
and axed out — distinctions which make axed up to bear different meanings in different 
localities. Here axed out means asked all three times, axed up not being usual. 


Aye marry ! int An expression of assent, conveying a different 
eiq)re8sion of feeling on the speaker's part, according to intonation; 
sometimes of a little quiet triumph at the consciousness of superior 
wisdom, sometimes of irony or semi-contempt. 

•" Theo WUly bad the book aU the time?" *' Aye marry t I know'd he had." ' 
***What, they've forgiven you, Mr. Dale, and asked you to go and see them again?*' 
" Aye marry \ They wants ma* brass, ye ken.** * 
See Marry! 

Aye seear, (Pr. of ay, sure.) An expression of assent, sometimes 
slightly interrogative, sometimes conveying a tinge of reserve. 

• •• Well, Josey, I am going to be married.'* ** Ay^ uearf* * 

• •• Than thou 's gannan to get wed, after all, Jeeams ?*' (With a sly smile, perhaps) **Aye, 
which only means, you are at liberty to suppose so, if you like.* 

Ayonty prep. Beyond. See Beyont. 
Comp. AforOf Atbout. 

Babbiflh, babish, adj. i. Childish, puerile. 2. Faint, strengthless ; 
as when a person speaks of ' feeling faint.' 

This word is to babe, or its familiar provincial equivalent, bab, (* Alas my bob, myn inno- 
cent, my fleshly pet.' Toumel. Myst, p. 149,) what babyisb is to baby. 

* I felt babbisb enough to be Imocked down with a feather.* Wb. Gl, 

In Toumel, Myst. p. 78, babysb occurs as a vb., apparently in the sense, ' Treated me as a 
child, told me such tales as they would to a child.' Joseph speaks of the Virgin Mary : — 

* Thay excused hir thus sothly 
To make hir dene of her foly 
- And babysbed me that was old.' 

Babbles and Saunters. Gossipping tales and repetitions. 

Sw. D. babbel, empty prate, chattering gossip ; O. N. babb ; Dan. bablen, id. ; Dan. D. 
bable; N. S. babbeln; Fris. babbeln; Dut. babd; Fr. babiUer^ to prate, chatter idly, utter 
inarticulate sounds ; together with E. babble, sufficiently account for babble. Hall, quotes 
the word saundri* as meaning * slanders,* in the following couplet : — 

' I may stonde in thilke rowe 
Amonge hem that sawtdris use.* 

Gower, MS, Soc. Antiq. 134, f. 74. 
And to this word probably saunters should be refened rather than to the Engl, saunter. 

Back, V. a. To retard, keep down or under. 

Comp. prov. vb. backen, coincident in sense. 

* T' doctor did all he could to back t' inflSmation ; bud t' warn't te ncca use.' 

* That fit o' caud weather jest afore Mayday backed t' grass strangely.' 


Baok-bearawayy sb. The bat, or rere-mouse : genus Vespertilio, 

The former part of this name is an archaic and still-used proy. name for the bat. 
Pr, Pm. * Bakke. Flyinge best. Vesperiilio,' Comp. O. Sw. nait-baeka, Dan. afitn-hakkt. 
It seenu difficult to give any explanation of the latter part of the name. The A. S. name is 
brere-mus, whence £. rgre-mouse, Rietz gives the Sw. D. name nait-blakka, and also 
nat-batta from Warend, and nattir blakkda^ collating Old Dan. mubhacka, as well as 
rvKT0$6J8a, a bat, and mutrofiaZia^ night-wandering. 

Baok-burden, sb. A load or burden borne on the back. 

Baok-oast, sb. (pr. bakkest). Anything which causes loss of ground ; 
or, the loss itself, i. In business matters, a loss or failure. 2. In respect 
of health, a relapse, or any cause which sets recovery at a greater 

The Scand. tongues and dialects present numberless instances of compound words used as 
nouns, of which jhe first element is a preposition and the second a participle ; or else, in 
which both parts are nouns. The same is specially true of our dialect. 

I. * Josey Deal's lossen three of 's kye: Ah doou it's gannan to be a sair back-km 
tiv 'im/ 

a. * Mally 's had anither bout o' t' aud complaint, an' its gien her a desput back-cati* 

Baok-end, sb. The latter part of some definite period of time; 
e. g. of a week, a month, a year. 

' Last back-end;* the latter part of last year. 

* Back-end o' last week.* 

Baokerly, adj. Backward, late; applied either, i. To the season; or 
2. To crops generally; or 3. To peculiar varieties of produce. 

A contraction of Baektoardly, 

Baokerly, adv. Late, alter the usual time. 

* T' far side o' yon field weeant be fit yet a bit : it wur ower baekerly sown.' 

Bad, body pret of to Bid. 

Bady adj. In continual use in colloquial phrases in the sense of 
I. Hard, difficult; 2. Disagreeable, annoying, worrying. 

1. * Bad to beat;' not easily surpassed or excelled. 

2. ' Bad to do with ;' said of a person who is provoking in his conduct, or unmanageable 
or disagreeable in his ways, or exacting in his expectations or demands ; and the like. 

* B€ui to bide ;' hard to be borne ; requiring much fortitude or patience in the endurance. 
It need hardly be remarked that all these instances present also instances of what is called 

the genmdial construction in the case of the verbs employed : a construction which is suffi- 
ciently frequent in the Cleveland vernacular. 

Bady badly, adj. Poorly, indisposed, ill or sick. 

The derivation of E. bad is possibly not very certain. Mr. Wedgw. collates Germ, bosi, 
Dut. boos, Ten. bud, bad. See Wedgw. in v. Bad. It may be remarked that the idea of 
active or operative badness seems always present in the idiomatic use of the word bad, and 


its deriTatiTes, in ClevrL and the North. See Badness ; and comp. Badting in Brockett, 
* a worthless person, a had one ;' as also Pr, Pm, * Bad or wykyde/ 

' Our Mary 's rarry boiliyt for seear. She 's desput bad in her booels an' sair follered on 
WIT a lax.' 

% sb. A huckster; one who goes about the country with 
basket and bag, or with ass and panniers, or with a cart, to buy up 
butter, eggSy fowls, fruit, &c., to sell again at some market-town in the 

Some few years ago, when shops were few and far away, the Badger was a pedlar as well, 
and dealt in needles, Uiread, and the rarious small wares with which the pedlar's pack was 
wont to be stocked, for which he would take the above-named farm-produce in exchange. 
On the supposition that the Badger was a * licensed hawker' the word has been supposed 
to take its origin from the circumstance that he possessed a badge. In Selkirkshire, how- 
erer, badgi still signifies * a large ill-shaped burden,' and Jamieson s suggestion is, that that 
is the origin of Badger : cf. O. N. baggi, a burthen, a pack-saddle ; O. Sw. bagg*. This is 
the more likely explanation, particularly as the calling of badger must have been followed 
by great numbers who needed no licence, and probably long before licences were issued. 
BrcNckett, however, says that * Originally he was a person who purchased grain at one 
market and took it on horseback to sell at another ;' and Mr. Wedgw., in a very ingenious 
notice, and availing himself of the Fr. name of the animal called badger^ btatreau, derives 
oiur word Badger directly from Fr. Madier, a corn-dealer, one who supplies the markets he 
attends with com carried on mule-back. This word, he alleges, would be corrupted in 
Pr. as toldier is, that is to say, into solger, sodger; and then an omission of the /, not with- 
out analogy in several other words, would give Badger. 

Badger, vb. i. To beat down the price of an article in the process 
of bargaining. 2. To banter, treat with rude or rough raillery. 

I. * Him an' me cou'dn't agree, nae-kins form. He wad ha' badgered me doon to 

1. * Mebbe t' hid *s not mich aboon a gauvison : but they badgered him ower sair for 

Badness, sb. Depravity, active wickedness. 

* " They war gi'en tiv a' maks o' badness;** to all kinds of practical evil.* Wb. Gl. 

* Nobbttt a ragally chap, at allays had a vast o' badness iv 'im.' 

Cf. * Felice her faimesse 

Fel hire al to sdaundre ; 

And Rosamonde right so 

Reufulliche to bileve. 

The beaut^ of hir body 

In baddenesse she despended.' Piers P/. p. 331. 

Baffounded, adj. Perplexed, bewildered, stunned. 

I find this word in no printed collection except the Wb. Gl,, in which it occurs with the 
following example appended : — * I was quite bewildered and baffounded* In its present form 
it is not easy to suggest an explanation. True, the Sw. Dial, presents the forms baff, a prac- 
tical fool, a stupid, and baffing^ a half-witted being ; but there is no clue to the terminal 
portion of our word. Possibly the word should rather be spelt befnunded, and it may be a 
corruption of some such word as Hire's be/angd, Qeim. be/angen, disconcerted, embarassed. 


The A. S. be/oHgen, hefongen does not seem to possess the special meaning of the Gertnan 
word just given. B^-fitnd-td (Jbe'/gond-ed) analogous to he-dtwl-td is possible, but not 
likely. But the most likely supposition is that the word is really befimded. See Fond. 
Hall, gives />f»n«, to be foolish ; and Wyclif uses ,/^)imy J in his TVoHslaiion of the New Test., 
and the form be/onded would easily connect with this. Comp. Sw. D. J^anig, J^antig, 
fimtigtj^ynted, Ranted, JjatUed; HtXLJjanted; all with the meanings fond or foolidi, silly, 

Bain, adj. Near, direct, easy ; as applied to a road or way. 

O. N. heinn ; Sw. D. hen or hajn, direct, straight, near. Comp. O. Sw. 6aii, a good or 
even road. Bain appears to have had, or to have yet, other meanings in different parts 
of the North, while in Scotland it is of wide application : see Jam. Ray explains it as 
* willing, forward;* and to be ' hain about one' implies offidousness, forward readiness to 
help in Uie person spoken of — senses illustrated in the following extracts : — 

' Noab, He saide alle shalle be slayn bot oonely we» 

Oure bames that ar 6ayii, and thare wifes thre.' 

Toumd, Mytt. p. 28. 

* Thow (St. John) was bouxsome and bayne his body to tent.' 

Rel. Pieces, p. 90. 

Perhaps Pr. Pm, * Beyn, or plyaunte (beykn. P.). FUxthUis* throws some light upon this. 
The form heykn leads one at once to O. N. heygja, Sw. hoja, A. S. hngan, &c, ; to A. S. 
boesum, Fris. boegsum. Old Dut. gbe-boogb-^aem (Bosw.), flexible, obedient, humble. 
' Btdfsomenesse or bougbsomeness. Pliableness, or boiwsomeness' Wedgw. 

Bairn, sb. i. A child. Also, 2. A term of address from an elder to a 
yomiger person, without regard to stature. 

O. N., O. Sw. and Dan. bam ; A. S. be<am ; M. G. and O. H. G. bam, 
• " I *m giving you a deal of trouble, William, I fear." " Nay, 6a£nii, nay : nowght 
o' t' soort ;" ' from a nun of sixty to the parson, a man of forty-^ve. 

Baim-bed, baim's-bed, sb. The womb, uterus, matrix. Comp. 
Calf-bed, Foal-bed. 

' She 's getten a swelling o' t' baim-bed;' a tumour of the uterus. 

Baim-birth, sb. Lying-in, a confinement. 

O. N. bamburdr. 

Baimish, adj. Childish, puerile. 

BaimishnesB, sb. Childishness, imbecility. Wh, Gi. 

Baim-lakingSy baim-laOdngs, sb. Children's toys, playthings. 
See Iiake. 

Baimteam, sb. A continuous succession of children, a family, 
generally in the sense of a large one : * lots of children.* Brock. 

A. S. beam-team, posterity, generation ; Sc. batm-tyme, bame-teme, Cf. N. S. toom, pro- 
genies, stirps ; Dut. toom, a team of ducks ; also a bridle, as in the case of N. S. toom and 
Fris. tarn, team ; also A. S. team, issue, offspring, a succession of children, an3rthing following 
in a row, order, or team : Bosw. See Tettm. 

* Jesus, Ye doghters of Jerusalem, I byd ye wepe noth3mg for me, 

Bot for youre self and youre bame'teme,* Tmund. Mysi, p. aia. 


* And scfaih greni godles inwi^ waste wahes. and in breades wone brede ti bamteam :' 
tbon shalt groan without goods within bare walls, and in want of bread breed thy baimteam. 
Halt Miidmbad, p. 31. 

* The fende was fadyr of thiese doghtyrs. pt firste )>er-of H* fonle hamt-4ynu highte 
Ebvye, the to^ highte Pride/ &c. Rd. Pieces^ P« 57* 

Baimwort, banwort, sb. The common daisy {bellts perermts). Spelt 
also Banwood. 

An apparent deriration is offered in A. S. hdtirwyrt; honeufort^ a violet, perhaps the small 
knapweiML Bosw. Hall, gives ' a violet, Durulm.' and then adds, * According to Cooper, 
heOU b the white daysy, called of some the margarite, in the North banwoort* A. S. doges- 
tagi is the original of £. daisy ; and it certainly seems, both on that ground, and on account 
of the accentuation and consequent sound of ban-wyrt^ that the plant indicated by that name 
was distinct from the daisy and our Bairn- or Ban-wort. Dr. Prior gives bemtwori, * from 
Its baning sheep, by ulcerating their entrails,' as ranunculus flammta. There is very great 
perplexity about the majority of the local names of plants, from the uncertainty (or worse) 
of iheir application ; the same name being often applied to two, three, or more plants which 
are perfectly distinct. 

Hhouaey sb. (pr. backus). A baker's oven, or rather the building 
containing it. 

iV. Fnu ' Bakbottse, or bakynge howse. Pistrina* 

This b of course the origin of the prevalent North Country name Backbouse, which in the 
Danby Registers, 150 to aoo years ago, appears in the form Backus or Bakkus. And, rather 
quaintly, on the same page in one instance I find the name (still borne in the district) of 
Vcnns or Venis : a name much more difficult to account for. 

Baking, sb. The quantity of com — varying with the size of the 
family — sent by the several farmers to the mill to be ground, and which 
is fetched away by the Cadger at stated times. 

What Batch b in connection with the oven (comp. Dan. b€egt, Sw. bag, &c.), that Baking 
b in reference to the mill ; that b, as regards the usage of the word. 

Baksta*]!, bakstoney sb. A circular plate of iron with an iron Bow 
to hang it by, to bake cakes upon. It is sometimes, though rarely, 
formed of slate. 

Comp. O. N. bakstfdm, literally, bake-iron, or iron for baking purposes. The transition 
of sound from what I take to be the O. N. original to the Clevel. word as spoken (the j 
sounding as y), b simple when once the sense of the original has ceased to be noticed. The 
Lt§ds G/. spelb the word bakstan, varying that spelling in the explanation with baekstone, 
hautiOHS, or baxston. Brock, gives backt^tane, with the definition, ' a heated stone or iron 
for baking calces ;' and O. GL backstone, * formerly a slate, but now a plate of iron on 
which oatcake b baked.' The author of the Gl. named first describes the Bakatan as a 
stone fitted by shape and dimensions for insertion in the ordinary fire-side ovens, but adds 
afterwards, ' A baxston* cake b now nude when the stones are nil by taking one of the iron 
shelving-pbtet out of the oven, fixing it over the fire, and placine the cake thereon.' Thb 
b the tme use of the Bakstan, and for my own part I doubt if stone ever were, or could 
conveniently be, used in the way the real Bakstan is applied. In * Hire cake beanie's o 
^ Stan,' Hali Meid. p. 57, we have a reminder of the Alfred legend, the cakes burning on 
the hearth-stone. 



Bakster, baxter, sb. A baker. 

A. S. bcKestre, a woman who bakes, a baker. 

* Baker, or baxter, bakstar. Pistor, panients, panifex* Pr, Pm, 

Balk, sb. (pr. bawk). i. A beam. 2. A ridge of land left between 
two furrows, or by the wall or hedge-side. 

Hald. gires hjdiki, a beam ; Dan. ^'<e£k« ; and Ihre, balk, a ridge between two fiirrows. 
A. S. balea bears both meanings. Comp. also O. N. bdlir, a wooden partition ; e. g. a 
planked wall of or in a house, or merely a means of separation between cattle. According 
to Dire, Oudmund Andr. remarks that Icel. bdlir signifies not only the ridse le^ in plough- 
ing, but any low ridge. Sw. D. ballra, b'dlka, is to n3ss certain ridges or strips in ploughing ; 
baik, a beam, a wooden partition, a strip in a ploughed field left untouched by the plough. 
Pr, Pm, * Balk$, trabs ; balk§, of a lond eryd. Porea* 

* With his own hand he made them laddirs thre 
To climbin by the ronges, and by the ttalkes 
Into the tubbis hanging by the baUtes ;* 

of the roof namely : MiU€r*t Tale, p. a8. 

See Hay-batLks, and cf. ' The owle all neght aboue the balkea wonde.' 

Legende of PhUcmda, p. 354. 

* He can well in myne e3rin sene a stalk. 
But in his own he can nought sene a balk* Reve*t Prologue, p. 30. 

For the second sense, comp. — 

* Primus Pastor. To my shepe wylle I stalk and herkyn anone, 

Ther abyde on a balk, or sytt on a stone 

Full soyne.' Toumel. Myst, p. 99. 

Ball, sb. I. Of the hand, the pahn. 2. Of the foot, the sole. 

Dan. balde, ball of the hand or foot, as balde i baanden, balde under foden ; Sw. D. band' 
ball, palm of the hand ; fotball or foteball, planta pedis, sole of the foot ; Germ. Juss-ballen, 
Comp. Lat. vola. 

* About t' bigness o* t' ball o* my hand.* 

Bally-bleeze» sb. A bonfire. 

A. S. bdl-ildse, bal-blise, the blaze of a funeral pile. The Scand. languages and dialects 
give equivalents for both the parts of this compound word; thus O.N. bdl and Uossi; 
O. Sw. bSl and bloss ; Dan. bcud and blusser ; but they are not met with in the same con- 
junction. Sw. D. bal, * or the more usual form ojfirbdl, denotes a pile of boughs, stones, 
and other materials of every description, thrown up by means of the contributions of passing 
wayfarers on the place where a human being has lost his life ; the object of the contri- 
butors being by this means to bind the spirit (a// binda gasten) and render it harmless 
quoad se,* Rietz. To this Mr. Hylten Cavallius, Warend och Wirdame, p. 161, adds that 
the piles thus formed are from time to time burnt, and that such burning is expressed by 
the words att branna bal, and that even as late as 1828 divers prohibitions are met with as 
issued by the authorities against such bale-burning. The Dan. Dial, gives the vb. baale, to 
make a blaze, or a great blazing fire ; the connection of idea with Dan. bacd, a funeral pile, 
or p3rre, being evident enough. What the blaze of the funeral pile, or bdl, must have been 
may be easily conceived by any one who has ever seen the opening of a tumulus containing 


aa mterment after burning. The writer has met with many urns in which the remains of 
the human body were reduced to two or three handfuls of crumbling bones ; and in some 
cases incrcdiUe quantities of charcoal still in close company. Again, in Flat, 1. 355, Bryn- 
hiDdr is described as first slaying her seven thralls and her five maids, then stabbing herself, 
and ordering herself, still living, to be carted away together with the twelve dead bodies to 
the funeral pOe {fil bah) to be burnt : ' And so it came to pass that there was one bal for 
her and one for her husband Sigurdr.' But imagine the pile required for consuming thirteen 
human bodies to ashes. It need scarcely be added that any assumption of an etymological 
connection between the name Baal and this word Bally-bleeae must be groundless. Even 
m the Gaelic form baltein, while Uim is equivalent to our Bleese, Dan. blystt, Sw. bloss, Sec., 
I doubt if bal be radically distinct from E. baU, Sw. bil^ 8cc. In other words, I do not for 
a moment suppose that die worship of Baal, any more than that of Balditt or Apollo, or 
Phmbits, considered as persons with distinct ethnic names, was intended in these baU-fins. 
It was ^e worship of the Sun-god simply, and his name not even hinted at in that of the 
fire-rites involved. 

' Firste to brenne the body 

In a bali of fiir. 

And sythen the sely soul slen, 

And senden hyre to helle.' P. Plougbm. Crud, 1339. 

Balm-bowl, bawm-bowl, sb. An urinal, chamber-pot. 

Only a cant term, probably. There is a Teut. word bamu, with a signification which 
would probably indude urine ; and if the word is really an old word, that is its probable 
derivation. Hald. also gives bambwr, a vessel of conesponding form, a bowl or pot. 

Balragy ballyrag, bullyrag, vb. To abuse violently ; to pour foul 
or savage words and epithets on ; to banter contemptuously and angrily. 
Also spelt balarag, ballerag, bullirag. 

There can be little doubt of the essential identity of our word with buUy-rook, 

* Hosi, What says my bully-rook f Speak scholarly and wisely.* M, Wives o/W. i. 3. 
Wedgw. connects bully-rook or -rock, * a hectoring, noisy fellow,* with PI. D. buUer-hrook, 

bulltr-jaan, buUer-hak; and these words, together wi^ E. bully, he links with Dut. 
bUderen, buldtren, verbulderen, to bully with loud menaces ; G. poltem, Sw. buller, noise, 
ODftcry ; bulUr-bas, a blusterer. 

Baiter, v. n. (pr. bauter). To trample or tread heavily or clownishly. 

The connection of this word is not very evident. On one side we have Germ, poltem, 
to beat, thump, strike heavily or noisily; Sw. bulia; Lat. pulton; with which may possibly 
be dassed Sw. D. buUta, to drive a roUer ; buUMabb, a bittle, battledoor. On the other, 
Sc. paut, Sw. D. pallta, to hobble, to walk with faltering, uneven steps ; pjaUta, id. ; and 
possibly our own paddle, with all the class of words it introduces. 

Baltiorani, sb. Riotous proceedings ; the boisterous merry-making 
which often accompanies a bonfire. 

• They pbyed the very baltiorum,* Wh. GL 

I do not find this word printed anywhere except in Wh. GL ; nor is its alleged resem- 
blance to Beltane in Jam. very suggestive of any reference to the customs described under 
that word. 

E 2 


Bam, V. a. i. To put a joke or trick upon one. 2. To take in 
or delude. 

Br. bamem^ to bewitch, cheat. 

Bam, sb. i. A deception. 2. A trick, or imposition. 

I. * *« It 's all a bam;** all a deception, or take in.' Wb, GL 

a. ' ** Thae V putten a bam on him ;" played him a trick or '* made a fool" of him.' lb, 

Bamsey, sb. A fat, red-faced female. Wk, GL 

Cf. Sw. D. bdmnib&t a stout bulky woman ; Swab. bamM, bampd, bompei, a stout slut 
of a woman. 

Ban, V. n. To curse, blaspheme. 

Pr. Pm. * Bannyn^ or war3ryn. Imprecor^ maUdico^ exeeror* 

O. N. and O. Sw. banna^ to interdict, to denounce by ecclesiastical authority. But O. Sw. 
bannas was applied to such as made use of wicked imprecations in their talk. Ihre. The 
same author also quotes O. N. bannaz and Belg. bannen in the same sense. 

' " He banned till all was blue ;" gave loose to furious imprecations/ Wb, Gl. 

* Primus Pastor For this trespas, 

We wille nawther ban ne flytc, 

Fyght nor chyte.' Tottmel, Myst. p. 115. 

Ban, sb. A curse. 

O. Sw. bann or ban; O N. bann; A. S. ban; Dan. band. The meaning of the O. Sw. 
and O. N. words seems to have been to interdict, or prohibit. The primitive meaning of 
the O. £. or A. S. word seems to have been to sununons the army. Wedgw. Thence was 
derived the sense of exclusion from the privileges of religion ; and from this the meaning 
which our present word still bears. And it is worthy of note that, inasmuch as there was 
a formal publication of the summons, or prohibition, or interdict, the word bann came to be 
applied to other formal proclamations ; as, e.g. that of the purpose of marriage between any 
two contracting parties : whence the phrase, * banns of marriage.' 

Band, sb. i. Small string or twine. 2. A rope of small or moderate 
size. 3. The ligature of a sheaf of com. 4. Thin straw rope twisted by 
hand, employed to secure the thatch of stacks, &c. 

0. N. band seems to have had a sense almost exactly coincident with our first ; viz. 
thread, small ties whether of wool, linen or other material. The ordinary sense of O. N. 
and O. Sw. band was simply (from binda^ to bind ; pret. band) something bound, that is, 
applied in binding ; a ligature, fillet, surgical bandage ; and thence the other meaning just 

1. * Such and such a thing is not worth a band*s end ;' i. e. it is valueless. 

2. * " There *s a band for thee ;" there *s a rope : go and hang yourself.' Wh, Gl, 

Band-maker, sb. i. A twine-spinner or rope-maker. 2. The per- 
son, usually a lad, who makes the Bands for tying up the sheaves of the 
newly-cut com. 

The operation of Band-making is performed by twisting lightly together, at the ear end, 
two handfuls of the long com ; and the Band, so made, is carefully laid on the ground so as 


not to untwist before the substance of the sheaf is laid upon it. Comp. Dan. haandtt to 
twist straw rope for binding sheares. 

Bands, sb. Hinges. 

* A pair o' hands ;* a couple of hinges. Wb. GL 
Cf. O. N. Jhrdta-par, par fibularum. 

' David, For of this prynce thus ere I saide ; 
I saide that he shuld breke 
Youre banes and bandis by name, 
And of youre warkes take wreke/ Toumii. Myst. p. 248. 

* Et solvit Ricardo Smyth pro dayis, bandit et crowkis pro tenementis in Elvett.' Pr. 
Fhuh, p. ccclx. 

Bandster, sb. The person who binds the sheaf laid upon the Band, 
as described under Band-maker, by the Gatherer, usually a woman, 
who follows the mower with a light four-toothed rake to collect the com 
into masses sufficient to form each a sheaf. 

Bank, sb. i. The steep hill-side running up to the moor-edge. 
2. Any fcdll-side. 3. A road running up a hill-side. 

A. S. bane, and O. Sw. Ixtnh^ the idea implied in each word being, according to Ihre, of 
a thing which rises from or abore the ordinary level. Sw. D. hank^ meaning a cloud-bank 
or fog4>ank, must be collated with N. bakkje, O. N. bakki, with the same signification. 
And these forms are coincident with Sw. baeke, a hill, hill-side. The phrase m brant back*, 
a steep hill, is one of continual occurrence, and answers with the closest correspondence to 
our own a brant bank. We may observe that like as banc, b^nk, backe vary in form 
only by the presence or absence of it, so the Sw. adj. brant differs from O. N. brattr, but 
no fur^er. 

I. • '• Have you seen my brother, Joscy?" " Aye, Ah seed him gannan' alang t* bank- 
side an' oop til t' moor nae lang tahm syne." * 

a. * A brant bank;* a steep hill. 

Cf. * And up that bank that was so staire.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 244. 

3. * T' bank 's desput sleeap wiv ice, t' moom ;* the road is in a very slippery condition 
widi ice. 

Banky» adj. i. As applied to land; steep, lying on the hill-side. 
2. As applied to a road ; hilly, aboimding in steep places. 

I. * Aye, he's getten t' farm nane sae dear : but there's a vast o' banky land iv it.* 
3. • T' rooad to Whitby 's sair an' banky.* 

Bar, adj. Bare. 

* Primus Tortor. To bctt his body bar 

I haste, withoutten hoyne.' Townel. Myst, p. ao6. 

* Nobbut t' bar walls ; that 's a' he 's getten ;' of a man who had had a house left him, but 
everything else bequeathed some other way. 


Barfam, barfan, sb. A horse-collar. See Bnmble-barDui. 

The derivation of this must have seemed as uncertain as its orthography. It is written 
bar/am, barfbame, barribam, barson, barkbam, barkbaam, braffam, braugbam, haurgham, 
bavrgbwan, brecbam, brecbem. Jam. says * Gael. Ir. hraigh, the neck ; whence hraigb 


mdatHt a collar. The last syllable has more resemblance to Teut. bamnu, a collar.* The 
last sentence shews he is not satisfied with the suggested derivation : and no wonder. 
Brockett gives, *Bttrkbam, a horse's collar, formerly made of bark;' the derivation hinted at 
being, however, even less satisfactory than the Gaelic one. Under bamn or beams, Mr. 
Wedgwood gives what is, beyond doubt, the true origin of the word : * The staffing of hay 
or straw by which the hames were prevented from galling the shoulders of the horse was 
called hamberwe, or hanaborougb, a coarse horse-coUiu- made of reed or straw ; from herwe 
or borougbt shelter, protection against the hames. The same elements in the o{^x>site order 
may be recognised in Prov. £. baurgbwan, braucbin, a collar for a horse, nude of old stock- 
ings stuffed with straw (Grose) ; and in Sc. bncbame. '* The straw brecbame is now sup- 
planted by the leather collar." Jam.' Our Barfkn or Barfam» allowing for the g or gb 
concealed under /, presents the true word only slightly disguised : bargb-{b)am\ Ccmip. 
the Pr. Pm, forms ; berwbam, berubam ; and bargbearm in Catbol. AngL 

Barghy barugh, baurgh, sb. (pr. barf). A hill, usually one forming 
a low ridge by itself; as Lang-barugh in Cleveland. 

O. Sw. berg; O.N. berg, biarg; Dan. bjarg; O. H.G. berg; M. G. bcurg; A.S.beorg, 
beorb. The word barf {Lineolns. Gl.) is merely the phonetic way of spelling Bargh or 
Baurgh, and the closest analogy is found in the Clevel. Pr. of tbrougb, tbougb, plougb, 8cc, : 
namely, tbruff, ibof, pleeqf or pleuf. Comp. O. N. pldgr, plough ; pidgjam, coulter, with 
Dan. piov, piotyem, coulter ; Clevel. pUuf, pleu/in*-aim ; for a parallel softening of the gut- 
tural. Ijangbaurgh is written in Domesday and other andent documents Langdrng; 
and so of other places now known as Banigh or Baiirgh. 

Barguest, sb. An apparition in the form of some animal, most fre- 
quently a large shaggy dog, but always characterised by large saucer eyes 
and a terrible shriek or roar. 

Correctly, no doubt, this word should be bier-gbost; Germ, babr, geist; Dan. baare, 
geiu, Scott's I^nstrehy l, cix. note. Several other derivations have been proposed, all 
more or less absurd ; but Sir Walter's, besides falling in with the still commonly received 
notion — once, I believe, universal-:— that the Barguest is, in its proper office, a harbinger of 
death, at once suggests a comparison with the Sw. ktrke-grhn, Dan. kirke-vanei or kirke- 
vare. See Mtmibly Ptuket, xxix. 347. It was the custom, in the countries referred to, for 
the workmen engaged in building a church to take the first living creature which crossed 
their path on the day the work was to be completed, and build it in alive in the wall. It 
became afterwards the office of this animal to give warning of approaching death to the 
people of the township it belonged to. Thus, aninul forms of many kinds belonged to 
the several ktrke-grims of a district ; and similarly, in Yorkshire we hear of Barguests in 
the form of a masti£f, a pig, a large donkey, a calf, &c. Other names for the Barguest 
are padfoot (East Yorkshire and Leeds); gytrash (Leeds); skriker, trash (Lancashire; 
Cboice Notes, p. 23), shuck, &c. 

Barkened, adj. Coated or crusted over with dirt ; or with anything 
calculated to form a dry superficial coating. 

S. Jutl. borken, a scab, or crust forming over a sore. 

* T' puir bairn's heead an' feeace an' airms an a' wur fairly barkened ower wi' dry muck.* > 

Barley-bainiy sb. A child bom too soon after the wedding of the 

So called, it is said, because the barley-crop comes forward sooner than other com. 


Wk.GI. See SArlay-orop. But the explanation is unsatisfactory. There is a word 

coaaNCily i&sed in the North, quoted by Brock., Hall., and Jani., and current also iu 

Um^hae, 'vritki tlie sense, to bespeak, put in a claim. The word referred to is harlty ; 

vJi in ipecial wcwiwc would give a ngnificance to Barley-bairn not alien to the Northern 

|BBOi; th&t la to aa^jt a baim already hispok§ before the formal rites of marriage. 

», sb. Not quite synonymous with Barley-bairn, inas- 
miudb as It is applied rather to the fact of the too early birth than to the 
driXdbom. Thus:— 

*So and so *t getten a bariiy-erop, then;' in reference to the circumstance that his wife 
has fOfttfiOi liior "bed within too short a time after marriage. 

Barm, sb. Yeast. 

O.Sw. bnaii; Dan. btarmt; A.S. btorma; Dut. barm. 

Barren, sb. The external part of a cow's sexual organs ; the ' shape.' 
HaH extends the meaning further and makes it the ' vagina of an ani- 
mal :' but I think mistakenly. The cow seems to be the only animal to 
which the word is applicable. 

Sv. D. banme, a cow's sexual parts ; other forms being baramm, barm, bare, Dan. D. 
bmrmd, btaUd; Old D. b^ercenda, barctndt. Cf. Germ bdrmutter, Dut. baarmoeder. The 
word is dosely connected with O. N. bera, O. Sw. 6<era, &c, to give birth to. Comp. N. 
&ani, to calve ; bera being also specially applied to the parturition of a cow, and Sw. barn- 
mg meaning the act of calving. Ihre remarks that the modem use of bora is restricted to 
cows simjdy ; /oh being applied to mares, lamma to sheep, bwalpa to the dog tribe, kittla 
to cats, ahdyngla to other animals. The spirit of this restriction of course gives its peculiar 
scDte to the word Barren, as the part so much concerned in the act of calving. 

% sb. The flannel in which a newly-born infant is received 
from the hands of the accoucheur. 

* When Sir Ameloun was worn out with leprosy, and reduced to ** tvelf pans of catel" 
(lid. in money) the faithful Amoraunt expended that little sum in the purchase of a 
ftoTDiM, therein to carry the Knight about. A. S. berewe, vectula :* Note to Barowe, 
Pr. Pm. The barnwe in question was a vehicle of some sort, of course ; but the funda- 
mental idea is the same in its name and in our Barrow ; that in which one is borne. 

Base, adj. Of indifferent character or behaviour. See Mean. 

Bass, bast, sb. i. Matting; originally, no doubt, confined to that 
made of the inner bark of the linden-tree, but now inclusive of other 
materials, as straw, large rushes, &c. 2. A hassock or cushion to kneel 
upon; again from the common material employed in their structure. 
3. A limp or flexible basket, of like material, used by joiners &c. to carry 
their tools in. 

O. N. boMi; O. Sw. &«s/; Dan. bast; A. S. bait; N. S. and Germ. bait. 
a. * A knee-^5.' 
3. ' A tool-6a«.' 


Bat, sb. A blow, a stroke, stricken whether in labour, strife, or 

This word is at least related to O. Sw. badda, to strike, if not directly derived from it. 
It might be due to a disused pret. of a verb corresponding to, if not coincident with, A. S. 
beaian, like the old pret. 6e/, of £. beat, which is still in common prov. use. Comp. 
A. S. and Old E. bai, a club, which remains to us in the restricted sense of an instrument 
for striking a ball ; 6a//i5, <= staves. Matt. xxvi. 47, Wydif 's Version, 

* Drop it : or Ah '11 gie the' tha' bats;' leave of, or 1 11 give you a thrashing. 

* Ah hevn't strucken a bat sen Marti'mas ;' I have not done any work since Martinmas. 

* ** Puir tyke I 't gets mair bats an bites ;** more blows than victuals.' Wb. Gl, 

* Tak' heed I mebbe he 'U Uk' it a bat;* he will strike at it 

Batch, sb. A set, or association, of people, namely. 

Instead of being appropriated in Clevel. to peers and baronets, this word is used, some- 
what disparagingly, to group together any clique or set of associates, of not the best possible 
repute, perhaps. Comp. Sw. D. bakster, the entire quantity baked at once. 

Bate, pret of bite, vb. 

Comp. Chaucer's pret. bote, 

' God for his menace him so sore hath smote 
With wounds invisible, incurable. 
That in his guttis carfid so and bote. 

That his peynis werin importable.' Monke*s Tale, i. 624. 

Bath, V. a. (pr. as sb. bath), i. To apply hot water in the way of 
fomentation. 2. To wash children all over. 

Comp. Sw. badda, to foment ; Sw. D. bdda, to soften by means of heat ; Dan. bade, to 

I. * Ah batb*d him wi' yett watter, an' laid yett chissel tiv 'm, bud he niwer gat nae ease 
while moom.' 

* " How often 's your bairns batVdJ" " Three times i' t' week. How often 's youm ?" 
** Iwery neeght." * 

Battel-door, sb. (pr. battle-deear). One portion of the former substi- 
tute for the mangle, not yet fallen into entire disuse: called also the 
Bittle. The other portion is called the Fin, or the BoUing-pin, and 
in shape and dimensions very much resembles the roller of a small 

The Battel-door is a heavy piece of wood, with a handle, like that of a cricket-bat, at 
one end, flat on both sides and about four to five inches wide. The linen to be operated 
upon is wound round the pin and then rolled backwards and forwards on a linen-board 
under the Battel-door, subjected to whatever amoimt of pressure the laundress is able or 
disposed to put upon it. The process is not unaccompanied with noise from the clapping 
of the wood upon wood, or upon the linen rolled on the wooden pin, and it is this clapping 
noise that is, at least in part, implied in the various local legends touching Fairy linen-wash- 
ing. At least in part — for it must not be overlooked that beating formed an important 
portion of the lavatory proceedings in days gone by, at least in England. Note the descrip- 
tion in P. Ploughman, vol. ii. p. 306. 


* And whan he is wery of that werk 
Than wole he som tjrme 
Labouren in lavendrye, 

And pakken hem (the matters to be washed) togideres. 
And bouken hem at his brest, 

And hetm bem cl«n$ 

And leggen on long. 
And with warm water at hise eighen 
Wasshen hem after.* 

With this comp. Pr. Pm. * Batyl dourt, or wasshynge bctylle ;* the note to which is, 
' BatyUhrt, betyll to bete clothes with/ Palsgr. Feretorium is explained m the MedulU to 
be ** auirunuHium eum quo mulieres verhtrani vtsturas in lavando, a battyng staife, or a 

Batten, sb. A sheaf or bundle composed of the straw of two sheaves 
of com bound together in one. 

I connect this word immediately with 6a//, the pret. of O. N. fruufo, to bind. Comp. 
N. D. handt a bundle ; N. bmda^ forming its pret. in bant or hand. 

Batten, sb. A spar of wood, of indefinite length, five or six inches 
in breadth, and two or three in thickness. 

Gosely connected with haton^ baioon, and with 6a/, a club : * Lo, Judas, oon of the 
twdre, and with h3rm cam a grete cumpanye with swerdis and battit ;* A. S. 6a//. * From 
btttt in the sense of a rod : perhaps first used adjectivally, bai-en, made of bait ; as waad-fHt 
made of wood.' Wedgw. 

Batter, v. a. i. To beat. 2. To pelt with stones. 

These are merely modifications of the meaning of E. baiter, 

I. * T' aud chap 's getten hissen sair battered aboot t' feeace.' 

a. * T* bairns wer battering t* aud deeam's deear wi* cobble-stanes.' 

Batter, v. n. i. To grow thinner from the base upwards as a wall 
does, or a railway embankment, the sides of which slope more away 
from the perpendicular as they rise in height. 2. To slope inwards or 
recede from the perpendicular. 

This word might seem to admit of comparison with O. N. beittr, having a sharp edge, 
like a knife, the sides of which are oblique or slope inwards or towards the edge ; especially 
as the word is a participial from the vb. beita, and employed to designate the oblique or 
sloping course, relatively to the wind, which a vessel has to make in working up against 
the wind on the bow. There is, however, no countenance in the general application of the 
word for such a notion, and it is scarcely open to doubt that our batter depends rather on 
bait or abate, to diminish, to lessen. Comp. Sp. batir, to beat, beat down, lessen, remit, 

I. * The wan baiters one foot in six ;' it is a foot thinner at six feet high than at the 

a. ' It baiters o' baith sides ;' it slopes inwards on both sides. 

Batter, sb. A sloping backwards or inwards ; a recession from the 



perpendicular ; applied in case of a stone or brick wall, the sloping side 
of a railway embankment, &c. 

* T' wall has a vast o' batter;* is much thinner at top than at bottom. 

Batterfanged, adj. Beaten and scratched, as one may at least 
expect to be in a battle in which a woman is engaged. 

Batterfanging, sb. The consequences, in the shape of combined 
blows and scratches, which await the champion who engages a female 
combatant in battle. 

Bauch, adj. (pr. bauf or bofe). Lively, saucy ; of a little boy, and 
not in an offensive sense ; lusty. 

This is a perplexing word. All txulogy leads to identifying it with Sc. batieb or baugb, 
but the sense is diametrically o]^>osite. Comp. Wb. Gl. instance — 

* ** A brave, bauf lad ;" a fine, stout boy/ with 

* Without estate 
A youth though sprung from King's looks htiugb and blate ;* 

or ^Beauty but bounty's but baucb,* both quoted by Mr.Wedgw., under Bqffltf and the 
contrast appears forcibly enough. Probably bo/f nequam, quoted by Ihre, as well as IceL 
bSfi, is the same word, and if his supposition that the word originally meant a small boy, 
and then a servant, and lastly a scamp, be correct, it may give lome clue to the connection 
of the CI sense. Or it may be an instance of application analogous to that of rogue, and 
even tcamp, rascal^ &c. to a lively pet child ; as in * you little rogtie,' 8cc. 

Beacon, sb. A name applied to the highest hill on the Danby North 
Moors, and of remote imposition. 

A. S. beaeefif beacn^ becen, a sign, token. ' Cruorisse yflo and org to§cas beccn : and bin 
ne 6f^ nan becon gtsald^ buta Jones beeon i^at witgo ;* literally, a generation evil and arf 
seeks a sign, and to it there be no sign given be-out Jonah's sign the pro^et. The beacon- 
fire was lighted as a token or sign, of an attack or invasion, suppose ; and thence the word 
became applied to the fire itself, or that which contained or supported the fire. Cf. Pr, Pm, 
• Beekne, or fyrebome. Far, Pbarus* * Danby Beacon' — ^in Danby itself, • T Beacon*— a 
Celtic tumulus of large dimensions originally : and it is quite possible that it may have been 
the site of sacrificial Ires (see Bally-bleese) long ages before it received the Saxon epithet 

Bead-houjBe, bede-house, sb. (pr. bead-'us). An almshouse. See 

Beadsman, bedeman, bedesman, sb. ' A man whose business it is 
to pray for another.' Johnson. The inmate of a bead-house. 

Pr. Pm. * Bedman. Orator, supplicator, exorator.' A. S. biddan (pret. bad, to pray) ; 
O. N. beidi ; O. Sw. bedja. * The designation,' says Jam., * has originated from some religious 
foundation, in times of popery, according to which a certain number of individuals received 
a stated donation, on condition of offering up prayers for the living.' It may be observed 
that A. S. bead is a prayer. Hence the common meaning of the word bead; * because one 
was dropped down the string every time a prayer was prayed, and by this means was marked 
the number of times it had been prayed.' Tooke. 


* This carpenter leide his devotion 
And still he sett, and bidiib his prayere. 
Awaiting on the raine/ MiUtr's TaU, p. a 8. 

In the foHowing passage the mention is of six thanes * reduced in their circumstances* bj 
the Saxon conquests : — 

* No raocheo'S heo to horde : Nor reach they to table 

bnten brsed ane. But bread alone ; 

no to heore drencches : Nor to their drink, 

but water scenches. But water draughts. 

)>us heo leodcfS heore lif : Thus they lead their life 

inne Jnne leode. Among thy people 

dc heore beodm bidtU^.* And their beads hid. 
Lay, II. 404. 

' To ihesu M beds a hede* Atsumpeh B, Man, E, E, T, S, p. 99. 

' Scheome ich telle uorte beon euer her itold unwurf^ and beggen ase on harlot, |if hit 
neod is, his liueneO, and beon otfres btodtnum, ase je beo8, leoue sustren ;' Aner. RiwU, 
p. 356 : shame I redcon (it) for to be ever here reckoned unworth, and (to) beg as a hariot, 
if it need be, one's living, and (to) be others' headman, as ye be, dear sisters. 

Beadswoman, bedeswoman, bead-'us-wife. The same as Beads- 
man, sex being altered: or, more strictly, the female imnate of a 
Bead-'us, or alms-house. 

Pr. Pm, * Bedewoman. OratrtM, w^teatrix* 

*, sb. A large glass or tumbler standing on a stem and foot 
like those of a wine-gls^ ; an old-fashioned tumbler or beer-glass. 

Pr.Pm. *Byker, cuppe. Cimbium,* O.N. hiiar; Sw. bdgare; Sw. D. hekare; Dan. 
h^er^ a cup, goblet, chalice ; Germ, heeher ; Dut. heker, 

Beal, V. n. i. To bellow, to low as a cow. 2. To raise the voice 
above its usual pitch, as in singing, &c. 

Pr. Ptn, ' Bdlyn, or low3m as nette. Mugio* O. N. belia, haula ; O. Sw. h^dia, hSla ; 
Sw. bola : N. haula, bdja ; Germ. heUen ; A. S. bellan ; Dan. D. holla, Sw. D. has belja^ 
halja, holja, haula, to cry at the foil pitch of the voice as a child does ; as well as to 

I. * What gars yon coo heeal sikan a gait ?' 

a. * She wares maist ov her tahm i' heealm* an' singin' ;' she spends most of her time in 
squalling and singing. 

Bear, bere, sb. A variety of barley, otherwise called 

A. S. here, barley ; N. Fris. herre, bar, bar ; M. G. barit; O, N. barr, com ; Sw. D. bar, 
com, com intended to be ground. Of E. barley Mr. Wedgw, says, it * seems derived from 
W. harUyt, which might be explained, bread-plant, from bora, bread, and llyt, a plant.' 

Beared, pret. of Bear. 

Beast, sb. An individual animal of the ox kind. The plural of this 
word is Beeas or Beas ; applied to cows or fatting stock collectively. 

F 2 


BeastUngB, beealings, sb. (pr. bizlin's). The first milk drawn from 
a cow afler calving. 

A. S. beosi, hytting, Englished in Bosw. by * biei tings.' Pr. Pm. * BuUmyngt, Ooffiff- 
tntm,' In Leeds Ql. the word heest appears, as well as beesUags. Hall, also gives beest as 
in prov. use, and Brock, quotes Dut. biest. Possibly bee&t and beestings are due to an A.S. 
origin, and bislings, beeslings to a Scand. form. And it is observable that a word biding is 
given by Ihre, and is conjecturally referred by him to the word b^a^ pascere. 

Beastling-, beesling-pudding, sb. The pudding to the composition 
of which the Bisalings are applied, and for which concoction, regarded 
as a great delicacy, the milk in question is much prized. 

The usual custom is to portion the Beastlings out among such of his neighbours as the 
owner of the cow wishes to shew a little kindly attention to. But, in the great majority 
of cases, the jug or other vessd containing the present is scrupulously returned unwashed. 
Not a few persons in this district, and in S. Lincolnshire also, send with the present a 
special direction that the containing vessel be not washed out, as otherwise, besides the 
general reason, * it is unlucky,' the particular unluck of the newly-born calf's death would be 
sure to befal 

Bob, V. n. To drink, in small quantities, but for a lengthened time ; 
to soak. 

Comp. E. 6f&, bibber, and A. S. bebr, a cup. 

* He wad sit bebbing an' soaking fra moom an' while neeght.' Wb, Gl, 

Beok, sb. The general name for a stream of running water. 

O. N. beekr; O. Sw. back; Dan bak; N. bekk; A. S. beee; Germ, bach; Dut. M^, Sec. 

* Fryup Bedc,' * Goathland Beck,' Sec. The Esk, after it has received Commondale 
Beck, Danby Beck, and two or three other and smaller streams, is called * T Gret Beck.' 

Beok-stanes, sb. Stepping-stones, by means of which the foot pas- 
senger may, in Uie absence of a bridge, cross the beck dryshod. 

Beclamed, adj. Smeared over with dirt or mud or any equivalent of 
* dirt ;' dirtied, bemired. 

Comp. A. S. beclamed, ghied to or together, plastered over. Cf. O. N. Ueimi, See 

Beclarted, adj. Bemired, smeared over with dirt, smirched. See 
Clarty, Clart. 

BedflEUSt, adj. i. Confined to one's bed by chronic ailment or in- 
firmity ; bedridden. 2. Confined to one's bed by sickness, or for a time 

We have also the word hoiise-faBt, sometimes, though rarely, varied by home-fatt. 
I do not think these compounds are analogous to the A. S. compounds with fast, * denoting 
fast, very, perfectly, effectually ; as <ew-/ast, fast in the law, firm, religious ; sofS-fasi, fast 
in truth, true, just; stdfSpl'/ast, of a firm foundation, stable, firm.' Bosw. The idea is 
rather of beine fixed or fastened in or to a place, as in the Sw. Dial, word fast and our own 
fasi (see Fast), both of which signify not only incapable of further action {bindrad att gora 


iMi mam, or amaodad cm : prercDted from doing tluit which one hat a mind to do) ; hot 
ito uable to leave one's place of stay or residence (bindrad ait Umna utt bem; torn » 
hm homma bemi/rSn). Comp. our weatherfast, and with it Sw. D. horfasi, detained by 
wut of a fikTOorable wind; and Sw. and Dan.Jord'/(ui, fast or fixed in the earth, of large 
Sloaet : afanoft equivalent to our Moor-«tone. The A. S. equivalent to our word is btd-rida^ 
hM^itdda^ biddrtda, whence £. bedriddm : in Pr. Pm, bidtrtdman, bedlawtr, 

Bed-happings, sb. Bed-clothes; sheets, blankets, and coverlet See 
Hap, Happinga 

Bed-stooks, sb. The bedstead proper, exclusive of the accompani- 
ment of sacking, &c., by aid of which it becomes capable of supporting 
the bed. 

O. N. f/bdr, O. Sw. Uoek^ both signify bedstead, or rather, bed-frame. Whether bed is 
a quite modem prefix, or merely presents an analogy to such compounds as O. Sw. lmgg» 
Hock, a chopping-block, is not perfectly apparent, although Sw. sdng'ttoek, O. Sw. tanga- 
tlMr present the strictest analogy to Bedatook : on the other hand, Sc. stock coincides 
widi Samd. sibelr. The original meanmg of stokigr or Uukkir was a beam pointed at the 

* He 'ad getten his legs ower t* bidttoekt. But he con'd nowther gan ner stand ; an* afore 
Ab could win tiv 'tm he 'ad tummled his lang-length o' t' fleear.' 

In one of the Witdicraft cases in Fork Casdt DeposUkns, p. 65, the word MsAw/t 
occurs : and in the Glossary, the btdMtoope is defined as * one of the principal timbers in a 
bed that runs into the posts or Mtoeks. The thin laths or spars that run across the bed from 
one stoop to another were called btdstavts.* I think this is written mistakenly : the slbo^ 
are the posts, the stocks the timbers running into the stoops. What the inference may be 
which arises from the original difference in meaning between E. bsdsttad and CleveL Bed^ 
•toeks, Scand. stock, I must here leave undiscussed. 

Beeagle, sb. An oddly or grotesquely dressed figure;. ' a fright,' as 
used of a person ill-dressed and in bad taste : also ' a guy,' * a scare- 

I think this word, which occurs in the Lads GL, written beagle, and in Wb. OL, written 
as above, is merely bogle or bogUl, with the Clevel. pm. of long o— as in steean for stone, 
beeam for borne, &c, ; and that the sense is merely an accommodation from that of Tlaj- 
boggle See Bogi^, Boggart. 

* A bonny beeagle;' equivalent to * What a guy 1 ' Wb, Ql, 

BeeaB, beas, sb. The collective plural of Beast. 

Bee-bee. A word in continual use among such as have charge of 
very young children, and applied when the latter are apparently sleepy, 
or when it is time for them to be put to sleep. * Baby go bee-bee now ;' 
or, * Poor baby wants to go bee-bee.' 

Hald. gives bt-^n, the soothing voice of nurses when lulling their little charges. 

Bee-bike, sb. See Bike. 

Beeld, sb. i. A shelter; or, rather, anything which affords a shelter 
from the wind, or from inclement weather. 2. Hence a shed, a hovel, 


or a mere stone wall, or walls, though without roof. Also spelt Bield, 

The derivation of this word is, like its orthography, uncertain. O. N. halt and Ml 
both signify the den of, or cave inhabited by, wild beasts ; and the former means also the 
haunt or abode of lawless men. O. Sw. bdU has a very similar application, besides the 
word 60/, which, in either tongue, signifies a dwelling, a homestead. 

I. * Ay, it 's a gay good bitld when t' wind bbws fell ;* said of a very large and bushy 
holly growing in the fence of a field. 

3. * ** A bit of a bidd in a field neuk;'* a hovel or cattle-shed, in a field comer.' Wb. Ql. 

Bee-flkep, sb. A bee-hive. See Skep. 

Bee-sooken, adj. Quoted in Wh, GL from Marshall's Farkshire^ 
where it is defined as ' cancerous, black and turgid ;' applied to the bark 
of the ash. 

A curious word and worthy of preservation. Possibly the derivation may be obvious. 
* Natural history teaches,' sajrs Grimm, * that swarms of bees settle on the sweet sap of 
the ash, and the Edda declares that a dew drips from the holy ash Yggdrasil, whidi is 
caUed honeydew, and supplies nutriment to the bees.' D. M, p. 659. But, recollecting the 
familiar fiict that the woodpecker specially afifects such trees as would be termed bee-suoken, 
and that a name for the woodpecker is hunMnwolf^ contracted into the A. S. forms beoim{f^ 
htovt beav; Scand. biar, hiaf (See Grimm, D. M, p. 34a) ; and the meaning which O. N. 
sticJki, and nuktn in hamt-vuchen^ eventually take — namdy one involving more or less of the 
idea of wasting, injuring, ruining, or destoying — it appears at least possible that the deri- 
vation of bae-sooken may not be the apparently obvious one. The remark that if a 
woodpecker be seen busy about an ash-tree, sjrmptoms of disease will alwajrs be found 
at the spot or spots visited — a remark I have heard made once and again — is, in this con- 
nection, noteworthy. 

Befonded. Probably the true form of Baffounded in the Wh, GL 
See Bafifotmded. 

r, sb. Used to imply the state or condition of beggary, 
or impoverishment ; a long staff being one of the insignia of the beggar 
when beggars were ' an institution.' 

• " They brought him to beggar-staff;** to beggary or ruin.' Wb. GL Compare the 
phrase, * we are brought to begger-ttafi,* which occurs in the Plympton Correspondenee, 
p. 199. Hall. Frequent reference is made in the Old English ballad poetry, and else- 
where, to this customary part of the equipment of the professional beggar. Thus in * Robin 
Hood, a Beggar, and the Three Squires,' Bp. Percjr's Folio MS, i. pp. 16, 17, we find 
Robin Hood exchanging clothes with a b^;gar, and then, — 

' Now Robin he is to Nottingham bound. 
With his bags hanging down to his Imee, 
His siaf and his coat, scarce worth a groat. 
Yet merrilie passed he.' 

And again : — 

* But Robin cast down his baggs of bread, 
Soe did he hb stqfi with a face.' 

Begging-poke, sb. The beggar's bag, or scrip, in which to put the 


tfcnpe of foody Ac, given him on his rounds. Another of the equip- 
ments of the genus Beggar. See Poke. 

* ** He Goomed t' tak' oop wi' t' htgging'pooak ;" was reduced to the condition of begging 
\aibRad from house to house.' Wb. G/. 
Beadn the extracts given under Beggar-stAff, compare these from p. 14 of the same 

* An old patcht coat the beggar had one, 
Whidi he daily did use for to wear. 
And many a hag about him did wag 
Which made Robin Hood to him repair. 
• • . * . . 

Now a change, a chan^, cri'd Robin Hood, 

Thy hags and coat give me. 
And this mantle of mine, ile to thee resign, 

My horse and my braverie.' 

Beba1den,beha*den, pcpL (pr. behodden). Under obligation, indebted. 

A. S. htb ta l dt m^ p. p. b^ealdin, to hold to, to incline ; the prefix bi rather intensifying 
die actioo. Thus ' biboidtn is holden, bound, obliged.' Rich. The old word boldi is used 
m the ame sense. Thus^ 

* ... To h3rm in speciall, 
Aboue an other, I am most boidt,' 

Ffior ^ fyrtte (that God nude us) es man haldene till hjrm for to lufe hjrm with all his 
herte.' Ril Puou, p. 3a. 

' Ttnim MagitUr, Mekylle I thynk that thise prophetys 

Are boidm to God.' Towrui. Mytt, p. 159. 

ShakqKre, Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4, uses the word in an active form :— 

* She is btbolding to thee, gentle youth.' 

' Ah 's mickle htbodden t' yt. Ah 's seear.' 

CC Lonsd. mubtboddtn, unsuitable : of words ; cross, angry. 

BehXnt, adv. Behind. See Ahint. 

Belantered, adj. Belated, benighted. See Lantered. 

Belder, v.n. i. To bellow, as a bull or cow. 2. To cry or shout 
vociferously and continuously. 3. To cry loudly or roar, as a hurt or 
cross-tempered child. 

Comp. O. N. tmldrOt to be noisy, to bellow ; Sw. bitUra ; Dan. btddrt, to roar, bluster, 
storm, knock thunderingly ; Sw. bidUr hat ; Sw. D. hulUr bokk, huUer bah, a noisy bois- 
terous feOow. See also Bolder. Although I quote these words as possibly closely con- 
nected with our word, yet with the parallel forms, E. winnow, CI. windtr; Sw. bullra, 
O. N. huUra; O. N. spinna, Dan. spiniU; and the many similar instances in which d takes 
the place of the second of two n*8 or two Vs; it is at least equally probable that belder 
is simjdy another form of £. hdlow, A. S. hillan. Germ. hMsn, O. N. hyiia (pret. huldi), 
Sw. hila, 8cc, 

I. * What 's thae kye heldering that gate for ?' 

a. • ** What 's yon bd bttdering sae tor ? " ** Wheea, he 's laitin' his broother I' 

3. * Whisht ! bairn, whisht 1 tboo 's htldering like 's thah leg wur brussen.' 

I** > 


Belderme&t, sb. A loud continuous crying or shouting, such as 
may be made by one child crying loudly and purposely, or by a party of 
children at their play, and raising their voices altogether, especially in 
make-believe crying or singing. 

Belike, adv. Possibly, likely, very likely. See Like. 

Belk, V. n. To belch ; to vent wind from the stomach. 

Mr. Wedgwood looks upon btleb, beU, bolk, or boke as * doubtless an imitation of the 
sound.' See Bolk or Bouk. 

* In slewthe then thai sjm, Goddes warkes thai not wjrke. 
To beli thai begyn and spew that is irke.' Tounul, Myst, p. 314. 

' I shall opyn my mouth in parables ; I shal holh^ out hid thingus fro makyng of the 
world.* Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wyd. Vertion. 

Belk, sb. A belch; a single act of belching 

* He bigan Benedicite with a bolk. 
And his brest knokked 
And raxed and rored 
And rutte at the laste.' P. Phugbm, p. lOo. 

Bell-houj9e. The name of a lonely house in the parish of Danby, 
close to the line of the former Causey, which ran across the moors from 
below Castleton to Staithes, and which is said to derive its name from 
the circumstance that the bells worn by the leading horses in the train 
were customarily suspended here during the night halts. 

Bell-house, sb. The bell-tower, church-tower, belfiy. 

The A. S. word bdMnu occurs, but it does not seem to have been applied exclusively, 
as our present word is ; one meaning given by Bosw. being tnofuUm, 

Belly-timber, sb. Food; a supply of material for the belly or 

A. S. timbrian is employed in a metaphorical way which is worthy of notice, and gives 
point to the accommodation existing in our word — * to prepare wood for building ; to 
build with timber or wood ; the first building being probably of wood : hence, generally, 
to build, to erect. From this the sense passes to that of building up tbe mind; to instruct 
to edify.' The transition of idea in BeUy-tixnber is not nearly so startling as in the notion 
of nund-timbering, Comp. also the following. Flat, ii. 1 1 : — * OerdixMt oi suo atJuUhmUga 
Jramhutmduzst ord ok alqu€ed€ j^essa gxida guds asiuinar Olq/s kommgt Trygguatomar 
at bans samnafiu Olqfr HaraUdzson upp tdibrade ^ soma smide bmlagrar truar tern adr 
var gifhdiga grunduallat :* and so it came to pass that fully accompluhed was the word 
and saying of the good Ood's fast fnend King Olaf Tryggvason, that his namenke Olaf 
Haraldsson built up the same hhxic (literally, timbtred up the same smith-work) of Holy 
Faith, of which had the foundation before been happily laid. Comp. also *timbrungt 
touward blisse.' Aner, RiwU, p. 124. 

Belly-wark, sb. (the a in wark sounded as in lark). The stomach- 
ache, colic, gripes. See Wark. 


Belong; V. a. To be the property of, or most closely connected with. 
See example, and comp. use of Speak. 

* A coat hUomgmg Thomai.' 

' Wheea 's thae tweea ladies, sa' thee ? Whah I they Mongt me — they 's our Janey 

Ben% baint^ (pr. beeant). Be not. 

* «• T (Mas'/ icea ;" it is not so.' Wh, Ol, 

' Him an' me btion'i no ways kin ;' we are not any relations. 

Bent, sb. A kmd of short, wiry, dark-coloured grass, which forms the 
duef herbage (of the grass kind) of the moors and moor-banks. Cr. Gl. 
mistakenly makes it Triticum junceum. The word is loosely applied to 
any short, harsh, blue-looking grass growing in such places. 

* TVrcncs PoMior, Bot fulle ylle have I ment. 

As I walk on this bmu 
I may lyghtly repent.' Toumii, Myst, p. 10 x. 

' Maria, And alle my brethere dere, that ar on this berti. 
Take tent to my taylle title that I have told 
Of my dere son/ 8cc. lb. 303. 

Benty, adj. Short, wiry, blue-looking; applied to pasture herbage. 

' Nobbnt pair bnuy mess wiv nae natnr in it.' 

Be-out, prep. Without. 

A. 8. h0-4tan. Sc. but, is simply the contr. form of our be-out. Hall, gives bawi ^without, 
which would seem to be merely a corruption of bt-out. 
The * Doctor/ in the CUvd, Sword Dance Recitation, says of his * gret gran'mother/— 

* Her said ef her lived t* have nahnty nahn tahms 
As mony long years as Methusalabim's, 
Her'd niwer be be-<mt a box o' mah pills.' 

' And ^eoone ^ouht ich gon awd, nor me luste slepen : and nolde buten leaue :' and 
dm thought I I would go away, for I longed to sleep; and I would not be^ut leave. 
Amer. Rnde, p. 238. 

* Nezst flesche ne schal mon werien no linene do's, bute )if hit beo of herde (See 
Hards), and of greate heorden (See Harding). Stamin habbe hwose wule : and hwose 
wdI md beon buten* lb, 418. 

BenriOB, sb. Gooseberries, par excellence, 

' Gan an' pick berriet, honey ;' go and pick gooseberries, dear. See Blaokberriet 
and Oorran'-berriea. 

Berry, v. a. To thrash. 

O.N. beria, to strike, to thrash; O. Sw. bma,' id.; N. berja, to thrash; O. Dan. 
heerrha; Sw. D. bargd, to thrash newly-harvested com hastily or carelessly. Rietz collates 
A. S. beriant to strike ; O. H. G. perian ; Germ, beren, beeren ; but I do not find the first 



in Bosw., nor the last-named in Hilpert. Comp. Sc. btrry, to thrash. The word is 
extinct here as to daily use, and only preserved in a couplet connected with the * Hob' 
traditions. See Hamp. 

Berth, sb. An abode, fixed residence. 

The usage in the following example from Wh, Gl. is peculiar, and justifies the insertion 
of this word :-^ 

* He has nowther bairn nor btrtb ;' he has neithtt family nor home ; b a roving bachelor, 
with no domestic ties of any kind, even such as are implied in the possession of * rooms,* or 
lodgings. It may also imply friendless and homeless, in a sadder sense. 

Besom, sb. (pr. bezum). A broom, whether made of Birk or Ling. 
See Wire-ling. 

A. S. bisitn^ hnm, bitm; Germ., Dut. bnem; N. S. bestm, 

Pr. Pm. * Besme or besowme, besym. Seopa* 

* As fond as a besom ;* absurdly foolish ; apt to commit frequent and absurd mistakes. 

Besom-head, sb. One who, besides Fondness, or ordinary folly, has 
stupidity in his composition. 

Besom-headed, adj. Stupidly foolish. 

'^-bab, sb. One fond of childish amusements. 

Hall, gives this word in the form of Bessy-bad, which is probably an error. 

Comp. Southern Molly-coddle; and 'don't be a Bessy,* as said to a person who inter- 
meddles with feminine matters or businesses. The final syllable bob is simply babe or b4»by : 
hence the slightly contemptuous meaning of the word in its ordinary usage. 

* Deean't be sikan a great bessy-bab;* to a big boy playing with a little girl's doll. The 
Leeds Gl. gives a further instance of the meaning of the word. The whimperings of a spoilt 
child are of the * bessy-bab' order; — * Coom te thee mammy, then, thou little bessy-hab. 
She does nowt bud spoil thuh 1* 

Better, adj. The right; as applied in connection with the words 
hand, foot. 

An exceedingly interesting instance of usage. Comp. A. S. swifi band, strong hand, the 
right hand, or suniSre band, the stronger hand ; the word swiiSre alone sometimes signifying 
the right hand. Bosw. Comp. also Dan. beire, Dan. D. boger, O. N. bagre, from bagr or 
b<Bgr, habilis, easy to use, or handy; Sw. boger; and not less E. rigbt, straight, direct—- 
whence the application to the hand which is most directly made use of ;— Mr. Wedgw. says, 
* which it is right to make use of.' Oamett remarks, * that the phrase rigbt bandwzs intro- 
duced into the Teutonic tongues at a comparatively recent period ; and that there is an 
older form than even swi^re in Caedmon, viz. ieso, which he connects with Sanscr. daksbina ; 
Or. 9€(i6s, 9€^iT€p6»; Lat. dexter; Lith. deszine; Ooth. taibswo; O. G. zeso, zeswo; 
Ir. and Gael, deas, whence deasU; Welsh debeu :' in all of which words, probably, the idea of 
dexterous, handy originally took precedence of that of right, as applied to hand, foot, &c. 

Bettermy, bettermer, adj. Superior, belonging to a better class. 

Bettermy, which is the form in current use, is no doubt a vocal corruption of bettermore, 
which, with its similar superlative bettermost, finds an exact parallel in furthermore, furtber- 
most; further being the regular comparative of forth, as better is oi good, 

*■ She was nane o' your commonality, but quite a bettermy soort o body.' 


Bettenne8t» adj. Best of two or more ; the best. See Bettermer. 
BettemeflB, sb. Amendment or improvement in respect of health. 

* As for ma ailment. Ah finds oae htUtrmtt in it.' Wb, 01. 

BetottlBd, betwatUed, adj. Bewildered, confused or confounded, 

Coaq>. Sw.D. beUuiiad, bewildered, confused; S. Jutl. httutut: ' Mtn <b kvin How dttt 
betuOtt law ban bom :* tmt she was sadly astonied when he came. Gam. Daruk§ Minder, 
1st Ser. p. 204. Cf. O. Sw. iwJUta, O.N. )fUHBtta, to talk nonsense, play the fool in 
speech : coDate also Sw. D. bitusttn, hetytia. The word obtains in Cornwall as well as in 
the North ; thns, « bttwattUd, turned fool ; twatdt, to chatter childishly.* Sptcimmu Corn, 
Protf. DiaL p. 90. I am more inclined to suppose a Celtic than a Teutonic origin of the 

* ** Ah 's fiurly bttwatOed and baffounded ;' thoroughly bewildered and confused.' Wb. OL 

Beyont, prep. Beyond. 

Comp. Ayont ; as also Ahint, parallel with btbind. 

* They gat £iirly btyoni him in that matter.' Wb, Oi. 

Bessie, v. n. To drink immoderately ; to guzzle. 

Of micertain deriyation. Mr. Wedgwood thinks that it is * formed from an imitation of 
the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Bizzli was then applied to wasting in 

Bid, v.a. I. To bespeak attendance; to invite, a. To oflfer money* 
as a price. 

O. N. bi6da (pres. byd) ; Sw. bjttda ; O. S. biaui^a ; Sw. D. hjauda ; N. hjoda (pres. byd) ; 
Dan. byde; M. G. biudan; A. S. biddan ; all to invite, to bid, to offer. O. buten, to bid, 
offer, tender. O. N. biotla til brvUupi, to bid to a wedding (comp. * Bid to the marriage,* 
Matt. zzii. 9 ; the A. S. text haying elypialf, and Wycl. elepe, in the place), is strictly 
parallel to our bid to a btLryinc. Comp. S. Jutl. ' e btle By er bikUn til JErvol :' the 
whole town is bidden to the Arral. It may be noted that there is a good deal of the 
imperatiye in the bidding phrase or formula, * You are expected,' or ' You are desired to 
attend the bur3ruig' of so and so. Still, the term is used in the simple sense of inviting; as 
• Ah bad him t* tea ;* • Maist pairt o' t* parish wur bidden te f tea-feast/ Note, besides the 
pret. bad or bod, the pcpl. bidden, boden, or bodden; and, with the example, *Ah'd ten 
pond an' a crown bodden me tweea tahms i' t' oppen mark't ,' comp. the S. Jutl. * Eg er 
bdden fern (five) d^ler ;* and also the usage in the following passage from Townel. Myst, 
p. 177:— 

' Judeu. Sir, a bargain bede I you ; 
By it if ye wille.* 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on Bid is : — * Two words are here confounded of distinct form 
in the other Teutonic languages : 1. To bid m the obsolete sense of to pray ; in this sense 
the word is the correlative of Goth, bidjan; A. S. biddan; Germ, bitten; Icel. bidbja, 
1. To bid, in the sense of offering, bringing forwards, pressing on one's notice, and conse- 
quently ordering or requiring something to be done : Goth, bjttdan, in anabjttdan, fauT' 
bftutoH, to command, forbid ; A. S. beodan ; Germ, bieten, to offer ; Dut. bieden* The two 
senses of our vb. both belong, of course, to the verbs of the second class defined in the extract. 
For an analogue to those of the other class see Beadnum. ^ 



Bidden, bodden, boden, pp. of to Bid. 

Bidder, sb. The person deputed to ' bid to a bmying.' 

Comp, S. Jutl. bydsvin, Funen hydsier^ of exactly equiyalent meaning. In many or most 
cases, in days hardly quite past yet, the parish clerk was the person customarily engaged for 
this service : sometimes the sexton, or rather, Dog-wliix»x>er. His business was to visit the 
neighbours' houses, with scarcely an exception in some instances, and formally bespeak their 
attendance at the funeral. 

Bide, V. a. and n. i. To wait, stay, or tarry. 2. To dwell, have one's 
habitation. 3. To bear, endure, put up with. 

0. N. hida (pr. M(f), to await, to stay, to be affected with sorrow, to endure ; O. Sw. 
hida ; O. Dan. Mlf, Dan. &i#, to tarry, to await ; M. O. btidan, to look for ; A. S. bidan, 
ahidan, gthidan; to abide, tany, wait. 

1. * Sit ye doon, an* hide a piece, while Ah gets it.' 
' Bidi a wee I Ye're gannan ower fiut by owght.' 

a. * Where does thee htde, noo?' where do you live? 

3 * It 's bad to bidt;* said of anything very painful or trying to one's fortitude ; ' a thorn 
in the flesh,' or bereavement, or thdngs capable of irritating sorely. 

* *' He wean't bid» crossing ;" won't bear, or put up with, contradiction.' Wh, 01. 

* ** He can still bide a vast, thof he 's boddm a deal in his day;" he is still strong, though 
he has undergone many hardships in his past life.' lb, 

Comp. ' Arts Ou setfe tocymende was, oHISm we o'Seres bidat' NorUmmb, Gotp, Matt, 
xi. 3. 

' Thou shuld have bide til thou were cald ; 
Com nar, and other drife or hald.' Toumel. Mysi, p. 9. 

* Tercius MagitUr. The Holy Oost shaUe in hyr lyght. 

And kepe hir nudyn hede fiiUe deene. 

Whoso may byde to se that sight 

Thay ther not drede I wene.' lb, p. 159. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that * in O. E. the active sense of looking out for a thing was 
much more strongly felt in the word abide than it is now, when the signification is nearly 
confined to the sense of continuance, endurance,' may, as the first extract of those just given 
shews, be extended to the language of the Northumbrian Version. This is even more 
apparent in Mark xv. 43, where the Engl. Version description of Joseph of Arimathsea, — 
* which also waited for the kingdom of God,' — stands thus : * setSe sec he Godes ric hidmd 


Big, adj. Strong, violent ; of the wind. 

* Aye, it 's a varry big wind.' 

Big, V. a. To build. 

O. N. byggia, Sw. bygga, Dan. hygg** A. S. hyggo^- 

* He says oure temple he shalle downe bring, and in three dayes big it on hy.' 

Toumel. Myst, p. ao8. 

* Seeundm Iktnwn, Bot, Sir, I telle you before had domysday oght tarid, 

We must have figged hdle more, the warld is so wand.' lb, p. 309. 


' When crtbe appone erthe hat ^g^ ▼? U< bourrit, 
Than fchaHe erthe for erthe fuffire icharpe ftoorrjrs.' Rd, Piius, p. 95. 

' To higgg hem castles, h^;g$ hem holde.' Cbtmctr. 

* He 's higptC his-sd' a gran* new hoos'.' 

Sw. D. ^Sgga is simplj to repair, mend, make good. 

^ sb. A variety of barley, known as ' four-rowed/ and in use in 
Clevdand as being somewhat earlier in ripening than the six-rowed 
varieties. Also called Bore or Bear. 

O.N. hygg; O.Sw. tijug; Sw. tijugg; Sw.D. kygg<, hdgg; Dan. byr. A word of 
pnelj Scand. origin, and supposed by Rietz to be possibly connected wim O. N. 611a, to 
take np a fixed residence ; as an agricultnrist must. 

% V. n. To grow bigger, or increase in size, as a house under 
the masons' hands. 

* - It h^X"^ ^ '^'^ ^ building, that is, which is in process of construction.' Wb. GV. 

Biggin', sb. A building. 'Properly a house larger than a cottage, 
but now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf.' Brock. 

Bike. sb. A wild bee's nest Often Bee-bike. 

Jam. quotes led. ftni^ar, a hive, alvear ; and Teut. hU-bock^ bie-buyck, apiarium, alvearium, 
Dian. ; and supposes the word connected with A. S. byegan, O. Sw. bygga, &c. to build. 
Rietz gives the word byh, a pack of good-for-nothings, a lot or host, which is evidently 
coincident with Jamieson's word in one or more of its senses ; e. g. ' to skale the byke,' to 
disperse the assembly; and refen it, I think erroneously, to bykka, a bitch. 

Bile, byle, sb. A boil or carbuncle. 

Comp. O.N. bdla, bdlga; Dan. byU; Sw. bold, boldt; Sw. D. btd; A.S. byl; Fris. 
Mr; Oerm. betiU, 

Billy, sb. A comrade, a familiar acquaintance. 

* Ftobably allied,' says Jam., * to S. O. and Germ. biUig, Belg. billik, tequalis, as denoting 
those that are on a footing as to age, rank, relation, affection, or emplo3rment.' Billig, 
however, in both tongues quoted, signifies what is equitable rather than equal ; just, lawful, 
ri^t Note Sw. D. bUling, which means, i. a twin, 3. a window with two lights ; biUingp' 
bam, a twin ; also bil, byl, bile, bill, Oerm. bobU, an uncle ; whence bbblenkinder, cousins. 
Comp. also bUkona, an uncle's wife. These words may perhaps suggest a connection for 
our Billy. 

Bind, V. a. (pr. binnd; pret. bim', bund; pcpl. bund'n, bundin). To 
bind ; to tie up the sheaves of com with Bands. 

Cf. * Hann bafit ^ar marga nunn med ur : tumir skaru komn sumir bundu sumir baru 
beim komn, iumir blodu : * he had there many men with him ; some shore (reaped) the 
com, some bun* it, some bare it home, some latfied it (stacked or put it in the bam). 

The pronunciation of this vb. coincides closely ¥nth that of the Scand. vb. binda, and I 
have no doubt that in the following extract from Toumil. Mysi. p. lai, the sound of y in 
fyndt, vrynde, bthyndt, byndt was precisely as in lordyngts, or coincident with the pronun- 
ciation of I in our find* behint, bind, and E. sb. wind. 


* Nunehts. And, ceitet, if I may any fjmde, 

I shalle not leyfe oone of them behjmde. 
Htrodn, No, hot boldly thou thaym hynde 
And W3rth the leyde ; 
Makowne that weldys water and Wjrnde 
The wyfhe and spede. 
Nimeius. Alle peasse, lordynges, and hold you stylle 
To I have tayde what I wille.' 
For pq>l. form bun, comp. 

* Deui. Thi deroute prayers have me bun.* lb. p. 56. 

Binder, sb. The person, usually a man, whose work it is in the 
harvest-field to tie up the sheaves. Also called the Tier. See Band, 

Bink, sb. i. A bench; a form or long seat without a back. 2. A 
long, flat slab of stone of fourteen or fifteen inches wide set benchwise near 
the house door, and used for various purposes other than only those of 
sitting on ; such as setting out the freshly scoured dairy utensils to dry 
and air, and the like. 3. A rack, or set of shelves, for plates and dishes. 

O. Sw. bani; O. N. beckr; Dan. bani; A. S. bine. The absence of the n in the O. N. 
word, as in the former instance of brant (O. N. braitr), is to be remarked here also. See 

Birk, sb. The birch-tree (Befuh alba). 

O. N. bjorh, birki; Sw. bjork; Sw. D. berk, birk, bork, bark; Dan. birk; A. S. biret, byrce, 
beoree; Germ, birke; Dut berk. Sec. 

I, sb. A coppice or small wood in which the growth chiefly 
consists of birches. 

Birr, sb. Forceful or rapid motion, a strong impulse. 

Hall, says, ' Any rapid whirling motion. It is a]^lied to the whizzing of any missile 
violently thrown, as in Wickliffe, Rev. xviii.' Comp. our W^idder or Whither and 
£. whirr. 

* And he saith to hem. Go jee. And thei goynge out wente in to the hoggis ; and loo I 
in a great bire al the droue wente heedlynge in to the see, and thei ben dead in watris.' 
Matt. viii. 32, Wycl. Vers. 

* Uxor. Thei water nyghys so nere that I sit not dry. 

Into ship (the Ark) with a byr therfor wille I hy 
For drede that I drone here.' Townel. Myst. p. 29. 

Bisen, sb. (pr. bahz'n). i. A spectacle, or sight, or show, in an invi- 
dious or offensive sense. 2. A person or object held up to contempt or 

O. N. bisn, something portentous, a prodigy ; A. S. bim, bym, byssen, an example. The 
O. N. bisn, from its accent, is clearly the origin of our word, and with the same accommo- 
dation of sense as is perceived in our standard uses of the word monster. The same uncer- 
tainty of orthography is noticeable in this word as in so many. others : bizon in Brock, and 


KalL, Aorzon in Wb. Ol,, bym, homing in Jam. (who appe^n to hare dassed together, ai 
also does Riets in v. Bisthpigg, deriratiTes from bym and from bysmr). Bum, with the i 
lon^ is, however, adopted here, at obviously rag;gested by the derivation. 

I . ' He 'f a greedy biaen wi' niwer a penny to spare for a puir bod/i need.' Wb, Gl. 

* Loo' je 1 Didst 'ee iwer see sike a mncky bisim I' 

a. * What a ** holy bittn** she be, for seear :' spoken of a tawdrily dressed female, of pos- 
sibly rather less than questionable character. The allusion may be to the tawdry finery of 
popish saints, bat mudi more probably points to the custom, practised within the memory 
of living men in some of our Dales churches, of setting offenders against morality, supposed 
or feqmred to be penitents, arrayed in white sheets, on the stool of repentance during the 
hoars of Divine Service. 

Biwiliftl, sb. Pr. of BuflheL 

Comp. Pr. Pm, « ByuhdU or buschelle (bysshell, otherwyse called busshell. P.). Motthtt, 

Mr. Morris, Gramm. hitrod. to E, E. T, S. Aytnbite of Inwyt, p. vi. writes : * In the 
of the Southern writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries we find the words 
Jbi, bSl^ Aim, sm, &c., written fust, bul, tbun, sun. Sec, Our modern pronunciation coin- 
cides generally with the Northern dialects, in which this substitution of u for i was unknown.' 
In the present word we have a curious instance, not without parallel (comp. the surname 
MUdadaU as sounded, RudsdaU as written) of the substitution of i for u, I may add that, 
whatever the date of the introduction of the substitution of u for t into the Northern dia- 
lects, it is not unknown now. In Cleveland we say tunder for tinder, brusstl for brisiU, and 
in Tork Coat, Dtpot, p. i6i, note, bussbop is four times written for bisbop. There is also 
one Scottish district in which almost every short i is changed into u. 

Bite^ V. a, i. To partake of food, chiefly used in the pass. pcpl. 
9. To make an impression ; of a cutting instrument on some hard sub- 
stance ; e. g. a file upon hard steel, a knife or axe on case-hardened 
metal, Ac. 3. To adhere by friction, in opposition to to slip ; as of 
the driving wheels of a locomotive engine upon the rails, and the like. 

Cf. O. N. bita, to cut ; Dan. hide, to cut ; of cutting instruments. The O. N. usage is 
well illustrated in the following passage from FlcU. i. 358 : * Thorsteinn steighed up to the 
bedstocks and took down the sword and drew it. He stripped the bed-clothes off the 
giantess. He saw she was all covered with shaggy hair, save one little spot under the left 
arm ; (this) saw he that it was smooth. He thought for sure that in this spot the sword 
would bite Qparjam bita) or in no place else. He sets the sword to this same spot and 
drives with the hilt. The sword bites so {sverdit bitr sua) that the point stuck in the 

I. 'Ah've niwer sae mich as bitten sen yestreen;' I have taken no food at all since 
yesterday evening. 

3. Under this sense comp. — 

' )>a scipen biten on )>at sond : 
Sc al hat folc code an lond.' Lay. i. 76. 

The second text reads smiten, which makes the word in the first even more interesting. 
Under 3. comp. N. * bit i nug* sagde lynget : * take fast hold of me,' said the ling ; and 
bei si fast : took such fast hold. Ame, pp. 6, 7. 

Bite, sb. A piece bitten, a morsel ; anything to eat. 

O. N. biti, a mouthful or morsel ; Dan. bid. 

* Ah hev'n't had nowther sap nor bite sen moom.' 

* Please you, bestow a bite o* bread iv a puir aud chap.' 


Bittle, bittle and pin. See Batteldoor. 

* The biide is a heavy wooden battUtlon, the pin is the roller ; and with the linen wound 
round the latter, it is moved backwards and forwards on a table by hand*pressure with the 
hatdtchrt: Wb, GL 

A. S. bytlf bitl, Uohd; N. S. htUl^ a beetle, hammer. Mr. Wedgw. quotes * hyd, a bat for 
washing.' Cf. £. htttU, 

* Ant )>er je schulen iseon bunsen ham met tes deofles htttUs ;' Ancr, RhoUt p. i88 ; and 
ye shall see bunch them with the devil's bittles. 

Comp. * Ferritorium, a battjmge staff, a batyll djrr, or a betyll' Pr, Pm. note on p. 482. 

Blaokavised, adj. Dark complexioned, tawny visaged. Comp. 
E. visage. 

Blackberries, sb. Black currants. What are called blackberries 
in South England here are Brambles, Brammles, Brummies, Buxn- 
meUdtes, &c. 

Blaok-olooks, sb. Black-beetles. See Clocks. 

Black starved, adj. Blue with cold; thoroughly chilled, so that 
the complexion shews it by becoming leaden or blue-coloured. See 

Black to t' bone, adj. Said of a person with hollow features and a 
complexion darkened by disease. Wh. GL 

Bladdry, adj. Muddy, dirty. In Leeds GL the word ' blather' is given, 
meaning ' mud or puddle so thin that it will splash when trod upon.' 
In fact the sound of the </ in Clevel. frequently passes into that of M 
hard, or ^. 

Sw. D. bladda, sb. soft wet dirt ; and vb. to splash with dirt Comp. also hMadcU^ 
fresh cow-droppings. 

Blae, adj. (pr. bleea). Of a livid or pale bluish colour : also written 
bla, blaa. 

O. N. Hear (bid fem. and in compounds), blue, of a dusky colour. The original mean- 
ing of Mar, as Rietz observes, seems to have been black ; thus bldfeldr is a black robe or 
cloak ; bldtnadr, an Ethiop, a black man ; bidfidradr, having black feathers, 8cc. Sw. 6M, 
Sw. D. blar, Hdtr; N. bld^ Dan. blaa, Comp. the A. S. form bUo, Germ, blau, Dut. 
blatw, 8cc, 

* '* He leuks as hUta 's a whetstone ;'* of a person leaden-blue with cold.' Wb, GL 
' He 's getten his bats : his feeace 's black and bl§ea wi 't.' 

Blaeberry, sb. The common bilberry ( Vacamum myrtillus), 

Comp. O. N. hldbeTt Dan. blaabtar. 

Blaeberry-wires, sb. The small shrubs or stems on which the 
Blaeberries grow. See Wires. 

Comp. O. N. bld4mia4yng, the blaeberry-shrub. 


Blae milk or blue milk. Mflk from which the cream has been 
removed after it has stood some time. The skim-milk, or sky-blue, of 
the South. 

Blair, blare, vb. i. To bellow as a cow. a. To cry loudly or 
noisUj as a child that is much h\ut or frightened. 3. To protrude the 
tongue as a furious animal of the ox tribe when bellowing. 

Jam. giTCs Teot. hlaren, mugira. In Leeds GL it it said that ' an impadent and ill- 
tnined child ** blain out" its tongue to the pafter-by ' — a usage of the word identical with 
Iht third signification above. Cf. with this usage, Sw. D. blddra, to vibrate or brandish, as 
m die example Ubtgkuun blddrar ttygnet : the snake vibrates its sting, i. e. its tongue. 
Ifr. Wedgw. takes Dut. blaeren to be contracted from bladeren^ and parallel with it is Sw. D. 
kiadtbra, to prate, chatter, make a loud talking ; other forms of which are blarra, bladiirt 
with a farther meaning, to bleat as a sheep. What bladeren, bladdra, blarra are to blair or 
blare in its fint two senses, that hlddra seems to be to blare in iu third sense. Indeed I 
am modi inclined to believe that, notwithstanding an apparent sequence of idea in the 
aeveral meanings of the word before us, there may be in reality two separate words 
involved. Dean Rietz collates O. N. blaka with blddra, and supposes it connected with 
O. H. O. biajam or biaban. Pr. Pm. gives * BUrynge wythe mowe makynge. Patento, 
waigits f and * mowjmge wjrthe the mowthe :' and in a note is added, * I g3aie him the best 
oomitajrle I can, and the knaue bleareth his tonge at me, ^tr la langue, Palsgr.' 

Blake, adj. Of a fair, soft, yellow colour or tone, not so deep as 
that of fine bees'-wax : applied to describe the colour of fine spring butter 
or very beautiful cream. 

O.N. bieiir; Dan. bleg; Sw. blek; Sw. D. blejk; A.S. bide; Dut. bleek; Germ, bleicb 
Pr. Pm. • Bleyke of coloure. Pallidus, subalbus: 

* Ajr : t* creeam 's to'nned gey an' blake, noo t' kye ha' getten te t' grass agen.* 

• At Mddb 'shutter.' 

The sense of the word in O. E.— cf. the extract from Pr. Pm, — is diverse from ours. 
Comp. £ay. ii. 411, 

* same stunde he was blae : one while he was wan. 
And on heuwe swiSe wac ;' and in hue exceeding pale. 

And again : * Hire bleo bigon to blakien for |>e gnire \>e grap hire,' SeitUe MarbereU, p. 9 ; 
her oolonr began to grow pane for the terror whi<£ seized her. 

Blane, v. n* (pr. bleean). To become white, to bleach. 

O. N. bletkna^ to grow or become pale or white ; Sw. hlehna ; Dan. blegne. These words 
are derivatives from the act. vbs. bleikja, bleka^ blege, to bleach, to make white ; and Sw. 
bteknmg (I believe also Dan. blegning) is applied in exactly the same sense as our blaninff. 
The words in fact are simply coincident. 

* Tak* they cleeas oot and lay 'em on t' gerss t' bleean* 

Blaah, V. a. and n. i. To splash with water, clean or dirty. 2. To 
splash, as water under foot, or in puddles when trod in, and the like ; or 
from a pail or other vessel in consequence of the ill-regulated motions of 


the bearer. 3. To have to do with water, as the seaman has. 4. To 
blaze abroad a private matter by dealing with it as a subject of general 

Sw. and O. Sw. plaska ; Dan. platUke, to splash in or with water. Comp. the third mean- 
ing with the following (Wonaae, Minder om d» Danske og Nordnuendene, &c., p. 149) : 
*& namust EfUrkommere afsaadanm Mcmd^fixr bvem Solivet var tn NatumodveiuBgbtdf 
maatte vedblive iddig at pladskt paa Soen :* literally, the descendants of such men, for 
whom a seafaring life was one of nature's cravings, could not but continue to blasb upoa 
the sea. 

1. T' bairn *s blast* d ma' gooan a' ower ; 'dotty lahtle bmte 1' 

2. ' T' ¥ratter blasbes oot i' t' can, every step thoo taks. It *s ower full by owght, balm.' 
* He goes blasbing about, plodging and pleading through thick and thin.' Wb. Gl. 

3. * ** What he has got he has hlasbtd for :" i. e. obtained by a seafaring life.' 

Again, in the same sense : — ' ** Her man may weel hlaib ;" spoken of a seaman's wife, 
one of whose chief characteristics is extravagance.' Wb. Gl, 

4. * She 's bin an' bUubed h a' ower. It *s toon's talk noo.' 

Cf. ^if hit duste9 swutfo, heo vlaskeO water >eron : and ^if dust of lihte )H>uhtes windeV 
up to swu9e, flaskie teares on ham : Aner. Riwle, p. 314 — wherein idasken or flasken is almoct 
surely the same word as plaska, pladdn. 

Blaah, sb. i. Puddle-water, very liquid mud. 2. Nonsense, frivolous 
or nonsensical talk. 

Comp. Sw. D. plasi, puddle, liquid mud ; as also E. plasb, and splash. See Blash^ vb. 

I. * There 's bin a vast o' rain through t' neeght ; t' rooad 's all iv a blasb* 

a. * Wheeah I It 's a' blasb. Nivver heed ;' it is all nonsense ; don't you mind it. 

Blash-kegged, adj. With a protuberant stomach ; dropsical. 

We have other words which more or less resemble iegg»d; e. g. kedged, stuffed full, 
with food, namely ; kedgixig, food generally ; ked^-belly, a glutton ; oaggy, irascible, 
'stomachy'; kegged, irritated, provoked, not able to 'stomach' a thing; — all of which 
more or less imply the sense of stotnacb, belly. O. N. kaggi, S. G. kagge, Eng. keg, all 
mean a small tub or cask, the leading idea in which is probably of something closed in all 
round; A. S. eaggian. There is, besides, the Welsh eawg, pelvis, to which Ihre feels 
inclined to refer kagge. But without this, there is little difficulty in tracing the connection 
of sense between keg, and belly or stomach : comp. pot-belly, pod^ tub. See, all familiar 
names for the stomach. And thus, our present word means simply toater-bellied, or drop- 
sical ; and then, from the coincident fulness of size, corpulent, pot-bellied. 

Blashy, adj. i. Rainy, wet; as applied to the weather. 2. Wet, 
puddly ; as applied to the roads. 3. Weak, poor, watery, without good- 
ness or strength. 

1. * It 's bin straange an' blasby, all on, for a bit, noo ;' it has been very rainy weather for 
some time past. 

2. * It 's blasby deed, gannan' ahmg t' rooads, sike weather.' 

3. * Puir blasby stuff;* of tea, or small beer. 

Blast, V. a. To blow, throw a current of air upon. 

* Blast the fire up.' 


Blflte, adj. Shy, bashful, wanting boldness. 

O. N. blamtr. Uamdr; S. O. bi6d^ hUSg (nid of a ipirit somewhat too prone to timidity* 
lopect or mildiiesi. Ihre); Sw. 6/0/; Sw. D. blaui^ soft, weak; Dan. hl^d; Oerm. blbdM* 
wolc, shamefiiced, bashful ; Swiss Hod. 

il GhNS. Remarks iqpon bliCen, Lay, i. p. 328, 

* For ne fimde we na biiSen : for we are no cowi^nUier 
^enne beoO [>a Bmttes ;' than are the Britons. 

Sk F. Madden says : * In the A. S. Orosius this adj. is used m the cognate sense of 
t/fimimatt, and it seems to be allied with the Isl. biayta, blautr, Sc. blait.' Comp. the use 
«r die word in North. Ootp, Matt. vi. 23 : ' Oife fiin ego bid bliCe, all 6m Ueboma 6r8 Ubi; 
a/k Hm i|fo M5 vnbliee i yfd wyrundi bifS;' and again, Luke xi. 54 : * Gif 8m tgo mildi 
1 Mfflf t bilwit 6f8,' wherein the sense is coincident with that of blod, blod, blauir. Sec, 

* He 's ower blaU for owght. T' lasses has t* kittle him.' 

Blather, v. a. and n. i. To talk fast and of an3rthing that comes 
nppeimost 2. To talk much nonsense. 

0. Sw. and Sw. D. Uaddra, to prate, gossip, talk loud and fast ; Germ, bhttim, bladem^ 
pUmUm; Swiss bUuUm; Sw. pladdra; Lat. blaUrare. Rietz collates also D. Dial 
U^Sv, blabn ; Eng. blab and brabbU. Comp. Pr, Pm. * Blaberyn, or speke wythe-owti 
fCi o nc .* See BletiLsr, which is essentially die same word, only vridi a more special appli- 
catioii or meaning. Comp. also BlAir. 

1. • ** How cam' vou t* hear yon, Mary ?" " Wheeah, aud Jenny Deeal, she bin blaAerim' 
*t a' ower f toon." ^ 

a. * His chafts hing lowse. He 's alias bkuhtrmg and talking.* 

* He 's a fond bla£trm* chap, that yan.' 

Blear, v. n. To expose oneself to the wind, or to the cold wind, thence 
to cold generally. 

I find this word in no collection with the exception of Wb. GL ; but I am assured by an 
inteOijrait Craven woman that it is current there also. The second example is given me by 
her. The association is with bhrt^ to cry with a loud, blatant noise, as in the blart of a trumpet. 
Note also, * Blort signifies a roaring wind : — ** hurried headlong with the S. West blore.** ' 
Pr. Pm.j note to * Bloryyn or wepen (bleren). Ploro^fleo* 

* They run bUaring about without either hat or bonnet.* 

' BUaring out in the cold, bareheaded and with no happings.* 

Bleb, blob, sb. i. A drop of water, or of any other and more viscid 
fluid. 2. A bubble, on water or other liquid. 3. A blister, such as may 
be caused by a scaid, an ill-fitting shoe, or a tool on hands unused to 

Jam. and Rich, both quote Skinner's derivation of this word from Germ, hlaben^ to swell, 
puff up. Mr. Wedgwood looks upon blab as a radical syllable adopted for the purpose of 

• representing the sound made by collision of the wet lips in rapid talking,* as in Eng. Wa6, 
Dan. hlabbre, to babble, gabble; PI. D. blabbem; G. plabbem, id., &c.; and equally 

• employed to signify the sound of something wet or soft falling or striking against anything, 
and hence to designate the object making such a sound ; a lump of anylliing wet or soft, 
drop of liquid, bubble, &c.* 

II 2 


I. * A W«6 of water/ * Nose-Wo&f/ 
a. ' Sozp-blohs* 

• T* pool *f a* ower Wo&s ;* from the falling of heavy rain-drops. 
3. * He hannles *s tool agin he *ad blebs iv his haands.' 

Bleok, sb. The black substance or grease at the axle-tree of a wheel ; 
blackened oil or grease at any centre of friction in machinery. 

' Bl€BC. According to Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033, ** the greas taken off the cart-wheels or 
ends of the axle-tree, and kept till it is dry, made up in balls, with which the taylors rub and 
blacken their thread, is called in Yorkshire W<8*." * Hall. * Bleke (blecke). Atranunhnn^ 
Pr. Pm. ; and in a note, • Horman says, ** Wrytter's ynke shuld be finer than blatche.** 
** Bleche for souters, atrament noyr" Pakg.* A. S. bloc, atramentum ; O. N. bUk ; Sw. 
biUech; Dan. bUtk, id. 

' Thee *s getten the-sel a* clamed wi' cart liUch, honey !' 

Blee, sb. A tear. 

This word does not appear to have been hitherto written except in Wb. Gl. At least it 
is not in Jam., Hall., or Brockett, nor in any other collection of local words accessible to 
me. It is surely connected with the extensive family of words of which blican, to glitter, 
is the A. S. representative ; blieka^ to glance, shine, look, the Sw. : and thus there is no real 
difference between it and blee or ble, complexion, colour. 

• That bride soe bright of bite.* Percy's Fol. MS. I p. 105. 

Sw. D. blig, meaning a glance (of Uie eye, namely ; Sw. bliek)^ and bearing in the pi. 
the signification of the eyes themselves, gives us, together with a singular approximation 
in sound, another and an analogous variation of meaning as compared with O. E. blee and 
our own word. But perhaps the most interesting illustration is in an example given in the 
Wb. Gl. under Blink^ which is simply blick with the ' nasal inserted * (Wedgw.), and therefore 
closely related to Blee. The example in question is, * ** She never blinked a blee for him ;*' 
never shed a tear for him.' 

• " A sau't blee;** a salt tear.' Wb. Gl. 

Blendcom, sb. (pr. blencom). Wheat and rye mixed; the seed 
Tianng been mingled previously to sowing. 

Sw. D. blandkom, mixed rye and oats ; Dan. blandkom^ blandingskom, meslin ; O. N. 
and Sw. blandot to mingle ; Dan. blonde ; A. S. blendan. Sw. D. also has the form horn- 

This is one of the multitudes of purely Scand. words which still remain in use in our 
district. See also Blending. For the composition with blend, note — 

* The teares he for his master wept 
Were blend water and bloude.* Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 236. 

Blendings, sb. A mixture of peas and beans. 

Comp. Dan. blending, mixture, a composition of different materials ; Sw. D. blHnning, 
spring-rye and oats mixed ; and blandsHd, barley and oats mixed. Another noteworthy 
application of the word is O. N. blendingr, a being of mixed blood ; as, e. g. bom of a Troll 
and a human female. Sw. D. blening, the same ; also any cross among animals. 

Blether, v. n. To cry loudly, like a fractious child. 

The same word as Blather, slightly altered in Pr., and with this definite meaning 
attached to it. Note Blethering, sb. and pcpl. 


Bletfaering, sb. Loud, vulgar talking. 
Blethering, pq)L Talking loudly ; noisy. 

' ** A giet hUtbtrmg chap, alUjrs i' some tow-row or ither ;" always in some loud, angry 
fqoabble.' Wb, Gl. 

Blink, V. a. and n. i. To move the eye involuntarily, to wink; as 
when an object suddenly comes near the eye. 2. To shew emotion or 
attest affection by some (quick) action of the eye. 3. To evade or 

Sw. Umka, to twinkle, blink; O. N. biika, to thine, twinkle; Dan. blinkt, bUkki; A. S. 
bUam: Germ, blieken; N.S. bi^fen; Sw. D. blika, bitka, bliga. In O.N. augtUtiik, 
an instant of time, lit. tye-iUnkt £. 'twinkling of an eye'; Sw. ogotMiek or ogonblmk; 
G. OMgetMiehi the rapid or glancing motion of the eye in winking or blinking is necessarily 
impiica. Note the relative forms hUkk^ blink, as in braU, brant, &c. See Blee. 

I. * T' bairn *s a bau'd lahtle chap. He niwer blink' t at t' flash nor t' thunner-crack.' 

' ** She niTver bUnift a blee for 'm ;" she never shed a tear, or shewed any sign of emotion 
at his death.' Wb. Ol. 

The Letds Gl, example is of a woman who does not * blink ha ee' at her husband's funeral. 

3. * Nobbnt he disn't blink *t ;' only, or provided he does not evade it, get out of it, escape 
duvet action. 

BUah'blash, sb. Nonsense, foolish titde-tattle. 

Blob, v. n. To bubble, to rise in bubbles ; as water in the action of 
boiling, or when anything is thrown in. See Bleb. 

Blobbing, sb. The rising of air-bubbles on the surface of liquids. 

Blood-boar, blood-sow, sb. A boar or sow of the smoother, more 
highly-bred stock of swine; in opposition to the long-haired, shaggy 
animal, of what is called the Coarse or Large Breed. 

Blood-iron, sb. A fleam, or lancet for bleeding horses or cattle. 

Pr. Pm, * Bloodiyryn, BUdyngtyryn, FUosoiomium.* 

Blood-etiok, sb. A heavyish knobbed staff or sdck, used for striking 
the fleam in the operation of bleeding a horse. 

Bloody, adj. Well-bred, as to genealogy ; having good blood in its 
Teins, of different kinds of stock. See Blood-boar. Comp. Blood- 

* A desput 6/(XM(y-Iooking lahtle meear.' 

' A canny gilt, enew ; she cooms ov a bloody sort.* 

Blotch, V. a. To blot; as paper, or the leaves of a book. 

Mr. Wedgw. collates Dut. placke, plecke; Sax. bUck, a blot, stain ; plack-papier, blotting- 
paper ; A. S. blacOy a discoloured spot on the skin, blatch or blotch. Comp. Sw. D. blaga, 
to smear, bedaub ; blage, a spot or lump of wet filth ; en stor blage pa gollet : a great blotch 
(of wet dirt) on the floor. Illustrative of Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that • the word 6/0/ 
arises from an attempt to represent the sound of a drop of liquid or portion of something wet 


or soft falling on the ground/ hiaga has the second meaning of to thrash, to orerwhdm ^ith 
blows ; while Uaka means both to strike, strike so that the blows resound, and to pour down 
with rain ; da hlakcar som bimUn von bppen : it blotches down as if the heavens were open. 

Blotoh-paper, sb. Blotting-paper. 

Blue-flint, sb. The local name for the whinstone or basalt derived 
from the basaltic dike which runs across the N. Riding from out of Dur^ 
ham, in a direction southerly of east It is extensively raised in many 
places to be used as Boad-metal, alike for home use and export See 
also White-flint. 

Blunder, v. a. i. To disturb water or other liquid so as to render it 
turbid or muddy. 2. To derange the works of a lock, so that it refuses 
to act 

Rich, gires the derivation of this word as ' from 6/om, the pret. of A. S. hUnmoHt to come 
to a stop ; and to blunder is said to be * to act like one whose faculties halt, or come to a stop.' 
Mr. Wedgw., however, regards the * original meaning of blunder to be to dabble in water/ 
and itself to be, ' a nasal form of such words as bloAer, bluUer, hluiier ; aU representing the 
agitation of liquids ; and then genendlj idle talk. Dan. pludder, earth and water mixed 
together, puddle, idle talk ; pluddrt, to dabble in the mud, to puddle. Then with the nasal, 
to blunder water, and metaphorically, blunder, confusion, trouble.* Comp. * To shuffle and 
digress, so as by any means whatsoever to blunder an adversary.' Dillon, quoted by Rich. 

' Noe, I shalle make ye stille as stone begynnar of blunder ! 

I shalle bete the bak and bone, and breke alle in sunder, 

Townel. Myst, p. 50 ; 

where the blunder referred to is the confusion and trouble occasioned by his wife's dispu- 
tatious, eontrarying spirit of opposition. 

1. ' Moother, r bairns ha bin an' blundered t'watter, while its a' 's thick as soss;' all 
a puddle together. 

2. « Tak^ heed, lad, or theell blunder t' lock wi' thor aud kays.' 

Blur, V. a. To blot, to smear. 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon blur and blear in the expression ' to blear one's eye' (of frequent 
use in Chaucer ; for instance, Reve's Tale, 939, 

* They wenin that no man mowe them begyle ; 
But by my thrift yet shall I blen their eye.') 

as identical ; and in a passage which he requotes from Rich., the expression of * eyes blurred 
with the darkness of vices occurs. * In this sense,' he adds, * it agrees with Bav. plerren, 
a blotch, a discoloured spot on the skin.* Still, collating Dut. blader, blaere; ader, aere, 
ear of com; Eng. slubber, slur; he thinks it probable that ' blur may be from bludder, 
bltUher, blubber, to make a noise with the mouth, disfigure with crying ; bluter, to blot, 
dirty, blubber.' But assuming blur and blear to be, at least, different forms of the same 
word, I think I would rather connect it with bladder, blader, blaere, which I take to be 
cognate with plerren — an idea suggested by blawre, Townel, Myst. p. 6a, where the reference 
is to the plague of blains and boils : — 

* For we fare wars than ever we fowre (fared) ; 
Orete loppys over all this land they fly ; 

And where thay byte thay make grete blowre. 
And in every place oure bestes dede ly.' 


Here tikwrt b dearly eqnirtlent to swelled or inflated spots or tumours — * a boil breaking 
fafftfa with blains npon man and upon beast ;' and its relationship roust surely be with hUun^ 
Uadibr. father than with hhtUr, bhiddtr, hhtbUr. Cf. N. S. 6/«ddkr; Dan. hlari; N. Uara ; 
O. Sw. hlttdra : the origin of the family of words being O. H. G. Mjan^ G. hlahm^ to 
inflate^ render tnrgid. Rietz. 

Blur, sb. i. A blot, a smear. 2. The same, metaphorically; Le. the 
blot or stain left on one's character by misconduct 

I. « Thee 's getten a Uur V tha' buik, JOanny/ 

9. ' Hell niTTcr ca»t t' wyte on it. It has left a sair Uur ahint it ;' he will always be 
Uamcd for that It has left a sad blot on his character. 

Bhuredy pcpL Stained or blemished, metaphorically. 

* He's getten a sairly-&/«rr<Jneeamwiv it.' Wh Gl, 

Bhirty V. a. i. To speak in jerks, or bit by bit, without connection 
or coherency. 2. To speak — not so much, inconsiderately, as— by con- 
straint of a sudden impulse : one, perhaps, which gathers force imtil it 
becomes overpowering ; as in the case of an impulsive, excitable man, or 
of one who longs to speak but is held back by considerations of timidity 
or shame, and the like. 

« Related to livtUr^ biuddtr, as tpiirt to s^uittr* Wedgw ; and as flirt or fltari to 

I. * •* Then he tdled you all?" ** Aye; he blvrHd it all oot, bit by bit.** ' 

3. * A windy chap, hlurting *8 tales oot, aU ower t' toon.* 

' Blurt it out, man, and ha don' wi' 't ;' to a person longing to tell or say something, but, 
with some motive of reluctancy creating a difficulty of speaking, which can only be over- 
come after a long struggle or by some overpowering impulse. Letds Gl. quotes * He does 
nowt but blurt,' of one who speaks abruptly * without either sense or argument in what he 
says.' Perlu^ it is an accommodation of this sense — not in use here, 1 believe — which 
brings in the meaning given by Brock., * to cry, to make a sudden indistinct or unpleasant 


Blustery, adj. Boisterously windy. Applied when the wind is very 
high, but not amounting to a regular gale, and, instead of howling or 
roaring, comes in loud rattling blasts. 

• •« Very windy to-day, Willy. Arc your com-pikcs safe?" *• Aye, 't 's Wi«iiiry. But 
Ah dean't think there 's enew t' raffle t' thack mich ;" ' to disturb or derange the thatching 
of the stacks. 

Blutherment, sb. Dirt of an adhesive or unctuous description; 
mud, slime. 

A word which belongs to the same stock as hluter in Hall., * to blot, to dirty, to blubber ;' 
and Uuddir, blutber, in Jam., * to blot paper in writing, to disfigure any writing, to disfigure 
the face with weeping, &c.' I do not find it in any Yorkshire collection of words except 
the Wb, Gl. ; but it is freely current in Clevel. 

Bodden, p. p. of to Bide. 


Boden, bodden, p. p. of to Bid. 

Bog, sb. A puffy sweUing ; a tumour that jdelds easily to pressure, 
rising again on its removal. 

* Puir lahtle thing I Its head's all iv a bog;' of a child bora with great difficulty, and 
one side of whose head was, from the force necessarily employed, in a state of soft, puffy 

Comp. * Boggytebe, boggisshe. Tumidus,* Pr, Pm. 

Boggart^ sb. A hobgoblin, a sprite. See Boggle* 

Boggle, bogle, sb. A goblin, or sprite ; a malevolent being of the 
supernatural order. 

Welsh hwg, bwgwl. Comp. O. N. puki, an evil spirit ; pukr, a bugbear, terrific object — 
sometimes, at least, of the supernatural order ; S. G. puke, the devil, a daemon. Jam., 
who spells the word b<^U or bogill, gives the two meanings of the word as * i. A spectre, 
a hobgoblin. 2. A scarecrow, a bugbear.' Comp. our Flay-boggle. The other GIos> 
saries, generally speaking, are indefinite in their explanations. Thus Hall, gives ' a ghost, 
a goblin ;' Brock. * a spectre or ghost ;* L^eds Gl. * a goblin, generally supposed to be of 
a sable complexion ;' and Wb, Gl. * a fearful object, a hobgoblin.' I believe the true 
idea of the word is that of a bugbear ; some fearful or horrible, but indefinite, object of 
terror ; a goblin frightful to behold, and equally malevolent ; to the entire exclusion of the 
tenses, sprite, and ghost or spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. * Bugge, or buglarde. Maurus, Ductus.* Pr. Pm. Also, ' Higins, in his version 
of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders ** lemures noctunU, hobgoblins or night-waUdng 
spirits, blacke bugs. Terriculamentum, a scarebug, a bulbegger, a sight that frayeth and 
frighteth " ' That the belief in Bogles or Boggfurts was once very prevalent in the 
district might be inferred, if there were no other means of knowing, from the many local 
names involving the word Boggle ; e. g. BoggU-bouse, Bqgglt-wood, &c. 

Boggle, V. n. To start, or shy, or swerve ; applied to a horse which 
is startled by some means and starts away from the object of alarm. 

Derived directly from the sb. Boggle. See Wedgw. in v. 

Boily, sb. Properly, food prepared specially for an infant's use ; milk, 
with soft bread crumbled fine or biscuit broken up and powdered, boiled 
in it Applied also to any food similarly prepared and intended for 
children's sustenance. 

Bolden, v.n. (pr. bowden). To shew courage; or rather, perhaps, 
to take courage, so as to play a bold part. 

This seems to be not so much an accommodation of sense from the archaic vb. boid, 
to make bold, encourage (cf. * to balden )>ine leoden,' Lay, i. 187; * ure Louerd beldetS 
ham,' After, RtwU. p. 162) as a reflective vb. proper — I make myself bold — and, as such, 
curious in its analogies to Northern forms. 

' Bowden tiv 'er, lad I Faint heart niwer wan fair laady.' 

* He bowdened oop te 't beeast, agin he 'd bin a man : pawky lahtle chap 1 ' 

Bolder, sb. A loud, resonant noise, or report. 

Sw. bulira, to make a noise ; O. N. bylia (imp. buidi). Comp. buUer, strepitus, which 


» almoit identical with our word, and expresses the loud sounds given out under heary 
blows laid on a resonant body. Comp. also Germ, polttm, to give a loud or resonant noise ; 
Dan. htddeTt noise, crash, uproar, &c. 

Bolders, boulders, sb. Rounded stones of large size, owing their 
fonn to the action of water. 

O. N. byiia^ to roll over and over ; hoUr, a globe or sphere-shaped body, as produced by 
roDing over and over ; Dan. bold. Sw. D. gives buller^en, a detached mass of stone ; in 
opposition to the word klappersitn^ which is equivalent to our Ck>bble-8teean : and also, 
as cognate with it, buUer-^trtert the globe-flower {Trollius Europ<Bus), 

Bolk, V. n. (pr. boak or booak). i. To retch, strain to vomit, with 
the usual sound implied. 2. To feel the sensation of being about to 

A.S. bttdcoHf to belch; Fris. balJ^e; also sb. 6<e/c, a belch; Pr. Pm. * Bolhyn. Rueio, 
ermeio, ortxo* Brock, gives * to belch* as one of the meanings of boke, bouk ; these being in 
htt merely phonetic forms of O. £. bolk : — 

* He bigan Benedicite with a bolk.* P. PL p 100. 

• I shal boike out hid thingus fro' makyng of the world.' Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wycl. Vers. 
The usage in this passage almost presents a transitional sense between to belch and to 


Boll, sb. The trunk of a tree ; that part which lies between the roots 
and the head or branches. 

0. N. 60/r; S.Q.bol; Sw. D. 60/; exactly coincident in meaning with each other and 
with our word. 

Bolts, sb. Narrow passages, rather than streets, between houses in 
certain Yorkshire towns, possibly arched over in places. 

The meaning of this word is probably an accommodation of the derived sense of E. 60// 
implied in its application to an arrow, &c., — something long and narrow. Compare the 
sense when the word means * a narrow piece of stuff;' or again, when it means ' a single 
width of cloth.' 

Boztdsman, sb. A surety, one who gives security for another. 

• What 's thou to be surveyor, George? An* wheea *s tha' bon^s-man, man ?' 

Bonny, adj. i. Fair to look at, handsome, fine, beautiful; applied 
either to persons or things. 2. Well-pleasing, causing delight. 3. Simply 
an augmentative added to words denoting size, quality, &c. 4. Used with 
a strongly ironical sense. 

Cf. Sw. D. bonni, bumii, high-spirited, jolly ; with which Dean Rietz collates our word. 

1. *A! what bonny daesl' * A bonny lahtle chap.' * A bonny spot.' * Bonny is, at 
bonny dis.' Wb. Gl. 

a. * Thoo 's a bonny bairn : thee 's deean weel.' 

Cf. * He laughed the bony Child to scorae 

that was the bonny Lord of leame.' Percy's Fol. MS. I. 187. 

3. • " Ay, he 's a bonny bouk ;" he 's of a very considerable size.* IVb. GL 

• " How far is it to Whitby, my man ?" " Eh ! it 's a bonny bit yet." ' 

4. • A bonny mess.' * Bonny deed, for scear !* * A bonny to do,' &c. 



Bonnyish, adj. Able to bear inspection ; good in quality or fair to 
look at. 

* ** You have some good sheep there, Joseph/* ** Ay ; thae *s a bom^fish lot o' yows." ' 

Boon, sb. A stated service rendered by the tenant to his landlord, 
without remuneration. 

Boon, V. n. To render the services implied in the sb. Boon. See 

Boon-days, sb. The days on which the tenants are bound to render 
the stated impaid-for service, or Boon, to their landlords. Brock, states 
that large * quantities of land in the Northern counties are held under 
lords of manors by customary tenure, subject to the payment of fines and 
heriots, and the performance of various duties and services on the hocn- 

S. G. M»; O. N. h6n; Dan. ten; A. S. hhi. The classical word hwm is rightly defined 
by Rich, as some * good or benefit either asked or granted.' The original meaning of each 
of the above^given etymons is a prayer, entreaty, or request. Thence it passes to the thing 
prayed or requested, and thence to the same as obtained. But in mediaeval writings, sajrs 
Ihre, hbn stands for something rendered in the way of payment or tribute, as if what was in 
itself distasteful would be rendered less so by the term employed to describe it. This, he 
sajTS, was probably only the adoption of an ancient German usage, under which payments of 
this kind were termed hed§ — * scilicet preces erant, sed quibus contradici non posset, ut ait 
Tacitus,* — ^requests there was not much option about declining. The historian thus quoted 
states. Germ, cap. xv., that it was customary among the tribes occupying that countey for 
each man to present to his chieftain gratuitous offerings of produce, whether arising from 
live-stock or land, which, though purely honorary in one sense, were still, in another sense* 
compulsory, as meeting a case of necessity. It may be further remarked, as connecting 
these mediaeval hoom^ or quasi-gratuitous subsidies, more closely vrith our usage, that in 
another place Ihre shews that while the word hond* originally meant one who held land of 
his own right (O. N. buandi^ boandi, occupier ; and therefore owner or possessor), yet 
when the distinctions of rank implied in titles of nobility. Sec. were introduced, the homU 
always — what the nobles did not — paid some kind of acknowledgment, in kind or other- 
wise, for the land he held : and, finally, by a further change in the same direction, the name 
came to imply any occupier whatever, whether he farmed his own land or another's, whose 
tenure depoided on rendering the specified acknowledgment. The ancient German custom ; 
the mediaeval Northern usage, with its euphuistic Mn ; and the progressive changes of statbs 
&c. in the bonde, but always with the boon to be rendered by him prominent in the fore- 
ground, coupled with what Brock, says,— are a pertinent comment on the Clevel. word 
before us. Comp. the Lincolnsh. use of the words : — Boon, to repair the highway ; booning, 
carriage of materials for repairing roads ; boon-master, the surveyor of highways. 

Bore-tree, bur-tree, sb. (pr. bottry). The common elder {Sambucus 

The prefix in this word must necessarily be a noun, and the word itself is probably of 
Scand. descent. The A. S. name is dlen or ellam ; N. S. elloom ; Germ, bolunder, bollder; 
Dan. byld; Sw. D. and N. byU, &c. ; all of these names signifying the hole-, or hollow-tree. 
The der in the Eug. and Germ, names is tret. See Wedgw. Probably, then. Bore-tree may 


be Oid Danish in origin, from O. N. hdra^ a hole, a boring. In Scotland, howtever, the fonns 
hotm-ine, bam^-irtt, pverail as well as bo$tr'ire€, htr^trtt ; and for the former element see 
Bun, which is A. S. 

Botch, sb. A bungling or inexpert mender, a cobbler. 

To botebt to repair in the way of adding a new piece ; a botcb, the piece so added, pro- 
baUj proceed from the A. S. 6J/, b<ke, Comp. O. H. G. pnozan^ Germ, butzen^ to patch, 
meod. Sw. bot, bdt, as well as the A. S. words, imply the idea of repair by the addition of 
new materials to the old, and the cognate vb. is used in the sense of mending, both in 
respect of clothes and of nets ; boia Uader and bota not. In our instance, the invidious 
sense which modem usage has put upon the word is transferred from the action and its 
subject to the agent. Mr. Wedgwood's view of the formation of the word is different. 

* He 's nobbot an and boicb. He 's mair lahk t* mar an t' mend.' 

Botohety sb. A species of fermented drink made from the last drain- 
ings or \irasliings of impure honey obtained from the wax of the combs ; 
weak honey-beer, rather than mead. 

This wofd s^)pears under almost as many different forms as Barftun : e. g. bragwart^ 
bragggt^ bragoi^ broidba, broicbert; all of which, as well as our word, by metathesis 
and consequent change of sound, come from the Welsh bragodlyn^ spiced wort, as it 
from brag, malt. 

* Her mouth was swete as brakii or the meth, 
Or horde of applis layd in hay or heth.' Miller's Tali, 153. 

Botherment, sb. Trouble, difficulty. 

* Folks tez there 's boun t' be a bit iv a botberment about thae intaks.* 

Bonk, bulL, sb. The Clevel. form of E. duik, 

* Thae tweea 's about t* seeam bu'k.* 

BotUe, sb. A bundle ; of hay, straw, Breokens, &c. A Bottle is a 
bundle wisped up ; a Batten a bound bimdle. 

Pr. Pm. ' BoUUe of hey. Fenifaseis* * Bret. bStel foeun. Fr. botel^ bottau, the dimi- 
nutive of botti, a bunch ; boitt de foin, a wisp of hay ; Gael, boileal^ boitecm, a bundle of 
* bay or straw.' Wedgw. * BoitU, A bundle, applied to hay, straw, and rushes.' Li>i- 
eolm, Gl, 

Botton, sb. The deepest portion of a valley ; that part of the dale in 
which the containing banks rise to their full height with the most rapid 
and continuous slope. 

O. N. botn, a bottom, a depth, and O. Sw. bottn, are similarly applied. In both branches 
of the language the word is employed to denote the innermost recesses of the sea : 
Norrbottn, the Gulf of Bothnia ; Jiardar-botn, a deep or inland bay. But besides this, the 
Old Northmen seem to have applied the word precisely as it is locally applied in Cleveland. 
Thus, Hald. gives daU-botn, intima pars vallis, the innermost recesses of the dale ; i. e., says 
the Danish translation, where it is most shut in ; which is exactly descriptive of that portion 
of Danby Dale which is called Danby-Botton. Also the word before dak-botn is dah-mynm^ 
the opening or mouth of a valley or dale, which answers exactly to our Dale-XSnd. 

* At a little distance towards the South, lies the township of Greenhowe, a part of which, 

I 2 


significantly called Greenhowe-Bottom* — written correctly, it would be BoUon — ' is a narrow 
secluded vale, so deeply intrenched with mountains that here (like some parts of Borrowdale 
in Cumberland) in the depth of winter the sun never shines.' Graves, Hisi, of Cleveland, 

P- 354- 

Bonn, bound, adj. Under compulsion, whether moral or otherwise 
arising. The word always implies a kind of necessity of action. 

O. N. buntUfm (p. p. of binda). The phrase bwtdtMH ikbpum, under constraint from fate, 
affords an instance of the use of the original word in a strictly analogous sense. The S. G. 
word binda, in its forensic sense, — to give force to, or render binding — approaches the same 
usage, as also our modem technical word bound: e. g. ' bound to keep the peace,* ' bound 
under a penalty,' &c. 

• " Div 'ee think at he 'U stand til it ?" *• Aye, he 's boun t' dee *t, noo, onnyways." ' 

* He 's boun t' gan ;' he is obliged to go ; has no choice about it. Comp Tied. 

* ** You II never do such a thing as that, Joseph ? " *' Ah wadn 't wivoot Ah wur bound. 
It 's nane o' ma* ain latin'." ' 

In the following extract, Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. ai8, both our present word boun, and a 
▼b. cognate with boun, ready, prepared, occur. 

* Then the king called a earle .... 
he bad buske him & bowne him : to goe on his message ; 
then that knight full courteouslye kneeled to the ground, 
saies, ** I am bound to goe as ye me bidd wold." ' 

Bonn, adj. Ready, prepared, on the point of doing any given 

O. N. buinn (p. p. of bua, to make ready, to equip) is of continual use in precisely the 
same sense : see also albuinn, idbuin, omnino p^ratus : Hald. Comp. likewise Sw. rede- 
boen, fitly prepared ; farboen, ready to set out on a journey, &c. 

* Ah lays there 's boun t* be a wedd'n t* moom.' 

* It 's boun a raan afore it 's lang.' 

* Ah 's boun for oif a bit ;' or, ' Ah 's boun off for a bit ;' I am going away for a little 

* Ah 's boiun for Cass'lton hirings ;' Castleton statute fair. 
Comp. the following extracts : — 

' Abrabam. Luke thou be bourne; 

For certan, son, thi self and I, 

We two must now weynd furthe of towne 

In far country to sacrific.' Townel. Myst. p. 38. 

* Says, Lady, lie rydc into yonder towne 
& see wether your friends be bowne.* Percy's Fol. MS. i . p. 76. 

' Lords and ladyes of the best. 
They busked and made them bowne.* lb. p. 91. 

Bounder, sb. The impact, more or less forceful, of a weighty and 
not inelastic substance or object, on a solid surface ; of a wall, e. g., or 
a pavement, or the hard earth. Cf. E. dound, rebound. 

* *• It fell with a great bounder ;" fell heavily and rebounded.' Wb. Gl. 

Bounders, bounds, sb. i . Limits, boundaries ; the line between one 
property, or manor, and another, whether defined (as by a wall, or fence. 


or water-course), or undefined, as on the moor or common, between the 
several boundary-marks, Mere-stones, or Bounders. 2. Mere-stones or 
boundary-marks, consisting sometimes of natiual objects, more usually 
of single upright stones, or piles of stones — Steean-rucks — set up on 
the boundary-line. 

Cf. A. S. pyndan^ to shut in, or enclose. Mr. Wedgw. refers the word to the ' Celtic root 
hon^ ham, a stock, bottom, root,' and collates * Bret, nun-^onn, a boundary-stone ; hotmgin, to 
fct bounds, to fix limits.* 

I. ' Bounders or limits of the said manor.' Peramb. o/Danby Manor ^ 1577* 
' A riew and perambulation of the limits and bounds of Danby, 6cc.* Id. 1 750. 

* The names of those who rid the bounders* Id. 

a. * By the antient marks, mere-stones and bounds.* Id. 

* The bounders, upon some certaine day, once in the year, yearly, are to be viewed and 
perused.' Id, 1577. 

Bounder-marks, bonnder-steeans, bounder-stoups, sb. Upright 
stones, specially set, or other objects serving to mark the limits or 
boundaries of any manor or manors. 

* The exact distance between each bounder-mark and other.' Peramb. Danby, 1666. 

Bonsy, bowsy. Pliunp, full of flesh, Falstaff-like. Hall, says, 
' bloated by drinking.' 

Uald. gives bussa, a fleshy, well-fed female. Germ, baus^ek is plump-cheeked ; bt^se 
is, in Dutch, * a cup with two handles, which on account of its size is taken up and set down 
with both hands.* Comp. also boss, a hollow vessel ; Fr. busse, bosse, a cask, and Sw. D. 
pysa, Sw. pusa, to swell up, rise, as leavened dough does ; E. Dial, bawsin, large, imwieldy, 
swollen ; as well as £. boss, bossy, 8cc. 

Bow, sb. A semicircular hoop or handle to anything ; as a basket or 
Scuttle, a Backstone, a pail. Also, in the pi.; the hoops on which the 
tilt of a wagon or cart is supported. 

A.S. boga, a bow, an arch; O.N. bogi; Sw. boge; Dan. bue; Germ. bug. 

Bow-bridge, sb. A high-pitched, one-arched bridge, of which there 
are still several in the district, all of them ancient. 

Stratford is the last village in Essex pn the great London road, and is built on the banks 
of the river Lea where it is aossed by Bow-bridge, said to have been the first arched-bowed 
bridge in England. Stowe, speaking of this bridge, says Matilda, queen to Henry I, 'caused 
two stone bridges to be builded, of the which, one was situated over Lue at the head of the 
town of Stratford, now called Bow, because the bridge was arched like a bow. A rare piece 
of work : for before that time the like had never been seen in England.' 

Bowdykite, sb. A forward or impudent child: one who absurdly 
affects the air and manners of those older than himself. 

Brock, gives as the definition of this word * a contemptuous name for a mischievous child, 
an insignificant or corpulent person.* The latter part of the definition is probably the 


original meaning of the word, from hfjwed^ in the sense of curved or arched, and kite, 
the belly or stomach. And from this meaning the transition in idea to that of contemptible, 
or of an object to be scorned or slighted, is easy. And thus probably originates the signifi- 
cation given in the definition quot<^ above, and also implied in our word. 

* A saucy botvdikitt Ud.' Wb. GL 

Bowkers. An interjection, expressive of surprise. 

Brack, pret. of to Broke. 

Bracken-olooky sb. A small brown-sharded beetle, often found 
about the bracken, or ferns generally. See Clock, Black-dock, &c. 

Brade, braid, v. a. To publish abroad, proclaim publicly and osten- 

* He brades it out everywhere that he is Mr. B*s natural son ; and the family don't like it.' 
Cf. * RiwxOSlan braid ut his sweord.* Lay. iii. p. loi. 

I have scarcely any hesitation in referring both these words to the same source, viz. 
A. S. bredan, bregdan, to gripe, lay hold of, draw out ; O. N. bregda. Comp. at bregda i 
Iqfi, to raise on high ; brtgda swerdit to draw sword. The word would thus, by derivation, 
be connected with braid on, to resemble ; and it may be observed in passing, that the O. N. 
word admits of almost as great a variety of signification as any other of the many-meaninged 
words and phrases of the Scand. tongues. 

Brae, sb. (pr. breea). The overhanging edge or margin of a river- 
bank, arising from the greater toughness of the top soil, or sward, over 
the subsoil ; the like edge in a gully, or moor road, which is often worn 
down three or four feet below the moor-surface; rarely, the broken 
moor-edge itself. 

O. N. bra, the brow, in a human face ; O. Sw. and Sw. D. bra. Sw. bryn has the same 
signification, and is applied, as are also Sw. D. brun, bruni, N. brun, exactly as our Breea 
is ; and in fact, the analogy or resemblance between the brow on the human visage, and 
the breea of a bank or abrupt hill-side is apparent enough. Comp. Dut. brauwe ot browt^ 
the edge ; E. brow of the hUl. 

* Loo' ye I heear 's tahlin's nes' : jis' i' t' breea, heear ;* look ! here is a titling's (meadow 
pipit) nest, just in the brae : a favourite site for such nests. 

Brae-foll, adj. (pr. breeaful). Full up to the Breea, or bank-edge ; 
applied to the Beck when full up to the margin, and only not overflow- 
ing. Equivalent to * bankfull' of Herefordshire. 

Brag, V. n. To boast, to exalt oneself in words. 

For an instance of the use of the word as an adj. note this :— 

' And syker, as I trowe, 
Weren her confessiones 
Clenly destrued 

Hy shoulde nought beren hem so brag, 
Ne belden so heyghe.* P, Plougbm, p. 492. 


* He bannede hit ferde. 
and taide ^t he wolde : 
Ba^ bi-ligge 
and eke Brustowe : 
pis wsBs hire l»roe* 

Sff F. Madden*s note npon broe being : * This is the modern term brag^ the meaning of 
wluch was originaDy the same with tbrtai. G. Douglas writes it braik. The vb. in 
M.H.O. is broggig, which is connected with A. S. bregan, broga, 8cc* 

'He's a maastcr at braggan*. His geese's maistlmgs midder an' ither fo'ks swans.' 

Braid, brade, v. n. (pr. breead). To resemble, to take after. Fer- 
guson observes that in Cumberland it usually implies resemblance or 
mnilarity of disposition. Jamieson's definition seems to carry the same 
limitation. In Cleveland it certainly includes resemblance in feature or 
external appearance, as well as in nature or disposition. 

Comp. O. N. bregda, used with the prepositions tU or a. The instances of usage given 
by Hald. are snch as to [dace the origin of our word beyond doubt : bven a baminu ai 
bngda tuma tU fodr sins f — in our vernacular, * wheea su 'd t* bairn breead ov wivoot 't 
be's flUlther?' bonum bregdr til attar: * he breeads ov 's fore-elders.' In the same 
wiy the O. N. word is employed to express that derived, or * second nature/ which * use' 
is, hiond brtgdr a venju: 'one's hand breeads o'use;' i.e. one gets to do that naturally 
iriuch he docs habitually. Further, bragd signifies features, lineaments ; and attar-bragdt 
hereditary personal characteristics, family likeness. The S. G. correlative word is br&, 
which is used of a child, says Ihre, who reminds one of his father ; or, as our Dalesmen say, 
flMliheani hissel'. Sw. Dan. brd pi, which in one district becomes brdda pd, is exactly 
coincident with our word. 

Braid-band, sb. A corn-swathe laid outwards. 

As com is usually cut with the scythe, the severed portion, or swathe, falls against the 
Dncnt com, and is taken up thence by the raker, who follows the mower, and laid over on 
the Band ready for the Binder. Occasionally, however, for some reason or other, it is cut 
the other way, or (torn the com, and falls over in a regular band or swathe ; and when a 
field or part of a field is cut thus, it is said to * lie in braid-band.' The explanation of the 
phrase given by Jam. and Hall, is different ; possibly from difference in local practice. 

Bramble, v. n. To pick blackberries. 

Brambles, sb. (pr. bramm'ls, brumm'ls). Blackberries, the fruit of the 
bramble (Rubtis /ruticosus). 

A. S. brenuU brembtl, brember, a bramble ; Dan. brambier ; Sw. Dial, brambdr, brom- 
bar. The A. S. name for the fmit was branwyrt. With the Dan. and Sw. forms comp. 
Line, brame-berries ; and note the Pr. Pm. forms (under Brere) brymmeyUi^ bremmyll, 

Bramlings, sb. Brandlings; worms in much request for trout- 
fishing, found in old and well-fermented dung-heaps. They are of a 
bright red colour encircled with numerous yellow rings, and give forth 
a thick yellow fluid, of rather an ill savour, when touched. 


"BnaiidLer, brandreth, sb. A kind of trivet, or tripod, or frame with 
crossbars set upon feet, and placed over the fire to receive pans or cook- 
ing-utensils generally. 

A. S. hrandrtdt a gridiron; Germ, hrandruthe. Jam. quotes also Dan. brandritb, and 
Teut. brander, hrandroede; and Brock., Dutch brander. Br&nn-ring is given in Rietz, 
and explained by brand-ring; the circular frame of the instrument being kq>t in mind 
instead of the cross-bars, as in other etymons : while Sw. brandjem is a gric^on. 

Among the Finehale Pr. InveniorUs, at p. ccccxiv., the following entry occurs : — * Et in 
i le Brandreth empto de Bursario ponderanti xliiij. petris ferri.' It is obvious that the article 
meant here cannot be what is understood by a Brandreth now. The Glossarist in Pr. Finch. 
supposes a massive grating of iron before and over the fire. May it not rather have been 
the massive bar of iron which seems, in the gigantic fireplaces of old, to have crossed the 
open chinmey just above and in advance of the fire ? Such a bar remains amid the debris 
of the great Idtchen firq>lace and chimney at Ludlow Castle. Cf. also * Upon the herthe 
belongeth woode or turues, two andyrons of 3rron {brandeurs), a tonge, a gredyron.' Note 
to Awndeme^ Pr. Pm. In point of fact, there are probably two words conftised in Bran- 
der and Brandreth. Cognate with the former are Teut. and Dut brander ; brandeur, in 
the above extract ; Sw. brandjem^ 8cc. ; and with the latter A. S. brandred, Dut. brandroede^ 
Germ. brandruAe, Dan. brandritbt a brand-rod. See Bosworth. 

Brander, v. a. To broil ; to cook over the bare fire, live coals or 
embers. See Brander, sb. 

0. N. brandr, live coals ; Sw. D. brannd, in the compound brannd-iara, the equivalent 
of our Ass-card (which see) ; A. S. brand ; 8cc. Comp. E. brand, ^re-brand. See. 
Our vb. is therefore simply to expose (meat) over glowing coals. 

Brand-new, bran-new, bran-span-new, brand-spander-new, adj. 
Freshly or perfectly new. 

Brand-new is simply new from the fire or forge. All the Teut. tongues preserve the 
word brand in some form or other, and all have the word new ; whence Jamieson's remark, 
that our word is simply the Teutonic brand-new. Shaksp. uses the quite equivalent form 
fire-new, still heard in some districts. Span-neio is found as O. N. sp6n-nyr, from spdnn, 
1 chip. Sw. spdn. Germ, span, Dan. spaan, all bear the same meaning ; and Sw. D. 
span-noj, new as a chip, splittemy, preserves the form for Sweden. Brand-new, therefore, 
is a word suggested by the newness of a metal implement ; span-new by that of something 
fashioned out of wood. This is chip-new; new from the artificer's tools: that burning- 
new; new from the smith's forge. Brand-spander-new is hence an unscientific, not to say 
blundering, compound involving two dissimilar ideas. 

Brant, brent, adj. i. Steep, as applied to the side of a hill, or 
a portion of very hilly road. 2. Pompous, consequential. 

Sw. bratt, brani; O. N. brattr; N. brati; Dan. brai. Ihre gives as an example of usage, 
en brant bache, a steep hill; which, as has been noticed, corresponds exactly with our 
a brant bank. The interchange of n and / has also been noticed ; and the circumstance 
that the word is not of Sc. usage, and seems to have no A. S. etymon, is also noteworthy. 

1 . * •* A hilly field this, Mr. Dale." ** Aye brant enew, for seear. Amaist ower brant for 
t' pleuff." ' 

• As brent 's a hoos*-sahd.* 

2. * So-and-so 's as brent as a yackeron (acorn) ;' of a pompous, stuck-up individual. 

Cf. Dan. D. brente, to stick one's stomach out. Hvor den dreng brenter! how that 
lad puffs himself out I 


Brash, sb. i. Refuse matters, such as twigs, chips, short hedge- 
clippiugs, Ac. 2. Rubbish, in the sense of a confiised mass of refuse. 

The leading idea in this word, in ahnost erery instance, as illustrated by local usage in 
districts widely apart, seems to be of matters that are either brittle — twigs (Northumb^ 
Durham), the tmall growth of a hedge, or its clippings (Leeds) ; or that hare been already 
broken — * a mixture of coal-dust, chips and twigs* (Whitby). Taking this as a clue, the 
word is probably a derivation from A. S. brecan (see also S. G. brtueia), and a near 
rdatire of brtaeb, broach. Sec, O. N. breisi, weak, frail, is almost exactly coincident. 
See Ihre in t. Bnak, 

Rich, obsenres that the * noun broebes is used in P. Ploughm. as bits of wood broken or 
tfUi off ;' and * skewers or sharp-pointed sticks,' are still (or were, not long since) termed 
brod>ts in some parts of Yorkshire. The same idea of broken, or easily broken, holds good 
in the quasi-geological term brcub, the fully geological term Com-brasbt and the Italian 
or tcci tt, 

I. ' Gan an' mak* a bleeze, bairns, wiv thae hedge-clippings and brash* 

a. • Thae taties *s a' brmb tcgither. There 's niwer a guid yan amangst 'em.' 

Braah, sb. A rising of acid or acrid liquid into the mouth ; a symp- 
tom depending on a disordered or overloaded state of the stomach. See 
Water-brash ; also called ' water-springs.' 

Pr, Pm. • Brakyn, or castyn, or spewe. Vomo, evomo* * He wyll not cease fro sur- 
fettynge tyll he be ready to parbrake.' Note, lb, * Braking, Puking, reaching. Teut. 
braichn, to Tomit, brateke, nausea. This seems to be properly a secondary sense of bratektn, 
to break.' Jam. That is possible ; and, originally, I had included this word under Brash, 
refuse ; and its meaning as a third sense to that word ; for there can be no doubt that it 
originates in brakt^ O. £. braiyn, to vomit. However, Sw. D. brdika s#, Dan. brakkt tig, 
Gcnn. tieh breehen, N. S. sicb brdeken, seem to justify its separation. Comp. the idiom 
in brm^ wind, break cover, &c. ; and Brash, an eruption, or breaking forth on the skin ; 
also the forms E. breach. Ft, brecbe, 

Braahy, adj. i. Of inferior quality, poor, indifferent 2. Weakly 
or delicate in constitution, liable to be frequently ailing. See Brash. 

I. * Puir brashy bits o' things;' applied to a sample of apples, or potatoes, small in size 
and poor in quality. 

a. * She 's nobbut a brashy body ; she 's maist alla's i' t' ane ailment or t' ither.' 

I, sb. Impudence, imblushingness. 

0, N. brass, insolence, forwardness. 

* He *s brass enew for owght : he 'd ex t' Queen t* coom by, if iwer she war in 's road ;* 
he'd bid the Queen stand on one side if she were in his way. 

Brass, sb. i. Money m general. 2. Copper money. 

1, • Thay *ve lots o' brass : they w'oUy stinks ov it.' 

* Ah 's sell'd thae kye, and getten t' brass,* 

2, * Thee '11 want a hau'p'ny back. Ah 's feared Ah 's nae brass* 

Brassened, brazened, adj. (pr. br&z'n'd). Impudent, without 

* She 's as brassened a browl as iwer Ah ligged een on.' 



Brat, sb. i. A child's pinafore. 2. The rag or patch secured to 
any part of a sheep, to save that part from the attacks of * the Fly.' 

A. S. brat, a cloak, a clout ; Welsh brai, a rag ; Gael brat, an apron, cloth. 

* For n'ad thei but a shete 
Which that thei might wrappin hem in a night. 
And a braitt to walken in a daie light, 
Thei wold hem sel, and spend it on this craft.' 

Cbanon's Feman't TaU, p. 123. 

Bratted, adj. Covered with a slight film, as milk when beginning 
to turn sour, or slightly curdled, is. (Wk. GL defines the word as 
' slightly curdled.') 

Hall, gives * Brai. Film or scum. North,' apparently from Brock., who defines it, ' the 
film on the surface of some liquids, as on boiled milk when cooled ;' and suggests Germ. 
breiten, to spread, as a derivation. It is prol»bly an adaptation of the sense of Brat, sb., 
1 clout, covering ; such as a pinafore, or sheep's Brat, for instance. 

Brattice, sb. A wooden partition, serving, e.g., to divide a closet 
or store-room into two parts. 

Cf. Pr. Pm, * Bttrax, of a walle (bretasce, breta3rs). Propugnacylttm ;' and in the note, 

* Bretesse, breteche, bretesque, tour di bois mobile^ . . . palis&adt. Roquef.' Mr. Wedgw. 
says, ' bratHei is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery, from So. bred^ 
G. britt, Dut. berdt a plank or board, as lattice, a frame of laths, from Fr. /a//#, a lath.* In 
some parts of the North the high screen reaching from the wall, close to the door, from tn 
outer passage some way into the room, forming, with its back, a sort of passage, and having 
a seat affixed to its front by the fire^de, is called a Brattice. 

Braungmg, adj. Large-featured and red-faced. 

This word appears to be used with a variation of sense according to locality. HaU. gives 

* pompous,' as its meaning. In the Leeds dialect, * a grgat brawngitig fellah' is a man * with 
massily set features, and a stout, fresh, country look ;' while in the Wb, Ol. it is defined as 

* brazenfaced,' and * a gret braunging weean' is * a coarse impudent-looking woman.' Brana 
is given by Haldorsen as * a woman with a man's mien and spirit,' while the O. N. vb. 
brana, and S. G. bringas both imply impetuous motion, such as that of a bulky or massy 
body. But the probability rather is that the word is related to brawn, brawny, as stunge to 
stun, mungi or muncb to mun (mouth), &c. 

Brave, adj. Of good quality as well as appearance. 

O. Sw. bra/, good, excellent; Sw. and Dan. brav; and probably O.N. bragd, bragga. 
See Ihre in v. Braf, and Wedgw. in v. Brc^. The two cardinal meanings of Lat. virtus, and 
of Gr. diyaOos meet with their exact parallel in those of the word brave. Valour was with 
all primitive nations the great virtue, bravery the peculiar excellence, approving itself to the 
eye as well as by more tangible proofs of superiority. The Scotch brow and our brave 
are curious reminiscences of this old-world mode of sentiment and eiq>ression. 

• Miranda. What is 't ? a spirit ? 

Lord, how it looks about I Believe me, Sir, 
It carries a brave form.* Tempest, i. 2. 

* It is (rove-looking beef, and it eats bravely.* Wb. Gl, 


* ■* He's ^etten 1 tfravt bit o' brau for t' fann an' stock, Ah lay ?*' " Ay, hes he. But 
f wur a bravt spot an' all." ' 

• " How are you, this morning, Thomas ? " " Bravt an* wcci, thank *ee. Hoo 's 

Bravely^ adj. and adv. Very well, famously. 

* •• Hoo is 't wi* thee, man ? " " Bravtly, thank 'ee." ' 

* " He 's getting on well there, then ?" " Aye, hravely" ' 

Bray, v. a. To beat or thrash with violence ; simply to beat or flog. 

Pr, Pm. * Brayyn^ or stamp3m in a mortere. Ttro* Cf. Sw. D. hrdja^ to bruise flax ; 
Bar., Swab., Swiss brtcben, id. The word involves an accommodation of the sense of the 
standard word, viz. to pound or beat until the substance is reduced to powder or a pulp; 
thence to beat a person violently. Mr. Wedgw. collates Sp. bregar, to work up paste, knead. 
Cf. Pr. Pm. • Brayyn, as baxters her pastys ;' Prov. Cat. bregar, to rub, Fr. broyer and Bret. 
brtua, to bray in a mortar. 

' ** Ah *11 bray thee tiv a mithridate ;'* a mithridate being a medicinal confection of smooth 
and soft consistency.' Wb. GL 

* Be sharp, and get thee yamm, or thee *11 get tha' back bray*d a bits. T' moodher 's 
latin' thee.* 

Bread-loafy sb. (pr. breead-leeaf). i. The loaf of bread; the mass, 
as opposed to a piece or portion. 2. A loaf of bread, as opposed to 
bread-cakes, &c. 

0. N. braud-leif. The corresponding words are found of course in the other languages of 
Teut. origin, but in actual composition only in our dialect and O. N. ; brod-haJea in Sw. D. 

Cf. ' cusb9 bet 6as stanas hlafa gewordeno sie ;' command that these stones be made 
bread. Nortb, Gospels, Matt. iv. a. 

1. ' Reach me here t' breead-leeaf, wilt 'ee. Ah deean't want nobbut a shahve.' 

a. ' Ah couldn't get a breead4eeaf annywhSres. Ah was fSSssed to send intil Whitby 
for 't.' (A fact : the bread being required for the Holy Communion.) 

Bread-meal, sb. (pr. bre6ad-meal). Flour with the coarsest bran 
taken out, but still such as when made up into bread produces * brown- 
bread' See Meal. 

Breaks, brooks, sb. Boils or carbuncles. 

There can be little doubt of the origin of this word in either form ; ^. S. brecan^ 
pcpl. brocen, will supply both. The idea is well given in the passage, * and it shall be 
a boil breaking forth with blains.' In fact, in the ordinary use of the word, it is frequently 
associated with the word Byle. 

* He 's nobbut dowly. He 's had a strange vast o' thae nasty brooks an' byles aboot *im.' 

Breckens, burk'ns, sb. Ferns. The general name for the Ftlix 
tribe, but from its greater abundance especially applied to the common 
brakes or brackens (Pteris aquilina). Growing as these do in great luxu- 
riance, and over spaces of many acres in extent, on our Bank-sides, 
they are carefully harvested in considerable quantities and applied as 
litter by those who have an insufl&cient supply of straw for the neces- 
sities of their pig or their cow. In the autumn of 1866, when fodder 

K 2 


was very scarce, twenty-seven scythes were seen at work on one hill- 
side, and numbers of die substantial farmers had recourse to this substi- 
tute for litter. 

O. N. hurhni; Dan. bregru, Sw. D. broken, hrdgen, brdge, brakne^ brdgjen, seems to be 
more exclusive in its meaning than our Breckens, as it includes only the * common brakes.' 
It should be observed also that by many the t and r are transposed in Pr., and the sound of 
the word becomes somewhat guttural— -^J^'iu, or rather, bttri*ns, Cf. O. N. hurktu, 

Brede, breed, sb. i. Breadth, extent. 2. A breadth of cloth, silk 
or other material. 

0. N. hrmdd; Sw. hredd; Sw. D. hrajd; Dan. hredt; A.S. br<Bd, bred. Pr, Pm, *Brede 
of mesure. Ladtudo* 

1. * There was t* w'oU brede o* i* garth betwizen him an* me.* 
• T* brede o* f road.* • T* brede o* mah hand.* 

2. * Whyah, there *s ten bredes iv her dress, if there *s yan.* 

Bree, brere, sb. i. The brier or common dog-rose (Jiosa canina). 
a. A thorn or prick from the stem of the same. 

A. S. breer, br4r. The word appears in Wicliffe*s Translation o/tbe Bible, breris, and in 
Chaucer, breres, much as it remains in Clevel. to this day. One local name in the town- 
ship of Danby is Red-brere, which, though written in the registers as Red-brier, is always 
sounded as written above. 

2. *As sharp as a bree;' applied both literally, and as implying natural sharpness or 

* I have oone (a wife) to my fere 
As sharp as a thystle, as nigh as a brere.* Townel. Myst. p. 100. 

Bree, breese, sb. The gadfly (CEstrus bovis). 

A. S. briosa. Another A. S. form of the name of this insect is brimsa ; comp. S. G. 
broms; Dzn.brems; Sw. and Sw. D. brems, brims, broms; Germ, bremse, breme; &c. 
Bromma, to buzz, is probably the origin of the S. G. broms (Ihre, Rietz), and similarly in 
the other cases. Our Clevel and N. English Bree or Breese, with its original A. S. form 
briosa, are also most likely referrible to some derivative from a verb nearly related to 
brimma, and due to the sound made by the wings of the gadfly : enough of itself to set 1 
herd of oxen or cows half wild. Comp. Dan. bruus, a rushing sound. The other Clevel. 
name for the insect in question is also referrible to the noise it makes. See Bumbore. 
The eggs laid by the Breese, when hatched, lead to the swellings in Beasts' backs known 
IS Warbles. 

Breeam, sb. (Pr. of broom). (Genista scoparta.) 
Breeast-beean, sb. (Pr. of breast-bone). 

The breast-bone of a goose is still employed by some of our Dalesmen as a medium of 
prognostication for the coming winter. A translation of Thiele*s notice, Overtroishe^en- 
inger, p. Il, requires only the substitution of a word or two in order to be applicable in 
Clevel. : • From the breast-bone of a goose, eaten on Martinmas Eve (Old Style), it is pos- 
sible to ascertain what the winter is likely to be. When picked it must be held up to the 
light, and the white marks then discernible betoken snow, the darker ones frost and cold 
weather. It should also be remarked that the front part of the bone foretells the weather 
before Christmas, the hinder part the weather after Christmas.* See also Grimm, D, M. 


pp. 1067, 1068, where the tame notion is quoted u mentioned by leveral different writers 
and as pertaining to divers localities. Here, a mottled appearance of the bone is held to 
prognosticate changeable winter-weather, alternating snow and thaw ; a prevailing whitish- 
opaque cast much snow ; a dark colour severe frost ; and comparative transparency, open 
weather. The goose also must be eaten before Martinmas (New Style), though not neces- 
sarily on Martinmas E'en. It is observable that the Clevel., Qenn., and Dan. signs or 
tokeos all vary more or less, according to the prevailing climate of the district they 
obtain in. 

sb. A brood, a litter of young ones. 

I do not think this word is simply the English brood with the Cleveland pronunciation ; as 
it wants the peculiar accent which in its effect is ahnost to convert a monosyllabic word into 
one of two syllables, as Uong^ ttttan ; sebool^ sebetal^ &c. It is not, however, given in 
HalL, Brock., or Wb. or Leeds Gl. ; although it is in very common use in Clevel. Cf. E. 
breed, a kind, strain, as in the phrase * a breed of cattle,* * fowls,' 8cc. 

* A gran* breed o* pa'tridges.* Cf. Pr. Pm. * Bredde or hccchyd, of byrdys.* 

* Moor bods 's nane sae rank : t' breeds *s wakish, an' nobbut a few ov' em.' 

* T* aud sow 's getten a gay guid breed o* pigs.' 

Breekin% sb. The natural division of the stem of a tree into the 
branches or forks which form the head. 

The tree * breaks' or parts at the point in question ; which may suggest the derivation. 
Comp. Germ, brecbwtg, Dan. brydning, as applied to express refraction ; and Pr. Pm, 
' BrUe or brekynge. Ruptura* See also Breeks. 

Breek-lesSy adj. Without breeches. See Breeks. 

* ** Thae 's varry needful. Ah *s seear. Thae 's nigh sarkless an* breehless ;" almost in a 
state of nudity.* Wb, Gl. 

sb. Breeches. 

O.N. brdk (pi. brcekur); O. Sw. brok; Sw. braekar; A. S. 6r^c, braccce; N.S. brook; 
Dut. broek, Cf. Lat. bracca, Irish broages^ Arm. brag. Ihre objects to Junius' derivation 
of the word from brecken, to break or part, on the ground that it is not known what form 
the article of attire first named breeks (or its equivalent in other dialects) really had. 
Dr. Rietz gives his opinion that the M. Lat. word is derived from the Gallic tongue, and 
that the word is originally Celtic. Jam. gives a curious proverbial usage of the word in the 
sing., or as denoting one leg of the garment in question : * They sit full still that have a 
riven breike.* 

Breke, v. a. The accustomed form of to Break. 

Pr. Pm. • Brekyn or breston (brasten). Frango' 

Breke one's day, To. To fail m keeping an appointment, break 
one's tryst. 

* Certis (qV he) nothing anoyith me 
To lene a man a noble, two or thre. 
Or what thing were in my possession 
Whan he so true is of condicion 
That in no wise he brekin wolle his t/ofV, 
To soche a man I can nevir saie naie.* 

Cbanon's Yeman's Tale, p. 124. 


Brenty adj. Another form of Brant. 

Bride-aley sb. The wanned, sweetened, and spiced ale, yet pre- 
sented in some villages, to a wedding party on its return from church. 

O. N. brUd-dl ; A. S. bryd^ala, a bride-ale, bride or marriage feast. The latter word is 
of course the origin of E. bridal. Ihre, under the word di, remarks, it is clear that this 
beverage has been a favourite one among the ancient Scjrthian and Gothic nations, and 
indeed the sine qua rum — whence all their more important banquets were named 61, e. g. 
Ar/H, Bamsolt Kirkeging$-6l, Grajwa-dl^ &c., or, Heir-^Ue, CiiltFs-baptismraU, Mother' t- 
cburcbing-aUt Grave-ale. Comp. the old word Cbureb-^. Our Clevel. word is re- 
markable as presenting the two constituents of bridal in a separate form, and as dissecting 
out from the complex sense of brud-ol the single element connected with the liquor chiefly 
drunk on such occasions. See under Bride-door. 

Bride-door, sb. The door of the house from which the bride pro- 
ceeds to church, and at which the wedding festivities are to be held 
afterwards ; used in the phrase ' to run for the bride-door.' 

With this word comp. Sw. D. bryliopsbus, brollopsbus. 

The custom in which it originates is doubtless of Northern extraction. It reappears under 
somewhat var3ring forms in many of the Northern counties, but always in such guise as in 
some way to embody the same idea. * To ** run for the bride-door" is to join in the race for 
the bride's gift, run by divers of the young men of the neighbourhood, who wait near the 
church-door till the marriage ceremony is over. The prize is usually a ribbon, which is 
worn for the day in the hat of the winner.* Wb. Gl, Hall, simply adds to a precisely 
similar statement, that the race is run * to the bride's door,' and both might have added that 
the ribbon when won is supposed to be destined for the winner's sweetheart, actual or to be. 
In Cumberland, says Brock., it is usual * for the bridegroom, attended by his friends on 
horseback, to proceed in a gallop to the house of the bride's father. Having alighted, he 
salutes her, and then the company breakfast together. After breakfast the whole party ride 
to church together, a fiddler in attendance, and at the conclusion of the ceremony they all 
proceed to some neighbouring alehouse where many a flowing bumper is drunk to the 
health of the happy pair. Thus inspired they set off full speed towards the future residence 
of the bride, where a handkerchief is presented to the first who arrives. In Craven,' he 
continues, * after the service is over a ribbon is offered as the winner's prize, either in a foot 
or a horse race. Should any of the competitors, however, omit to shake hands with the 
bride, he forfeits the prize, though otherwise entitled to win. Whoever first reaches the 
bride's habitation is ushered into the bridal chamber, and, after having performed the cere- 
mony of turning down the bed-clothes, he returns, carrying in his hand a tankard of warm 
ale^ to meet the bride, to whom he triumphantly offers the cup he bears, and by whom in 
return he is presented with the ribbon as the ttophy of his victory.* From a MS. I have 
been permitted to make use of it appears that much or all of what is thus described is * still 
practised at St. Helen's, Auckland, and other villages in Durham : only the handkerchief is 
supposed to be a delicate substitute for the bride's garter, which used to be taken off as she 
knelt at the altar ; and the practice being anticipated the garter was generally found to do 
credit to her taste and skill in needlework, and was made the chief prize at the ensuing 
sports.' In Clevel. and the neighbouring district the hot ale (see Hot-pots), duly sweet- 
ened and spiced, was presented by the friends of a bridal party at some point or points of the 
return journey from church. ; This custom is upheld in full force at Robin Hood's Bay, 
near Whitby ; and as many as twelve Hot-iK>ts have been brought forth and partaken of 
in the one-mile distance between the church and the town.' Wh. Gl. The foot-race, or, as 
it is now more commonly designated, running for the ribbon, is by no means fallen 


into dmtetode in Cleyel. ; indeed, it is almost too much to say it has totally superseded the 
hone-nce. Within twenty or twenty-five years these races were hotly contested in Danby 
by mounted men, two or three of whom, together with their steeds, were well known for 
their many racing exploits on such occasions. The writer has met with an old and dim 
tradition that in dajrs gone by, the race was always from the churchyard gate to the 
Biid»-door, and that the prize was not barely the bride's garter, but the added 
privilege of taking it himself from her leg as she crossed the threshold of her home. The 
HoMkt-pots of the Dales, no less than the potations of ale in Cumberland and Craven 
emphasized by Brockett; the mounted cavalcade; the rapid riding (comp. brullup, or 
irudiaup, hasty thronging to a wedding; brudguma-reid, the bridegroom's journey with 
a moonted cavalcade to the bride's-house), — all point explicitly to Northern customs. 
Comp. also the following : — * The most ancient mode of wooing had at least the merit of 
fimpUdty: it consisted in carrying off the desired object by physical force. There are 
traces of the custom in a game or ceremony still occasionally practised on the marriage of 
a Welsh peasant. After the wedding, the bridegroom mounts on horseback and takes his 
bride behind him. A certain amount of "law" is given them, and then the guests mount 
and pursue them. It is a matter of courtesy not to overtake them, but whether overtaken 
or not, they return with their pursuers to the wedding feast.' Brand's Pop. Antiq. ii. p. 155 ; 
Notes and Queries, xi. 415 ; Anglo-^axon Home, p. 22, and note. To the above may be 
added, from Jam., that to * ride the bruse or broose' is to ride a race on horseback at 
a wedding. * The custom,' he says, * is still preserved in the country. Those who are at a 
wedding, especially the younger part of the company, who ate conducting the bride from 
her own house to the bridegroom's, often set off at full speed for the latter. This is called 
** riding the bruse:** he who first reaches the house is said " to win the bruse" * For some 
time, the author states, he thought the word bruse must be closely connected with some 
ancient word signifying a wedding, or relation to a wedding ; but that he changed his view on 
meeting with the following account of a custom common in the N. of Engl, seventy or eighty 
yean ago. ' Four young men, with their horses, were waiting without : they saluted the 
bride at the church-gate, and immediately mounting, contended who should win what they 
called the ** Kail ;" that is, a smoking prize of spice^roth which stood ready prepared to 
reward the victor in the race.' Query, was it kail, or alt (yall) ? Was it * barley-bra* or 
ordinary *brose*f 

sb. A waggon, loaded with household goods, to be 
conveyed from the bride's father's house to the bridegroom's. 

* Clown, Good speed, good speed, old Geoffry now, and unto thee good day. 

Ah *ve got a tale to tell to thee as we go on the way ; 
For Ah 'm to be tha* son-i'>law an* marry thah lass, Margery : — 
What portion you will give to her, discover Ah pray to me. 
Oeojfr, Wheeah I ma dowther shall ha' hawf of a' Ah hez, except ma' grizzle meear : 
She 's have a bridewain o* t' best : she 's have a' she s'ud. Ah decleear.' 

From a MS. copy of the Egton Sword Donee Interlude, 

* Mr. Marshall observes that formerly great parade was exhibited in connection with the 
bridewain. The waggons were drawn by ** ten, or perhaps twenty pair " of oxen garlanded 
with ribbons, while a young woman sat at her spinning wheel in the centre of the load, and 
the friends of the parties increased the gifts as the procession went on.' Wb. Gl, ' In 
Cumberland,' says Mr. Brockett, * it is a custom for the friends of a newly married couple 
to assemble, upon invitation given, and after partaking of " cold pies, furmity and ale, to 
join in various country pastimes." The bride and bridegroom are then placed in two 
chairs, the former holding a pewter dish on her knee, half covered with a napkin. Into 


this dish every person present makes it a point to put something ; and these offerings occa- 
sionaUy amount to a considerable sum. I suppose it has obtained the name of W€un from 
a Tery ancient custom, now obsolete in the North, of presenting a bride who had no great 
stock of her own, with a waggon-load of furniture and provisions. On this occasion the 
horses were decorated with ribbons.' In Northumberland such a waggon is styled the 
* plenishing-wain.' To this I may add that some forty or fifty years since it was the custom 
here to place one of those curious and handsome black oak cabinets or presses, not long 
since conmion in the Dales, well stored with the necessary Graithing or Gear for a newly 
married couple, in a Wain, and harnessing to it several yoke of oxen gaily garlanded, to 
drive it as a part of the bridal procession to the church. Arrived there it was lifted off and 
carried within the church porch, remaining there the whole time during which the service 
was going on. It was essential that the waggon should travel along the ordinary church- 
road, and not make short cuts, or other deviations from the established route. One such 
Bridewain, which took its departure for the church from Danby Castle, is specially men- 
tioned by my informant as having had no less than sixteen oxen yoked to it. 

It is interesting to find traces of the same custom in Normandy, as well as in other 
districts indebted to the Danes for no small infusion of their present population. 

Brief, sb. A document carried by one who solicits pecuniary assist- 
ance, imder circumstances of loss or calamity ; a begging petition. 

O. N. brif; S. G. bref; Dan. 6r#v. The Brief in former days was the recognised or for- 
mal mode of seeking assistance, whether on behalf of communities or individuals, towards 
the performance of works to which their unassisted means were inadequate. Thus, to 
mention but one instance, the inhabitants of Scarborough, when the parish church had been 
partially destroyed during the siege of the castle, * were under the necessity of having re- 
course to a Brief, in 1660, 12 Charles II, to enable them to rebuild it.' Hinderwell's Seat' 
borough^ p. 103. Many Briefs, duly signed by minister and churchwardens, may commonly 
be seen still in course of circulation through the country side in Clevel., sometimes to help 
the bearer replace his * lahtle coo,' or the horse he carried on his trade with, or the furniture 
or stock lost by a fire, &c. 

Brigg, sb. A bridge ; a quasi- natural pier projecting into the sea. 

O. N. bryggia, a bridge, a pier ; Sw. brygga, a bridge ; Dan. brygga, a pier ; A. S. bryeg, 
bricgt &c. 

* But ackerd fields, an' narrow riggs. 
They 've spoiled us quite for buUding briggs.* Caslelh*$ Potms, 

* Do boote to brugges 
That to-broke were.' P. Plougbm. p. 139. 

Brigg, vb. To bridge ; to build a bridge over a stream, &c. 

Brigg-stane, sb. i. A stone culvert laid across a Gkite-steady or 
carried beneath a road, the upper stones, or Coverers, of which are of 
sufficient length to span the entire width of the water-way. 2. Each 
of the single stones thus employed. 

Briniy breme, v. a. and n.. i. As applied to a sow; to desire the 
boar. 2. As applied to the boar; to serve the sow. 

O. N. brimi or brfnUt flame. Comp. A. S. bremman, to be hot, furious, raging, vehe- 
ment. Hald. gives the word btaubrymi as signifying the first enjoyment of coition by 


ncwl/ mairicd people : a use of the word hritm exactly coincident with that of our local 
weed. The following passages may senre to illustrate the transition of thought and sense 
from flame, heat, to the heat of passion or lust. 

* Ant qvedie in ham sprekes of lustes swa lu'Sere thet ha forhemeV in wi^ ant H^h ^ 
hritm abiindeS,' Smntt Mart, p. 15 : and strike in em sparks of lust so lither (bad) that 
thcj bom away inwardly, and through the burning go blind. 

* Then spake the turke rith wordes thraw, 
Saith, " Come the better of your tow (two) 
though ye be brenu as bore." ' 

To which Bishop Percy's note is, • brtnu, i. e. fierce ;* Mr. Fumivall's, • One of the com- 
moiicst phrases in early romances.' 

* I see the bull dothe bull the cow ; 
and shall I liue a maiden still ? 
I see the bore doth brim the sow ; 

and yet there is neuer a lacke for gill.' 

Percy's Loou and Humorous Songs, p. 29. 

Note also, — * And erOe brimm and beren dede.' ^A>ry 0/ Om, and Ex. p. 4. See also 

ih, p. as. 

f, adj. Brisk, blowing freshly ; of the wind. 

Under Brtoi Mr. Wedgw. quotes Fr. 6ris#, a cool wind ; It. brezza, a cold and windy 
mist or frost. And he adds, * The origin is the imitation of a rustling noise, as by the 
Sc brissU, properly to crackle, then to broil, fry.' Our word then approaches the proper 
meaning of brissU rery nearly, denoting the mitigated rushing or whizzing of the wind. 
Cf. Sw. D. brisa, to ru^ along hastily ; brusa, id. 

' A canny brissling wind : 't '11 soon dry t' land.' 

Broaoh, broohe, sb. i. The spire, or steeple, of a church. 2. The 
instrument, or spindle, on which yam used to be wound. 

The leading idea in each of the applications of the word (as also in a spit, a skewer ; 
besides those above given) is of pointedness. Wood splintered or broken presents instances 
of such pointedness : hence the p. p. brocen, from brecan, to break, is taken as the origin of 
brocbi. Bosw. quotes the Fris. word brok as meaning a fragment or broken piece. Comp. 
Fr. brocbt, a spit ; Welsh proeio, to thrust, stab ; Gael, brog, to goad, to prick ; and ako 
E. brooA. Pr. Pm. • Brocbe for a thacstare (see our Thack-prods) : Brocbe, or spete ; 
Brocbyn or settjm a vessel a broche ;' piercing it, i. e. with some pointed instrument. 

* Then broyled and broaebt on a buchers pricke 
The kidney came in of a holy sister.' 

Loose and Humorous Poems, p. 42. 

* As kenspack as a cock on church broacb* JVb. GL 

Brook, sb. The badger (Meles taxus), 

Dan. brok; A. S. broc; Erse broc; Welsh and Cornish brock. See Jam. in v. Broakit. 

Brook, sb. The froghopper or cuckoo-spit insect {Aphrophora spu- 
tnarid); the latter popular name being due to the froth in which the 
creature envelopes itself when in the pupa-state. 

Welsh broeb^ foam. 

* Ah sweeats like a brock.* 


Brookle, bmokle, adj. Easy to be broken, frail, brittle. 

O.Sw. braekdig; Sw. hrdeklig; Sw. and O. Dut. hrokd; O. broeklig. Comp. S. JotL 
4ro*, broken pieces of bread ; iV. Pm. * Brokdol, or frees (brokyU brokill). FragUis, 
' Ay, thae pankins at is getten oot in t* hones, — they *s desput bruekU for seear.' 

Brog, V. n. To browse ; to crop the short herbage or small hedge- 
shoots, as cattle do. 

Almost certainly a frequentative from t verb signifying to break, crush, bruise ; e. g. S. G. 
hr€tdta^ Sw. brdeka^ A. S. breean, Dan. imiit, &c. Comp. Sw. D. brogga^ to break or 
crush, reduce to fragments or small pieces. In fact, the standard word browte is itself 
probably referrible to an analogous origin. See Wedgw. in v. Browse, and also under 
Brake, 2. ; where he coUates O. E. brog, a swampy or bushy place ; O. Fr. brogilU, 
hregUU, brocl, &c., copse-wood, cover, bruik-wood; Prov. Germ, gthrbgt, gibrucbe, 
a brake, thicket. Comp. our definition. 

Broken-bodied, adj. Ruptured, afSicted with hernia. 

Comp. Dan. brok, Sw. brSck, a rupture; A. S. hroeod, afiSicted with a rupture; and 
Germ, gebmeben ; Sw. D. brdiklig, braUtUr, id. 
Cf. Pr, Pm. • Brostyn man, yn ^ cod. Hemiosus* 
« He 's broken-bodied i' baith sahds.' 

Brole, browl, sb. i. An impudent girl; a hussy, bold and unblush- 
ing. 2. A saucy, forward child. 

Hall, gives • brol, a child or brat, A. S. ;* but I know not on what ground. Our word 
seems always used in an offensive sense, and I am doubtful whether to refer it — ^not directly 
to E. brawlt but — to some such origin as Dan. brele, to roar, to bellow (cf. O. N. bratla, 
Dan. D. bralla, to talk at the top of one's voice ; Germ, brullen, Sw. vr&la ; in which case 
the idea is primarily that of one who is loud and violent in word, passing on then to the 
sense given in our definition, and in the following example from Wb. Gl. — * Thoo 's a braz- 
zened young browl*) ; or to Welsh brawl, a shooting out, an offshoot; in which case a 
child is the primary meaning. 

The word occun twice in P. Plougb. precisely in our first sense :— 

* Now mot ich soutere hys sone 
Seten to schole. 

And ich a beggeres bnd 

On the book leme.* (p. 494.) 

• I dorste have leyd my lif. 
And no lasse wedde 

He sholde have be lorde of that lond. 
And also kyng of that kith 
His kyn for to helpe, 
The leeste brol of his blood 
A barones pierc.* (p. 55.) 

Brough, bmff, sb. A faint luminous ring or disk about the moon, 
technically called a ' corona.' 

Jam. supposes the name brougb to have been given to this appearance ' because of its 
circular form, or resemblance to the encampments so designated ;' from O. N. and O. Sw. 


horg, k. S. lorgt hurh. Still, it may be expedient to notice a word yet current in ledand : 
* Ro$a-httugur^ ot storm-rings, formed about the moon.' Iceland, Sc, and Sagas, Introd. 
zzzi. ; and Hald. gives rosa-battgr, a circle about the sun or moon ; although haugr can 
scarcely be the origin of our word, unless it has passed through a stage of great corruption. 
Comp. hur in Hall., and burr in LineolnM, Gl. 

Brow-band, sb. A leathern strap, passing across the forehead of 
the bearer, by which the Fish-oreel is suspended. 

Browl, V. n. To scold, to urge a demand in violent or abusive terms. 

* When these three women 's brought to bed and after thee does browl. 
Thou must reply immediately I Imow ye not at all.' MS. Sw. Dance Interlude, 

Another reading is, * and round thee thae does broud* As the person advised is * the 
Losty Mnier,' who has seduced his landlady, her daughter and her servant, each under 
a promise of marriage, the idea in the word browl is apparent enough. Probably the vb. 
is derived from the sb. See preceding word. 

Brown-leemers or learners, sb. Brown or ripe nuts that separate 
or slip easily from the husk or hull. Wh, Gl, simply says * large fil- 
berts,' without specifying any degree of ripeness, which is insuflftcienti 
See Learn. 

Brock, suggests, not too happily, that learners may be les milrs, the ripe ones. It is 
simply gliders or slippers. Hall, says, ripe nuts which leave the husk readily are called 
hraim'sbtdlers. The sense is the same. See our Shurl, Shool, or 8hoU« to slip, glide, 

Bruff, adj. Full-faced and florid or fresh-looking ; hearty in look and 
manner ; loud and rather rough, or more than jolly, important 

Comp. Sw. D. borger, borg, berg, fiiU-grown, strong, hearty; byrg, burg, byrgr, self- 
sufficient, confident, self- satisfied. These words are all derivatives, with secondary mean- 
ings, from S. G. borgare, civis, one possessed of real rights and importance, therefore ; and 
borga, to act as bail or surety. See S. G. berga ; O. N. biarga ; A. S. beorgan. 

Brolly, sb. i. A broil, squabble, disturbance. 2. Moderate roughness 
or motion of the sea. 

O. Sw. brylla, to disturb, create a disturbance. Brylla or brilla is still used in the 
same sense in Sw. D. Ihre quotes as synonyms or derivatives, Arm. brella; £ng. broil; 
Fr. brouiller; Ital. imbrogliare, 

Brummel-nosed, adj. Having a nose with the characteristic signs 
of intemperance, purple and granulated, like the Bramml or BnimmX 

Bmmmels, brum'ls. See Brambles. 

Brunt, adj. i. Abrupt, precipitous, steep. 2. Blunt, unceremonious, 
abrupt, in manner. 

Probably the same word as brant or brent ; or, if not, from S. G. bryn, vertex montis, 
prsBcipitium ; for comparison with which Ihre quotes O. N. bruna, to lifl up, or exalt one- 
self; adding, that he looks upon bryn as denoting whatever prominently overtops other 
things near. Comp. Sw. D. bryni, a bank, or steep hill. 

a. * He 's a bit ^ti/f/-mannered ; but he *s not a bad sort.' 

L 2 


BruBsel, sb. Pr. of E. bristle. 

Another instance of the change of i into «, and as compared with Sw. horst, Sw. D. bust, 
horste, Dan. b^rste, Dut. bonul, also of the transposition of r and its Towel. Comp. Pr, 
Pm, • BrystylU, or brustylle (burstyll). Seia* 

BruBBen-hearted, adj. Broken-hearted See Heart-bmsseiu 

Brussen-kited, adj. Possessing a very protuberant, or swollen-look- 
ing abdomen. See 

Bruflsen-outy adj. Covered with blotches, or pimples, or sores. 

• He 's brussen-cut wi' lahtle water-blebs all ower his body.' 

Brusteiiy pcpl. (pr. bnissen). Used adverbially ; as in 

• •• Brusten-hig ;** exceedingly stout or corpulent/ Wh. GL 

' ** .BrKssM-breeadways ;" about as broad as long, for excess of hi,' lb, 

Bnisten-upy adj. Reduced to small pieces, pulverised, as bread by 
satiated children ; clods by frost, or the roller and harrows ; crockery- 
ware by a fall, &c. 

Buoh, butoh, v.n. To act as a butcher; carry on the trade of 
a butcher. 

Mr. Peacock gives the vb. b$Ueb as in use in N. Lonsdale. It seems to be simply 
derived from the sb., formerly spelt boehoure, bucber. 

BuokheadB, sb. The live stems or stumps of a thorn hedge after 
the branching heads have been cut off, leaving the stumps to shoot forth 

The word is probably due to, or expressive of, the idea of shooting forth from the head 
into many branches, as the horns of the buck do. And from the noun is taken the verb 
buck-bead, to lop. See Hall. 

Budge, v. a. and n. i. To move or be moved, as a nail in a wall, 
or a screw in its socket (or female) or in a piece of wood. 2. To 
lower or abate (in a demand, or price asked). 

E. budge is usually connected immediately with F. bouger. Looking to the sense our 
word takes, I am disposed to collate O. N. bjuga, buga, to master, get the better of; 
the primary meaning of the word being to bend, to make to bow. Comp. Dan. bugte, 
bugt, S. Jut. D. bBge, bogge^ to bend, to sway. Comp. also the O. N. phrases, aka 
einum a bug: in fugam ptUere; almost literally, to make him budge; enginn befir mer 
svd a bug e^V, sem \fu : no one has ever made me budge as you have. 

I. * Ah caan't bu(^e 't a hair-breed : it 's stiff as a stithy ;' of any object fixed in another. 

• It 's grandest drag at iwer Ah seen : *t weeant budge for now't ;' of a Coleman's Culti- 
vator, which passed steadily on in its work- at the same level, however hard the ground. 

3. ' Price is fower pun', an' he weeant budge a hau'pny.' 

Buer, buyer, sb. A gnat 

This word is probably derived from the same root as the Germ, ffetjfer, to pipe, to 
whizz. Comp. S. Juil. pibe, sounded pif, Kok, p. Xi8. In some Sw. districts also, pipe 


beGomes phn. Thus the name would mean the pipfr. Piping is a north-country word 
for ' the noise made by bees preparatory to swarming/ Hall. ; a peculiarly sharp buzzing : 
and the word is certainly very applicable to the sound emitted by ihe gnat. 

Bncph, sb. (pr. bufe or beeuf ). A bough. Compare the pronunciation 
of ploui^, eneugh. 

Doubtless this form or pronunciation of bougb is preserved in the following stanza i— 

' But Robin he walkes in the greene fforrest 
as merry as bird on bughe, 
But he that feitches good Robin's head 

heele find him game enoughe.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 19. 

Bull, v.a. and n. i. To serve a cow, as a bull does. 2. To desire 
the bull, as a cow does ; to shew symptoms of such desire. See quota- 
tion under Brim. 

Bullaoe, sb. The wild plum, or 'wild bullace' of botanical works 
(Prunus insitiiia) : ' fruit globular, austere, black with blue bloom.' 
Neither to be confounded with the sloe, nor with the ordinary fruit 
known as Bullaoe, which is green, with a partial russet tinge when ripe. 

Pr. Pm, * Boleu tre. Peptdut,* Also * A hul(u tre. Pepulus.* Catb. Angl, 
The word is no doubt due to the same origin as bull (Papal), btdltt, ball. Sec, and simply 
expressive of the spherical shape of the fruit. 

Bull-danoe, sb. The festivities or merry-makings of the country 
people on occasion of * Cattle Shows,' or Agricultural Exhibitions. Wh, GI, 

Bull-faces, sb. (pr. bull-feeaces). The turfy hair-grass (At'ra ccBspi" 
fosa); called also, as it appears from Hall, * Bull-fronts' and * Bull's- 
forehead' : probably from some supposed resemblance between the 
manner of its tufty growth and that of the hair on the bull's forehead. 

Bullock, v.a. I. To bully, to address another with violently abusive 
language. 2. To use loud unmeasured tones and terms in speaking. 

1. * Noo, thoo lap oop I Ah' wean't bide nae mair o' thah bullochin\* 

2. * I should like him better without all that bidloching' Wb. GL 

Bullocking, adj. Loud-tongued ; overbearing, imperious in word. 

Bulls, sb. The crossbeams of the harrow in which the teeth or 
tines are inserted. 

Bui, pi. buller, kaldes de traer paa barven bvori tandeme indsattes : bul, pi. buUer, 
the name by which arc called the beams of the harrows in which the teeth are set ; Jutl. 
and Sjxlland. Molb. Dan, D. Diet. Comp. Sw. D. 60/, a plank ; slda-bol, the nmners 
of a sledge, the gunwale of a boat, its planking. I do not find this word in Hall., or in 
any of the Yorkshire Glossaries, though it is common throughout a wide district in the 
North and East Ridings ; nor yet in Jam. It presents one more instance such as Segg, 
flan, peen, skare on, &c., of the singular illustration thrown by the Scand. dialects 
on our Yorkshire forms of the Northumbrian dialect. 


Bull-Beg, sb. A bull castrated after having arrived at full maturity. 

See Segg. None of the deriyations hitherto proposed for this word has been the least 
satisfiictory. Probably the suffix »gg refers to the alteration which has been made in the 
beast's power or spirit, or both. And in this connection we may note, not only the Cray, 
words Mg-beadt a blockhead; stg-kiit, an over-grown and greedy youth—one, therefore, 
who is proverbially neither active, nor sharp or bright; A. S. s^eor, piger, lazy, slow; 
O. N. aigla, animal tardum et lentum ; but also the fact that with setg or sci^, a boar 
castrated after arriving at maturity, Molb. couples sag or ug, a lazy, indolent drawler. 

Bull-spink, sb. The chafilnch (Frtngilla cceUbs). 

The word tpink occurs in the Sw. names of birds in several instances. Thus gvl-spink, 
the greater tom-tit ; and Pennant quotes gol-spini as applied in Faun, Suee. to the yellow- 
hammer. See Qold-spink. It is worthy of notice, that ho-Jine is the Sw. name of the 
diaffinch, or Spink : the prefix ho possibly answering to our biUL The name spink seems 
to be applied, with some prefix or qualifying word, to the mountain-finch, goldfindi, 
yellow-hammer, and chaffinch, in the north of England. 

Bull-stang, sb. The dragon-fly. 

BviUt here, is, it is likely, expressive of size or power (see Rich.) ; as also that si€mg 
implies the supposed power of the insect in question to sting, to inflict a venom-tainted 
puncture. See Flying-ether and stang. Comp. also the name given by the fisher- 
boys to the weever, viz. Stang-fish. 

Bum, bumble, v.n. (pr. bumml). To hum or buzz, like the 
humble-bee, or like a top. 

O. N. bumla ; Pr. Pm. * Bombon as been {bummyn or bwniyn), Bombizo^ bombilo ;* Sw. D. 
bumldt bumbld, to give a dull sound like an empty cask ; Germ, bommen or bummen, 
bomnulKf bummtln^ to give a dull reverberating sound, to buzz. Jam. quotes also Dut. 
bomnun^ to resound. * Bumblcar i tuntiunni* is a phrase given by Hald. Comp. Teut. 
bommele, a drone ; the name taken from the sound, doubtless. 

Bum, bumm'I, sb. The humming or buzzing noise emitted by the 
bee, drone, or top. 

Bumble-barfan, sb. A horse-collar made of reeds or rushes, as 
distinguished from a leather Barfan. Wh. GL 

Hall, gives bumbles as signifying rushes in Lincolnshire, which explains the first part of 
the word ; for the other, see Barfkm. 

Bumble-bee, sb. (pr. bumm'1-bee). The general name for the va- 
rieties of the humble-bee family. Comp. the name quoted by Brock, for 
the same insects — * humbler ;' and also the name ' bum-clock,' as applied 
to the beetle, which makes a loud humming noise in its evening flight, 

* The bum-clock hunmied wi' lazy drone.' Bums. 

Bumble-kites, bummel-kites, sb. Common blackberries. See 

It is not all plain sailing suggesting a derivation for this word. Brock, gives it as a 
Durham word ; Hall, quotes it ; and it appears in Wh. GL It is also found in the Leeds 
GL ; but there in a totally different sense — that of an unluckily clumsy person. A child. 


\j utaut awkwardness or carelessness, upsets a table corered with crockery, and is at once 
greeted as a * bumbU-USt* Kite in Clevcl. usually means belly, while bumble or 
trnnmel imports a buzzing or humming sound. But, then, bumble-fboi means a thick 
foot; himbU-€taff, a thick staff: so that it is possible that in Bummel-kite there may 
be a reference to the form of the fruit, bellying or bulging all round. The simpler 
eiphnatioo is, that it refers to the effect produced, by eating them in sufficient quantities, 
in the stomach of the eater ; namely, no little rumbling, or bummling. 

Bumbore, sb. The gad-fly {(Esirus davis). See Bree. 

The prefix is the same as in bummel-bee, hunt'cloch. See Btim, bumm'l. The latter 
put of the word is doubtless due to the piercing or boring process passed through when the 
insect's eggs are deposited, or, at least, to the perforation in the skin in the Warbles. See 
Bnrtree* Boretree. 

Bunoh, V. a. To kick or strike with the foot or knee ; (never applied 
to an animal). 

iV. Pm» * BuncboH. Tundo, trudo* Comp. H. Germ, pocben, L. Germ, boeben, Dutch 
buAm, S. Jutl. 6ote, S. G. boka, bania, Dan. banket Welsh ysbong. Possibly the Celtic may 
be the more direct source of our word. The It in the Jutl. dialect has a somewhat guttural 
sound. Kok. Dtttuke Folk-ep. S. J. p. 65. 
' He bunebed me wiv his foot.' ' 

' Deean't thee coom na furder, or Ah '11 buncb ;' addressed to a clegyman at the font in 
a Dale's church, by a juvenile candidate (!) for * Christening.' 

Bunoh-olot, sb. An uncomplimentary name for a farm-labourer or 
his master, nearly equivalent to the south-country * clod-hopper.' See 

Buns, bunnons, sb. The dry hollow stems of the cow-parsnep or 
hogweed {Herackum sphondylium)^ and other like plants. 

A. S. bune, a cane, reed, pipe. Jam. gives both bunwand and bunneris as s3monyms of 
the cow-parsnep. The first is identical with our Bunnons, and the second is simply butt' 
or bune^uort. The Sw. names of this and like plants at least suggest a comparison of 
them with our names and their A. S. original; viz. bjom-floka, the cow-parsnep, bjbm- 
hka, the wild angelica {A, sylvestris), Sw. D. names for the last-named plant are bjen-stut, 
bjom-pipa, both meaning bear-pipe ot tube; and for the former we meet with bjorn'ram, 
or bears-paw. It may be a matter of enquiry whether there is any real connection 
between A. S. bvne and the prefix in all these words. 

Burden, v. a. (pr. bodden). i. To oppress, in the way of imposing 
too much work for given pay. 2. To charge with or impute to. 

1. * T' highway maaster bodden* d t' men over sair wi' t' flints ; maist part iv em had 
brakken mair 'n tweea hund'ed ower mich fur a leead.' 

2. * Ah bodden* d her heavily wi' 't (pregnancy) ; but she steead me out she wam't.' 

Burden-band, sb. A hay-band made of hemp ; used to bind bundles 
of hay for conveyance by hand from one place to another ; as from the 
stack to the Byre, at foddering time. Comp. * Burn-rope, a rope for 
carrying a burden.' Hall. 


Bum, sb. A brook, a stream of water. 

A. S. hume^ hyma ; Gad. 6i2ni. A word very little used in this district. * A hwm* says 
Brock, ' winds slowly along meadows, and originates from small springs ; while a hech is 
formed by water collected in the sides of mountains, and proceeds with a rapid stream, 
though never applied to rivers that become estuaries ;' a statement which is perhaps hardly 
borne out by fkcts. Strictly, the difference is simply one of language ; and O. Sw. hnmn^ 
O. N. brunnr^ 8cc^ are more significant (as Jam. remarks) of a well>head, or the water of 
it, than of the same water in rapid motion away from the source. Comp. Ri^z on Sw. D. 

Burnt-wine, sb. A preparation of port wine, sweetened and spiced, 
offered to the guests at a funeral entertainment See ArvaL 

Burr, sb. The stone or other obstacle placed behind the wheel of 
any vehicle going up hill, for the purpose of preventing its recession 
while the horse or horses stop for rest and wind. Properly the wooden 
cylinder or barrel-shaped object with which some waggons are furnished, 
and which is so arranged, by means of a spindle and chains, as always to 
roll in rear of the hind wheel 

Cf. Pr. Pm. • Btrwhtt serde (burrowe). Orbieidus ;* which in the notes Mr. Way con- 
nects with Norf. burr, our Brough, adopting Jamieson's derivation, and adding that, 
probably, * burr of a lance, the projecting drcular ring that protected the hand ; and also 
the burr of a stag's horn, or projecting rim by which it is surrounded close to the head,' 
may be referred to the same derivation: i. e to A. S. heorg^ munimentum. Mr. Wedgw., 
however, with more reason, connects the word burr named in the note under mention — and 
our word is, I think, certainly coincident with it — as also burr, the flower>bud of hops, with 
Fr. bourgeon, bourjon ; O. E. burton, bourion, burjown ; Engl, burgeon, the young bud or 
putting forth of a vine, a pimple on the face. Pr, Pm. form of the verb is burgyn, or 
burryn, and the Lat. definition is germino, Jrondo, gemtno. The idea in frt/rr=s Brough, 
is simply that of a ring or annular disk, which appUes but badly in the case of our present 

Burr, v. a. To block or stop the wheel of a waggon or cart, when 
going up hill, by placing a stone or other sufficient object behind it, so 
as to prevent its going back. See Burr, sb. 

Burst, v. a. (pr. host), i. To break up into small fragments, to pul- 
verise. 2. To bfeak. 3. To bruise or crush one's members badly. 

O. N. bresta ; Sw. and Sw. D. brista ; Dan. brisU, to break, be broken, into fragments 
and with a crash. See Hald. Comp. A. S. bertian. Germ, bristen, to burst, or be burst. 
The signification and the conjugation equally correspond with those of the Scand. verbs : — 

Sw. and Sw. D. brista; brast; brusti; brosie, brisH, brustd, 

Dan. briste, brast, brusten. 

O. N. bretta, brast, brostHS, 

Clevel. D. burst (pr. bost), brast, burst (pr. bost), brusten (pr. broossen), 

Comp. • BeateS >e ant bust^ \>t as his ibohte [vd.' Halt Meid, p. 31. 

• With mighty maris they the bones to brest* Knigbfs Tale, 1613. 


* Him gainith neithir, for to get his life. 
Vomit upward, ne downward laxatife ; 
Ail ti to borstin thilke regioun, 

Nature hath there no dominacioun/ lb. 3757* 

* The knight stoode in the middle, and fought, 

that it was great loy to see. 

till his collaine brand brake in his hand, 

and his millaine knife burst on his knee, 
and then the danish axe burst in his hand first, 
that a sur weapon he thought shold be.' 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 69. 
I. * Gan thou an' 605/ thae clots i' t' far inuk*.' 

' Aj, it wur a noble pankin (cinerary urn). 'T 'war a shamm te 605/ it all i' bits.' 
9. * Thoo 11 get thah head brussen^ ef thee deean't tak' heed.' 
3. ' He 's getten his foot sairly brussen wiv* a wheel gannan ower it.' 
CU * The neighbouris alle, both small and grete. 
In roime for to gawrin on this man, 
That in a swoune lay both pale and wan, 
For with that fall he brostin hath his armc.' Miller* s Tale, 718. 

Burthistley sb. The spear, or spear-headed, thistle (Cni'cus lanceo^ 

Comp. Sw. D. bolm^tistel; where the prefix bolm is expressive of magnitude. It is ques* 
tionable whether the syllable bur originates in the idea of the resemblance between the 
blossom-head of the thistle and the *bur' of the burdock (Dan. borre, O. Sw. borre, hard^ 
borre; Sw. kard-borrar, Sw. D. burrar), or whether it is due to an equivalent to the bolm, 
bdl, bol of the Swedish, and our E. bull. 

BoBky sb. A low bush or tufl of a growing plant ; a single or de- 
tached growth, or Bush, of a plant. 

Sw. buske, a shrub ; O. N. buskr ; Dan. busk. 

* A lARf^-husk: * Stzvt-busk; 8cc. 

Butt, sb. The halibut (Hippoglossm vulgaris). 

Pr, Pm, • But, fysche. Pecten* In a note Mr. Way adds, • Yarrell, in his Hist, of Br. 
Fishes, observes that the flounder is called at Yarmouth a butt, which is a Northern term ; 
the name is likewise given by Pennant, but does not occur in the Glossaries of Northern 
dialect.' The term is quite common in this district, applied as in the definition; not to 
the flounder. 

Butter-BOoty butter-sootoh, sb. A superior kind of toffee or hard- 
bake, more butter being said to be used in its composition. 

Biusnackingy biizknaoking, pcpl. Gossipping, tattling. 

Probably a popular compound of two words of much the same signification. Hall, gives 
' buz, a report or rumour,' and the phrase ' buzzed about' is a common one. To knaok 
b to talk in an aflPected way, and may have had a less restricted meaning once. 

* She 's in an' oot t' toon thniff, buzknacking aboot.' Wb. Gl. 

By-gangy sb. A by-way, by-road. See Gktng. 

A compound precisely similar to the Dan. bi-time, leisure time ; bi-aarsag, subordinate 
cause ; bi'-navn, by-name, 8cc. 


8a GLOSSARr of thf 

By much ; equivalent to ' by a good deal ;' as, — 

• There 's nit eneugh hy mieb* 

By now ; equivalent to * by this time ;' as, — 

• Ah lay he *11 be there hy now* 

Cf. ' I 'le get my horse betimes in the mom, 

fry i/ be break of day.' Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 41. 

' I hold here a grote she lykys me not we3rlle 
Be we parte.' Toumd, Biysi, p. 148. 

By-pasty adj. Bygone, passed by ; used in reference to past time. 

' At all times bypast: Wb. GL 

By the time; equivalent to 'past or beyond the time;' fixed, 
namely : as, — 

• They 'r' a lang way by tbir tabm* 

Byre, sb. The building, or house, in which the cows are tied up, or 
kept; commonly, Cow-byre. 

Comp. S. G. bur; O. N. bur or bfr, &c., and its applications : — S. G. sutfnbur^ a sleeping- 
place (* box-bed' of North Britain) ; fatabur, store-chamber; JuHg/ru-bur, women's apart- 
ments ; Dan. fugle-bur, bird-cage, &c., in all of which the use of the babUaevittm, which 
is implied in 610- is qualified by ibt prefix. Collate Oow-byre wiihfiigU4nir, 

Cabi^een, sb. A cloak with a hood to it; as worn by females many 
years ago. A corruption of Capuchin. 

Comp. also Sw. D. kabusa, a furred hood for winter wear, with lappets to fail down over 
the face and ears ; Dan. habuds, N. S. kabuus-bood, 

Caddie, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder : applied when the furni- 
ture, &c., of a room, or the house, are, or have been, undergoing the 
process of cleaning, and are not yet put back into their usual order. 

Comp. Welsh ead, striving, battle, tumult ; as also E. coil with Gael coilied, stir, move- 
ment, noise ; and it with goil, boiling, fume, battle, fury. See V^edgw. 

Cadge, V. a. and n. i. To pick up and convey something portable; 
as corn to the mill, parcels to their destination, &c. 2. To go about on 
such an errand as may furnish something to be carried : hence, to beg, 
to play the part of a ' dinner-hunter.' 

This word is coincident with Sc. eacbe, eaieb, eadge, which bear the tense * to toss, to 
drive, to shog.' Cf. Pr, Pm. * Cacbyn away. Abigo.* Jam. says, • the origin certainly is 
Teut. — kaisen, ketsen {eursart^ cursitare, discurrere^ to run, or cause to run about). 
Cf. Rouchi eacber, Fr. ebasser, to hunt, * from the first of which we have E. cateb,' Wedgw. 


Stm, Haldorsen's rerb kiagga, to move at one does when carrjring a burden, may po$Mf 
ng^at another derivation. See Oftdcor. 

' & aUe 0>at) swypped un-swoljed of )>e sworde kene 
^ay wer cogged and kajt on capeles al bare 
So bro>ely bro3t to Babyloyn.' E, E, AUit. Poems, B. X254. 

Jfi Sir Ocw. and Gr. Knyyt, it is applied to going heavily, when the heaviness is that of the 
spillt and not of a burden ; 1. 1793 : — 

• " pat is a worde,** quoth J>at wy3t, " >at worst is of alle ; 
Hot I am swared for so};>tt that sore me Innkkej ; 
Kisse me now comly, and I shal ecicb hel>en 
I may bot moxime vpon molde, as may \>zt much louyes.*' ' 

1. * Ah aims he's cadging for t' miller at Deeal-end.' 

2. * He niwer diz nowght t' addle *% meat : he nobbut cadges aboot fra spot t' spot, an* 
pPEes oop owght he can.' 

Cadger, sb. i. A person employed by a miller to collect the bags of 
com (see Bakings) set aside, weekly or oftener, by the several farmers 
in the country side, and to convey them to the mill, returning the flour 
on a subsequent cadging visit. 2. Any person who habitually picks 
up matters — ^not over honestly, perhaps — and conveys them to another. 

I. 'What's thoo yan o' Willie M.'s cadgers V said to one among some servants who 
woe supposed to carry things, purloined from their master's house, to the W. M. in 

' a. ' Remember many years bygane. 

When he that ruled us right was slain ; 

Respect to Quality was lost. 

Tinkers and Coblers ruled the rost : 

The Nobles were the Commons' Cadgers, 

The Gentry but the Soldiers' Badgers.' JocoSer. Dis. p. 36. 

Caff, sb. (pr. caufif). Chaff. 

A. S. eeaf, eef; Germ, kqg^; Dutch kaf, 8cc, 

Cafiy, adj. Worthless, mean. 

Caff-hearted, adj. Unprincipled ; of a mean, worthless disposition. 

Caggy, adj. Ill-tempered, ready to quarrel. 

Cf. Sw. D. kagg, a man of an evil disposition. It may be open to question if kagg, in 
its turn, be not a provincial form of karg, and through it derived from O. N. iargr, 

CahL Pr. of Kyle. 

Caingy, adj. Peevish, ill-conditioned, snappish. 

Comp. Sw. D. kangs, k&ng, h&nger, all with meanings more or less approximating to 
ours ; e. g. full of fim, wild, pert, petulant. Hall, gives cange, to whine ; as well as caingel, 
a crabbed fellow. 

* As caingy and canke^ as an ill-clep'd cur.' Wh. Gl. 

M 2 


Cake, V. n. To cackle, as geese do. The word is applied also to 
the uneasy-sounding cry uttered by a hen which wants to sit. 

O. N. qvaka^ Dan. iwekke, to cackle as geese, quack as ducks, do ; also, Sw. D. kauka, 
kdkot kdkd ; Norw. kauki ; N. S. kaken ; all meaning to emit a high-pitched cry. 

Cake-couping, sb. An interchange of social visits, at which such 
refreshments as cake are consumed ; tea-visits, &c. See Coup. 

Calf-bed, sb. The matrix of a cow. Comp. Foal-bed, &c. 

Call, V. a. I. To summon or cry to. 2. To scold, abuse, apply 
opprobrious and angry language to any one. 

In its first or ordinary sense this vb. is used with the prq?. on ox of subjoined, as in the 
following sentence : — * Upon which, this informer cold on her master's daughter, who eald 
of other people out of the roome below.' York Castle Depositions^ p. 302. A woman with 
her child in her arms, and seeing her husband out of the window, would say to it, ' Lookstee, 
there 's dadda I Call ov him, honey t call ov him I ' 


Call of, call on. See under CalL 

Caller, adj. i. Fresh; of fish. 2. Cool, fresh, refreshing; of the 

Pr. Pm. * Calvur as samoon, or o\>jt fysshe.' * Pftlsgr. renders it ** ealuer of samon, 
eseume de saulmon** This term appears to denote the state of the fish freshly taken, when 
its substance appears interspersed with white flakes like curd.' lb. note. 

Callet, V. n. To scold, to rail angrily. 

* They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs.' Wb. Gl, 

Callet, sb. A scold, a railing, foul-mouthed, or impertinent female. 

Wcdgw. gives * Callet, a prostitute,' adducing • Gael, eaile, a girl, hussey. quean, strumpet. 
Fr. caillette, femme frivole et babillarde.' It would be too much to say that Callet does 
not mean prostitute in any case ; for np doubt it does. Still I think that a stormy, or at 
least loud, use of the tongue is the leading idea in the word ; and unchastity not thought of 
in nine cases out of ten when the word is applied. Chaucer's expression, ' A calat of leude 
demeaning,' sufficiently proves that lewdness was not the distinctive quality of a Callet in 
his time ; and Shakspere's * A callet of boundlesse tongue,' Winter's Tale, Act ii. Scene 3, 
is a telling description of a scold, and could scarcely have been intended to imply the grosser 
accusation: a remark which is equally valid touching both the passages in Henry III 
(Parts II and III), wherein the word occurs. Brock, gives * Callet, to scold ; ealleting, saucy, 
gossiping ; a calleting housewife, a regular scold.' Cr. Gl. gives * Callet, to rail ; calletin, 
pert, saucy, gossiping ;' and Wb. Gl. • Callit, to rail, to chide.* See also example to vb. Callet. 
The Fin. word kallottaa, alt^ voce ploro, ululo, seems to m^ much noore nearly allied to 
our word than the Fr. word for quail (see Wedgw.), or the words ealle, ealote, which are 
merely designations of head-dresses. In fact, the word is most likely a derivative from the 
same source which furnished our oaU with its peculiar sense (to scold, to abuse), which is 
itself analogous to O. N. kails, derision, mockery. 

Callety, oalleting, adj. Scolding, quarrelsome, saucy» 


Calling, sb. Abuse, vituperation, a scolding. 

Calm, adj. (pr. cau'm). Mild, in contradistinction to frosty or sharp. 

*** Well, I think it is softening a little, James." " Ay, Ah thinks it's a bit cau'nur;** * 
spoken on a perfectly still day, when a thaw appeared to be commencing after the con* 
tmnaoce of a Storm, or fit of severe weather, with snow, lasting ten or fifteen days. 

Calven-oow, sb. A cow which has not long since had a calf. 

Comp. Sw. D. hdlihltOt and Dan. kalv-hu, both with the same signification. 

Cam, sb. A ridge or long earthen moimd ; a hedge-bank. 

0. N. kambr ; Sw. ham ; Dan. ham, &c. Ihre's remark is, ' Saxones de vertice aggeris 
adhibere solent ;' while the Dan. use is exactly equivalent to ours : hammen paa en dige, or 
digt4tam. Of. dikes comb : Oen, and En. p. 73. 

Cam, V. n. To form a bank, as for the purposes of enclosure; to 
throw up a Cam. 

* It's te nae guid takkan yon bit o' moor in: why there's nae sods te cam wiv;' the 
soil is so very poor, no sward has ever formed. 

Cambrel, oambril, sb. A somewhat crooked piece of wood, mih 
three or four notches at each end, employed by butchers to keep the 
hind legs of a slaughtered animal apart, and at the same time to form 
a means of suspension. Spelt also canmierell, caumerilli gambrel, 

Wedgw. quotes Welsh eampren^ crooked stick, as the origin to which our word is due, 
and which sometimes is met with in the form cambren. Comp. Ir. and Gael, cam ; Bret. 
hamm ; Fr. cambrd, arched or crooked ; and also cam-, eamow-y or camber-nosed, crooked 
or hooked-nosed ; cambril or cammerel, the hough of a horse ; cambering, of a ship's 
deck, &c. 

' Soon crooks the tree 
That good cameril will be.' 

Camden's Remains, Proverbs ; Gl, to Fineb. Priory, 

* " As crooked as a gaumeril;** of a deformed person.' Wb. GL 

Can, sb. A tin vessel or utensil, the particular use of which is desig- 
nated by a prefix. 

Molbech explains Dan. hande by * a drinking-cup or vessel fashioned with lid, handle and 
lip ;' and then adds — * any other vessel which has some resemblance in form to a hande ; 
as vand-hande, water-can ; malke-hande, milk-can, &c. ; with which comp. our Milk-oan, 
Water-oan^ a watering-pot, &c. 

Canker, sb. Rust ; oxidisation on any metal, but especially iron. 

* Canker,' says Rich., * is cancer differently written. It is applied to anything that eats 
gnaws, corrodes, consumes ;' and is certainly singularly descriptive of the operation of rust 
or oxidisation upon iron. 

Canker, v. it To rust, or corrode. 



Cankered, To be, v. p. To be rusted, or corrodecL 
Cankered, oankery, adj. Cross, sour-tempered, out of humour. 

See Oanker, sb. The tiansitioQ of idea from the fretting effect of rust upon metal, to 
the fretted condition of one's temper, is both natural and graphic. 

' Said they, ** wee had neuer such a cankered carle. 

Were neuer in our companie." ' Percy's Fol, MS, i. 48. 

Canny, adj. i. Knowing, skilful, clever. 2. Prudent, cautious, 
handy. 3. Well-suited, possessing evident or admitted aidvantages, 

This is a word of very frequent and varied application, which it is difficult to conrey by 
dint of definition. Jam. alleges eighteen different senses. I believe, however, the diree 
given above may prove sufficiently inclusive. Brockett's remark is, ' It refers as well to 
the beauty of form, as of manners and morals ; but most particularly is used to describe 
those mild and affectionate dispositions which render persons agreeable in the domestic 
relations.' But there are two words, sufficiently distinct in themselves, yet confounded 
together, which must be noted before these remarks can become fiilly apposite ; namely, 
oonny and oazmy. The former of these I take to be a near relative of the Danish kftitf 
pretty, 8cc. ; but our present word to be analogous to S. G. kunnog, Sw. kwmig, Sw. D. 
konnu, O. N. kurmugr. Old Grerm. kunnig, Dan. kyndig; and through them to the several 
verbs whence they are derived, O. Sw. and O. N. ihrnna, Sw. D. kunna, 8cc. : in most, if 
not all of which, the idea of power as complementary to that of knowledge seems to be 
involved. It is worthy of remark, that oazmy seems to be a word of comparatively 
recent growth : it is not met with in Haropole or Toumtl. Myst., nor yet in Early English 
AUU. Poems, or in Goto, and the Gr. Knyyt; and the earliest authority quoted by Jam. only 
dates from 1 715. Conandly, however, which is no doubt allied, occurs in Townel, Myst, 

* Mervelle, methynk, have I, 
Where ever this bame has bene 
That carps thus eonandly' (p. 160). 

1. * A canny skeely man.' 

' As canny a workman as iwer Ah see.* 

* A canny lass at 's worth a better spot;* a higher or better place or situation. 

2. * A canny chap with horses.' 

' A canny au*d carle ; yan wunna get t* blin' sahd o' he.' 
' Gan canny, man ! gan canny ;' cautiously or gently. 
' A canny spot ;' of one's residence or farm. 

* A canny convenient house.' 

* Ah wish Ah 'd bin still at canny Yatton' (Ayton). Margery Moorpoot, 

Cannily, adv. Knowingly, cleverly; cautiously, moderately, gently; 
handsomely, suitably, fittingly. See, under Canny, the quotation from 
Tawnd, Myst, 

CAnnsHBli) adj. ' Canny' in a slightly modified sense. 

* A cannyisb bit o' ground ;' e g. a fair-sized garden or farm. 
' She brow't him a cannyisb lot o' gear ;' of property. 

Canting, sb. A sale by auction. 

* Cant/ says Rich., * It. incantare; Fr. encant or incant. An outrope or outcry of goods 


(Cotgnre). From eaniartt to proclaim (a public sale), to sell.' Comp * horse<hanter/ 
a shuper who cries up the merits of a bad horse to the taking in of the unwary. 

Canty, adj. Lively, cheerful, brisk. 

* This word/ says Jam., * is more modem than eant, and evidently is a derivative from 
it.' Kok, however, gives the Jutland expression kante seg, to turn oneself in one's bed, 
as a first step in approach to convalescence ; and thence, he adds, kanter^ fiesh, brisk, hale, 
hearty after recovery from sickness » i^on/^, to be set up on end; the metaphor being 
ideatical with that in Engl. ' set up again.' Our word is nearly related to this Jutl. idiom 
and its general usage, implying a reference to some influence naturally opposed to the quali- 
ties specified : such as age, trouble endured, sickness or privation endured. 

* She 's a canty au'd deeam for her years ' Wb. GL 

(In Norfolk, /o cant is to set a thing up on edge. Note to Pr. Pm. p. 60.) 

Cap, V. a. To surpass or excel; to do that which cannot be sur- 
passed ; to astonish by some feat done or statement made. 

O. N. hppa, contendere, certare ; S. G. and O. N. kapp, certamen ; &c. The Jutl. word 
kofpi is a champion, one who strives successfully, outdoes his competitors ; and, like the 
other Scand. words quoted or referred to, replaces an m with the first of its two p*s {Kok, 
p. 84), which connects our word with kemp, to strive for the mastery (which see) : only; 
in cap the mastery is supposed to be obtained. The parallel fonns keppe, hempc^ occur side 
by side in the two texts. Lay, ii. 413. 

' That caps owght that iwer Ah beared ;' beats, or goes beyond. 

* Weel, Ah 's fairly capped ;' amazed, astonished. 

Cape-stanes, oaping-stanes, sb. The several stones of which the 
Caping, as a whole, is composed. 

Caping, sb. The uppermost or last course of stones in a wall, 
usually dressed to an angle, or perhaps in some cases merely rounded over. 

A. S. cop^ c€Cppe; N. Sax. hop; Germ, kopf^ * the prominent or uppermost part of a thing, 
top.' Hilpert. Sw. Dial, kipa^ the leathern pad forming the back or top portion in a set of 
harness, affords a curious coincidence with our word. 

' Heo bilS ikest sone adun, as \>t leste ston is from |>e tares coppt;* the coping of the 
tower. Aner, Riwle, p. a 18. 

Cap-nebbing, sb. The peak or front of a cap which projects 
forward. See Neb. 

Capper, sb. One that is super-eminent, or easily superior to others 
of the kind ; of both persons and things. 

Caps, sb. That which cannot be outdone or surpassed ; occurring 
in the common schoolboy phrase, to set one his oaps ; i. e. to propose 
some feat which he cannot hope to equal, much less to go beyond. 

In Chaucer's description of the Maunciple, at the close, there is this line (Bell's Obaucer, 
i. loi): — 

' And yit this maunciple sette hem alle her cappe ;' 

to which is appended the note, ' To set a man's cap is to cheat him ;' the gist of the whole 
description, notwithstanding, being to shew the eminent superiority of the man described. 
Among his * moo than thries ten majrstres,' * that were of lawe expert and curious,' 


* ther wer a doseyn in an house, 

Worthi to be stiwardes of rent and lond 

Of any lord that is in Engelond, 

To make him l3nre by his propre good. 

In honour detteles, but if he were wood ; 

And able for to helpen al a schire 

In any caas that mighte falle or happe ; 

And yit this maunciple sitte bem alU ber cappe :' 

could set them their caps, skilful and experienced as they were, in respect of business 

In the Miller** TaU, the gist of which is to describe 

* How that a darke hath set a wrightis capp,* 

the meaning is ' got the better of him,' by imposition, namely. 

Cap-soreed, sb. The border or edging of a woman's cap. See 

Car, oarr, sb. A flat marshy piece of land mider natural herbage, 
usually lying at or near the foot of a bank, and, in that sense, low : not 
necessarily low otherwise. Generally used in the plural. 

O. N. ker, kiorr; S. G. karr; N. kjerr ; Dan. k<gr. Of the latter word Molb. says, * it is 
originally a Norse word, and is commonly used to express a tract distinguished by depth 
of soil and burdened with accumulated water ; mose, on the other hand, implying a wider 
tract, whether wet or dry, possibly overgrown with scrub or trees, and more or less senrice- 
able for pasture. 

Car, carr, sb. A small wood, or grove, of alders. Usually Alder- 
par ; and, of course, growing on boggy soil. 

N. kjerre, a small wood, or grove, especially of trees of small size ; as olderkferrg, alder- 
car, isterkjerre, osier-ground. Current in Helgeland and North Trondhjem district. Aasen. 

Carberries, sb. Gooseberries. 

This is the Northern equivalent of the German s/acibe/-6Mrtf = prickle-plant, and the 
first element due to the same root as ^ors« ^ prickle-plant ; A. S. gar, O. N. geir, a javelin, 
a pointed missile; N. gar, garre, a point, diarp piece of grass or heath. Wedgw. also 
quotes Fin. kairi, a borer ; and A. S. rut/', naue-, nuf-, or nqfo-gar, an auger or wimble ; 
to which add, Sw. Dial, gere, a point, or pointed piece ; Old Germ, ger, ker, a pointed 
missile ; Sansc. cara, earn, an arrow. The English gore, both vb. and sb., are very near 
relations ; while, as Teut. analogues of sb. gore, and its sense, may be quoted Sw. D. 
gere or gera, Dan. D. gore, M. H G. gere, geer, Sw. gere, geren, gairen. 

The latter words, supply the explanation of gair in the * Jew's Daughter' and 'Young 
Johnstone' ballads (Bell's Early Ballads, pp. 190, 172) : 

* And she has ta'en out a little penknife 

Hanging low down by her gair ; 
She has twined the young thing of his life, 
A word he never spake mair.' 

* But young Johnstone had a wee penknife 

Hung low down by his gturJ 


Comp. Sw.D. aSarkorgin, tkortt^ere, shirt- or smock-lappet, or * tails;* and in the 
O. Dan. Translation of the Bible, 1550, Hag. ii. X3, * If any one bear holy flesh in the 
skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, 8cc.,* it stands * Om nogen h<ar 
hdiigt tod i SOI kjortd gtre, oe rord* sidm met tamnu ger§, hrod, &cJ In Luther's Bible, 
also, the words are, ' m leinis kleidts geren* Molb. D<uiak. Glossar, 

Card-up, v. a. To sweep up and make neat or tidy ; applied to the 
fire-side, and consisting in the process of removing or shovelling up the 
fallen ashes. 

S. O. kara, to collect, to sweep together. Ihre gives an example of the use of this word 
which leaves no doubt as to the correctness of our derivation : kara eld under grytan, to 
gather together the scattered coals under the pot. Sw. D. hrannd'kart^ brannd-kiira, means 
the oveoHrake for withdrawing the hot coals or embers from the oven. Comp. our Ass-oard. 

Carldng, adj. i. Anxious, apprehensive, discontented. 2. Careful, 

It would almost seem that there are two vocables instead of only one— one of Germ., 
the other of Northern affinities — here : A. S. care, care ; cearig, careful, anxious ; O. Sax. 
mod-eharagt sorrowful, for the first definition ; and for the second, O. N. hargr, energetic, 
pir-headed, grasping; Dan. karrig, grasping, niggardly; Sw.D. karg, (i) industrious, 
(a) keen, (3) greedy ; which latter word Rietz connects with the vb. kara, to collect or 
sweep together, to scrape up : a phrase, by the way* often used of greedy money-gatherers. 
Wedgw. also adduces W. eareus, solicitous ; Fin. karkds, greedy ; words which help to shew 
that our (MHrlriTig is a word of very wide relationships. 

Cf. ' Christ bad them be both simple and slie 

And earke not for no cattell.* Plowman* t Tale, p. 180. 

Carl, sb. A country fellow, a clownish person : often with the idea 
of age associated. 

O. N., Sw., Dan., M. G., karl ; Germ, kerl; A. S. earl, a male, man, married man, old 
man, servant man, &c. : the idea of a male human being being the leading one. Wb, Gl, 
states that earl is a term often ' sneeringly applied to both old men and old women.' Comp. 
Pr, Pm. * Carle, or eberle, bondeman, or woman ;' as also the parallel forms in the extract 
following, which occur repeatedly in the same page : — 

' Whan these kjmges herde the wordes of the karll thei be-heelde the oon the tother, and 
than thei seiden. What deuell who hath tolde this eberUV Merl, p. 168. 

Carlings, sb. Grey peas steeped all night in water and fried the 
next day in fat or butter. 

They are eaten on the Fourth Sunday in Lent, which is called Oarling SuncUy, the other 
Sundays in Lent having also their own peculiar designations, preserved in the old rhjrme,— 

' Tid, mid, miserS, 
Carling, palm, and paste-egg day.' 
The custom is still so far retained that bags of grey peas, specially provided to meet the 
demand, may be seen in the country shops as the day draws on. It is difficult to come to 
any conclusion with respect to the origin of this word. It is certain that the Fifth Sunday 
in Lent was called * Care- or Gdir-Sunday' from a remote time. Ihre quotes Kamsunnu" 
dag as the name of the Sunday in question, and gives one explanation of the name thus :— 
' Lundius derives it from keera or tiara, fluid pitch or tar, with which folks are wont to 
daub their doors in the sign of the cross.* Another authority — * Vetus interpres Evangeli- 
omm ' — is then quoted, who states that this Sunday has its name from the charges {keero- 
mahmyn) and purposed proceedings against Jesus Christ framed by the Jews, as recorded 



in the Ootpel of this day, and wh!di they brought to full effect in His death-passion on 
Good Friday. 

Again, Hospinian states that the German names Kamvoehen and Karrfrtytagt for 
Passion Week and Good Friday, depend upon the German word karr, which signifies a fine 
or penalty for an offence committed, or rather a satisfaction or atonement in lieu of sudi 
penalty. Besides these three suggestions as to the possible meaning of care or earr in 
the name in question, Ihre adds, and in reference to Marshall's statement, that ' Carr- or 
Care-Sunday' was not unknown to the English, that he does not feel certain the word 
should not be referred to some other source, such as gara, preparation, or kara^ grief, 
concern. Yet again : a word ehara in the sense of ftraUa is adduced from Schiller's 
Tb*uturu$t and having reference to ' crimina et scelera, quse, poenam sanguinis irrogantia« 
cfliciebant ut homines malefid noWk pompft morti ducerentur.' From all of which six 
luggestions of an origin for ear$ or earr only one thing is apparent, and that is, that 
the said origin is utterly obscure and uncertain. Next, it would seem that the FifUi 
Sunday in Lent was sometimes called * Carle Sunday,' as well as ' Care- or Carr-Sunday,' 
and erentually, at least, *Carling Sunday;' and the question is, whether the Sunday so 
called took its name from the OarlinipB, or the Oarlings took theirs from the Sunday. 
In the first place, there is no evidence and no analogy to connect earling with care or earr, 
whichever of the significations above adduced be selected: all analogy is against such a 
connection. The evidence on the other side is scanty and not very consistent. In the old 
Scottish song, ' Fy 1 let us all to the Briddel,' quoted in Sir H. Ellis' Brand's Atuiqtutiet, 
and by Jam., where mention is made of * Carlings both sodden and ra,' it is apparent that 
grey peas are called carlings before they are cooked. The Leeds GL, however, makes a 
vb. of earl; a vb. which describes the processes that go to make up the cooking. It gives 

* Carled peas ; grey peas, steeped all night in water and fried the following day with butter. 
Often a substitute for garden peas.* The probability seems to be, that Carliiigs is an old 
popular name for grey peas, perhaps in reference to their old-fashioned homeliness : and in 
the like spirit to that which in North Britain calls the last handful of com cut in a late 
harvest the earline; and, in Sweden, a dish of potatoes peeled before they are boiled, 
harringa-hagg ; kdrringa being merely another form of hailing, and that of karling or 
karling, the original of Scot, earline. The connection of peas, as a viand, with the Fifth 
Sunday in Lent is another matter ; like that of pancakes with Shrove Tuesday, or cross- 
buns with Gk>od Friday: but being so connected, Care^unday might easily pass into 
CariingSunday, and then the verb carl be mistakenly coined from the noun. 

Carry, sb. A kind of waggon with solid floor but unplanked sides; 
these being, usually, only rails. Used for carting stone, wood, &c., and 
also in hay and harvest-time. 

O. N. kerra; S. G. kirra; Dan. earre, &c., a car or rude carriage. 

CasingSy oassonSy sb. The droppings or dung of animals dried for 
fuel. Also written oazzons. 

O. N. kos, a little heap ; kasa, to pile in a heap ; S. G. kase, congeries, acervus ; ioprimis, 
lignorum virgultorumque ; Sw. D. kas, kase, a small heap of dried cattle^oppings, used by 
poor people in districts where wood is scarce, for burning Hence also, Sw. D. and Dan. 
ko^tcue, cow-droppings. Molb., however, simply defines ko-kase, as the round or disk-like 
heaps in which cowdung falls. Probably Rietz is the more accurate. 

'The Pr. Pm, word is easard, explained by ' Netes donge : P. casen ;' and the note, 

* *' Casings, stercus siccum jumentorum, quod pauperes agri Lincolniensis ad usum foci colli- 
.gunt ; a Teut. koth, fimus, q. d. cothings," Sldnner.' The derivation is mistaken : but the 
^rther remark that * it is still the usage in the neighbourhood of Lynn to employ cow-dung 
for fuel' is worth noticing. 


(Pr. of oasten, p. p. of to cast), i. Thrown down ; 
as applied to an animal, a horse or bullock, e.g., which has fallenror 
been thrown, and is unable to rise again. 3. Added up ; of an account 
or bill, for instance. 

OasBen-hearted, oaszon-hearted, adj. Out of heart, dispirited, 
cast down; as being without energy, spirit, or hope. 

Possiblj, eattm-biartid^ with nearly the sense of down-eassin, or down-hearted. Still, 
there is abundant rade energy in the metaphor caxzxm'hectrtedy possessing a heart with no 
move phick or pith than a dot of dried dung, to make it a probable word. 

Oast, sb. A twist, a distortion or deflection from linear directness. 

A meaning whidb has resulted, no doubt, from many adaptations and transitions of sense 
in die word as at first used. At an early period to casi was used in the sense of to cantroftt 
dmm, fian; as in these lines from E, E, AUii, Poenu, p. 81, 1. 143 : — 

' Salamon sete him seuen jere and a sy|>e more. 
With alle >e syence >at sende >e souerayn lorde. 
For to compas and hat to haf hem clene wrojt.' 

- And Oaaty sb. in the same way meant a device, stratagem, wile or trick : 

Comp. « And comaunde) me to |>at corta3rs, your comlych fere 

>at >us hor knyjt wyth hor kest han koyntly bigyled.' 

Gaw. and Or, Kn. a4li. 
also ; ' This is a good gyse and a far cast; 

Yet a woman avyse helpjrs at the last.* Toumel. Myst, p. 107. 

Comp. also Sw. D. kast^ a trick, a deceit. 

At line 2376 of Sir Gawayn the word appears in, it would seem, a very similar meaning 
to onrs;—. 

* )>enne he kajt to |>e knot, and )>e kest lawsej :' 

i. e. the twist, or interfolding of the knot, with which a certain girdle was fastened. 

Casty V. a. I. To lay aside for a season, as warm or winter clothing 
when summer weather comes ; or entirely, as clothes that are worn out, 
a crutch which has been used during temporary lameness, &c. 2. To be 
sick, to vomit. 

Pr, Pm, * Castyn, or brakyn (as man owt the stomack). Vomo, evomo.* 

I. ' . . . . Never think to east a clout 

Until the month of May be out.* Wb. Ol. 

Casty To bOy V. p. To be warped, or have got a twist, or deflection 
from straightness. 

Cast up, V. a. and n. i. To mention a matter, in the way of re- 
proach or upbraiding, to another. 2. To happen, befall, turn up. 

Cat-ooUop, sb. Cat's meat ; more particularly applied to that which 
consists of parts of the inside of other animals. See Ck>llop. 

Cat-gallows, sb. The two uprights, with a cross-stick, set up by 
boys to jump over ; jumping-bars. 

N 2 


Cat-hawBy sb. The fruit of the hawthorn {Mespiius oxyacanthus). 

The prefix of cat in this and some following words may be comp. to the like prefix tn 
lereral Sw. Pror. names of plants : e. g. kattasioida, cat-boots, the primrose ; katt-baUar, 
cat-balls, geum rivale ; kcUt-klokkor, cat-bells, campanula, &c. 

CattdjiigSy sb. Hips ; the fruit of the Cat-whin or dog-rose. 

Cat-swerrily sb. The common squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), 

Cat's-whelps, sb. Kittens, the young of the cat. See KitlinB. 

Cat-tarail, sb. The great white Valerian ( Valeriana officinalis) ; or, 
rather, the root of it 

* The root, particularly when the plant grows in dry places, has a very peculiar disagree- 
able odour, and affords a medicine of considerable value. Cats are so fond of it as to be 
almost intoxicated by it into outrageous playfulness.' }6bxisXont\ Botany of Btrwick-im' 

Comp. Sw. D. iatti-lekat a name for the same plant. 

Cat-whin. sb. (pr. catchin). The dog-rose (JRosa canina); or perhaps, 
as generally applied, any of the varieties of the common wild or hedge- 
rose : Marshall says, the Burnet rose {Rosa spinosissima). 

Canff. Pr. of Caff, for Chaff. 

Canff-riddlingy sb. A practice, in some instances still observed, of 
riddling chaff on St. Mark's Eve, with the view of deriving auguries or 
presages of the approach of death to persons connected with the 
riddlers, whether by family or vicinity, or possibly to the riddlers 

The Biddle is filled with chaff, the scene of operations being the bam floor with 
both barn-doors set wide open ; the hour is midnight or just before, and each person of the 
party takes the riddle in succession and riddles £e contents. Should no appearance pre- 
sent itself during the action, death is not imminent to the person operating, or to his friends. 
But, on the other hand, the appearance of a funeral procession, or even of persons simply 
bearing a coffin, is a certain augury of death, either to the then riddler himself, or some one 
near to him. See AiM-riddling, Marks-een. 

Causey, oansewayy sb. i. A narrow paved path or trackway; often 
leading directly across the moors. 2. A flagged path by the side of the 
road ; for the use of foot passengers. 

The first are the relics of the horse- or bridle-roads which, almost into the present 
century, were the only means of getting into or out of the * Dales.' Many of these have 
been worn out and never replaced, or have been taken up, and others are nearly or quite 
overgrown by the ling and other moor-herbage, so that it is only by the revelations afforded 
by a moor-track, or a moor-current in wet weather, that their position and general direction 
can be ascertained. In the same way, the houses of call to acconmiodate the trains of 
loaded horses and their drivers, which used to traverse these wild roads, have, in several 
instances, disappeared ; while others only preserve any memorial of their former purpose in 
some distinctive appellation, which to the present generation has lost its significance. 
See Fazmier-man'8 Causey, Bell-house. These causeys are probably of very great 


antiqiiity : because, while they of necessity tend, on either side of the Esk, to the sites of, 
if not to the actually ezistine, single-arched, high-pitched, narrow, picturesque Bow- 
bridgefly all of which date ba(£ to the commencement of the fourteenth century or earlier, 
and whidi, it is very evident, were only reared in anticipation of horse>trafiic ; still by the 
side of each of these bridges there yet exists a ford, or Wath (often regularly paved or 
floored with slabs of stone evenly set), together with a set of Book-stones : both of them 
concomitants which surely testify to a regular passage of the river at those spots at times 
anterior to the construction of the bridges, and therefore to settled means of crossing the 
c ouuuy to the spots in question. Cf. * There was a causeway at Lynn leading to Oaywood, 
00 whidi was situated the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and among the benefactors to 
tlie Ho^tal of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketd, **fiiu» tanetimomalis de Scertng€s" who 
grants ** totam Urram in Linm super calettam" Mon, Ang, vi. 648.* Note to Cawet- 
ttwy, Iw, I^nim 

I, sb. Rates, laid and levied for parish purposes. 

* Cess, a tax. For seu from asuUt but spelt with a e from the influence of the Latin ansut, 
the rating of Roman citizens according to their property. Fr. ceneer, to rate, assess, tax, 
▼ahie.* Wedgw. The different kinds of rate are distinguished as 

OhuTOh-oess, sb., the church-rate ; 
Ckmnt7-oe8S, sb., the county-rate ; 

Highwaj-oess, sb., the rate for the maintenance of the roads ; and 
I, sb., the poor-rate. 

CesB, V. a. To rate ; to apportion the relative payments to be made 
by many persons to a common fund. 

Cess-getherer, sb. The collector of any of these rates. 

Chaffy V. a. i. To banter, to address playfully-provoking language 
to another. 2. To use intentionally irritating, or highly provoking terms, 
likely to lead to resentment ; to quarrel outright. 

Ed/, insultus ludicrus ; kdfa, ludicre insultare ; Hald. Wedgw. also alleges Dut. kiffm, 
to 3^p, to bark ; also to prattle, to chatter ; Wall, cbaftier, to babble ; Oerm. kaff^ idle 
words, impertinence. Comp. O. N. kdfa vppa, provocare ; Sw. D. 6pp4taftig, Sthid/tig, 
insolent, impertinent, ' chafiy.' 

>, sb. Jaw-bone. 

ChsSDar, v. n. To interchange testy or irritating remarks, to use 
mutually provoking language. The word implies something short of 
a serious quarrel. 

Pr. Pm, • Cbaffaryn, Ntgoeior, mereor* 

' fro galaad men wilS eba/are 
Sag he iSoT kumen wi8 spices ware.* Gm. and Est. p. 56. 

Both vb. and sb. are very common in O. E. See the etymons under Chap, Chapman. 
The idea in our word is of the altercation which often accompanies bargain-making, the 
true sense of the word being allowed to drop completely out. 

Chaff-fUlen, adj. (pr. chaif-fawn). Chop-fallen, dispirited, dejected. 


Chaffiiy ohafts, sb. The jaws. 

O.^. hjaftr^ hjaptr ; S.Q.kaft; Dzn.kja/i; Sw. kdft. The Danes appear to make 
a distinction between kja/t and kjavi : thus, en kjafi bar to kjavtr, one moutb hath two 
jawt. Also, the yulgar use of the word is like that of our C^u^), in the sense of person ; 
ikke m kjafi, never a soul or person. 

' Poor au'd Josey 's getten his ebq/U tied up ; L e. is dead/ Wb. Gl, 

Chamber^ sb. (pr. chaumer). An upper room: i. In a house; a 
bed-room. 2. In a stable or other building; a loft: as, for instance, 
* Hay-chamber/ * Apple-chamber/ &c. 

Wedgw. quotes Fr. cbambrt^ besides Lat. and Greek et3rmons. The word appears, how- 
erer, in all the Teut. tongues, and could scarcely come to us in the North vi& either Lat. or 
Fr., especially if it be, as is reasonably assumed, nearly allied to Celtic camm or cam, O. N. 
kamers^ S. O. kammar^ Sw. kammers^ Dan. kammer, 8cc. The ordinary meaning, more- 
over, is that of a small room-space, or chamber, off, or subsidiary to, a large apartment. 
Thus in the sentence, ' en sior Uue med et kammer ved uden* the relation of ' chamber' to 
'apartment' is shewn. Molb. quotes the following sentence: * Enbver stue og etbvert 
kammer er et vcerds^ (room or apartment), * men en stue er et sterre wtrelse; et kammer er 
et mindre. Man siger haade paa t^ i et kammer ; men altid kun i en stue* Comp. ' Let 
us make a little chamber, I pray thee, on the wall :' a Kings iv. 10. Comp. also Dan. bog- 
kammer, pige-^., spise^., krud-k„ 8cc. The idea in our use of Chamber is exactly coinci- 
dent with mat in the Danish usage. 

Chanoe-baim, sb. An illegitimate child. See Come-by-ohanoe. 

Ghangedy adj. i. Having begun to turn sour; of milk. 2. Havitig 
begun to shew symptoms of approaching, or commencing, decompo- 
sition ; of a dead body, or meat. 3. Somewhat intoxicated. 

This is rather a curious instance of adaptation of sense, in the case of a standard word. 

Chap, V. a. To knock, rap. 

'Chap. Chip. Chop. These are forms having a conmion origin in the attempt to 
represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies, or the cracking of one, the 
thinner vowel / being used to represent the high note of a crack, while the broader vowels 
a and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of hard bodies. Sc. ebap, to 
strike, as to cbap bands, to cbap at a door. — Jam.' Wedgw. To me it would appear pro- 
bable that there may be a strong aflSnity between our word Chap and the Dan. kutppe, to 
strike, to drive with a stick : of course with a free use of the stick understood. This is 
a derivative from the sb. kjep, a staff, stick, switch ; and this from O. N. keppr, Sw. k'dpp, 
Comp. S. G. kcBppla or kippla, bacillo os obturare ; and Ihre suggests that M. G. kaupattan, 
to inflict strokes, may belong to the same root. 

Chap, sb. A customer or purchaser : or, more generally, a dealer. 

O. N. kttupi; Sw. kdpare; Dan. kjeber ; Sw. D,kdpe, a buyer, purchaser. 
* Ah ha'e some bacon to sell. Canst 'ee finnd me a cbap for 't.' Wb. Gl. 

Chap, sb. Any male person : of very various application. 

O. N. kiaftr; Sw. kdft; Dan. kjaft, &c. Comp. Dan. ikke en kjaft, never a soul or per- 
son ; Sw. D. bvar dveliga kdft; bvor evige kdft, every individual soul ; bd ftmns int *n kdft 
bdjm : he found nobody at home. It is scarcely necessary to notice that, allowing for the 


intercfaaiige of ^ and/, E. ebap, month, jaw, the cured ondcrjaw of a pig, Scand. 
kfaft, with its Cterel. aoialogne Oluift or Chaif; coincide precisely. Comp. espcoally, the 
S. JutL fonn kfabtt onder-jaw, in opposition to kinnben, upper-jaw. 

Chapman, sb. i. A dealer; one who enacts the part of a merchant, 
bat in small matters only; one who buys and sells indiscriminately; 
a pedlar or hawker. 2. A distinctive name applied to horses of the 
Qeveland breed. 

O.N. kampmadr: S.O. hdpmtm; Sw.D. hdbman; Dan. kiehmand; A. S. eeapman; 
Gcim. katfrnatm^ &c, 

* Ant, nis he fol ehepmon ^, hwon he wule buggen hors oiSet oxe, jif he nule biholden 
Imt >et heaoed one?' Ancr, RiwU, p. 26S, 

* Foil many a draught of wine had he ydraw. 
Fro Burdeuz ward while that the Cbapnun slept.' 

Proi, Cant, Tales; Tbe Sbipmam, 

Char, V. a. To chide, to use querulous language to an offender ; 
also, * to bark at.' Wh, Gl. 

O. N. hj^ara ; S. O. kcara ; O. Dan. h<Bra ; Dan. h<Brt ; Sw. D. haras^ &c., to complain, 
to be querulous, &c. See Chnrr. In Pr, Pm, we have * Cienebyn a-jen (in wraw speche) 
or diaueryn a-jen for prowde heart. Obgarrio,* and the note, * Cbaveryn may be here the 
same as ebarym, or geynecopyn, which occurs previously.' But for the Latin explanation by 
s»ft>, there could be little doubt. 

Chaasy sb. (Pr. of chase). Haste, hurry. 

Chaas, v. a. To follow, walk after a person or thing. 

* Ah's bin cbassin' t' harras maist o' t' daay ;' been busy harrowing the land. 

ChatBy ohatts, sb. Cones of the fir-tree. 

S. G. koiti, strobilus ; Sw. taU-kotte, pine-cone ; gran-kotu, spruce-fir-cone ; Sw. D. hoiti, 
the same. See Wedgw. in w. CbatSt Cbit, Instead of the meaning given above, Marshall 
gives, * Keys of the ash and maple ; also the catkins of the hazle.' 

Chaudy-bag, sb. The stomach of an animal ; that part into which 
the various food-matters are received for the purposes of digestion. 

Tliere may be some doubt as to the origin of this word. Jam. quotes jaudie^ in his 
Suppiemeni, as having for its primary meaning the stomach of a hog : its derived meaning 
being a sort of pudding or haggis made in such stomach, and then, a pudding generally. 
Hall, quotes chaudron, ebiddrwts, cbaundron^ cbawibeme, forms which do not harmonise too 
well with the etymons alleged by Jam., viz. C. B., ' gUKudogen, omasum, a fat tripe ; Arm. 
gvadee, a pudding ; gvadegen hig minset, a haggis.' 

Chavel, chavley v. a. To chew slowly and imperfectly, as a person 
does whose teeth are gone ; to mumble. 

A. S. ctafl; Serai-Sax. ebeueU; Dan. ki{Bvet the mouth, jaws, or cheeks ; A. S. eeovan, to 
chew. From the motion of the jaws, or chawles^ a word used in the account. Early Eng. 
Allit. Poems, C. 1. 268, of Jonah's reception into the whale's belly — 


* And ^rwe in at hit )irote with-outen ^ret more. 
As mote in at a monster dor, so mukel wem his cbauUi,' 

Comp. * Cbavyl-bom or chawl-bone,' Pr. Pm. ; and also Dan. kjavU, Sw. D. kqfta, to 
scold, rerile, &c , both descriptive of the motion of the jaws in the act designated. 

Cheep, V. n. To cry as a young chicken does^ or as a young grouse 
or partridge. Applied also to the notes of other young birds, or to any 
sound resembling these notes. 

Sw. D. kip\ to pipe or squeak ; of chickens and birds in general. Comp. O. N. ktypa^ to 
cry as a seal does, or as children ; ' Lith. czyptit to cheep like a chicken, or sqnoJc like 
a mouse.' Wedgw. 

* Nu hi (a pair of lovers) ebippe\> and cussep 
And make[* togadere muchel blisse.' Flori^ and Blauncbefinr, p. 66. 

Cheeper, sb. A young partridge or grouse, before it has attained its 
growth and powers of flight, and whose cry of alarm is acuter than that 
of the full-grown bird. The * squeaker' of S. England. 

Cheese-cake grass, sb. The common bird*s-foot trefoil {Lofus cor- 

Cheese-lop. See Keslip. Other forms are Cheslip, Cheslop. 

Chet, sb. Pap, soft food prepared for infants. 

I have met with this word only in Wb. OL If a word of more than local coinage, or if 
it have more than a merely modem existence, it may be allied to Sw. D. k&ta^ kola, to 
mince, cut fine with a knife or the like, in reference to the finely comminuted state of the 
solid ingredients of the prepared food designated. 

Child-bed, sb. The matrix or womb in a woman. 

Childer, sb. Children. The still-preserved plural of child. Comp. 
brether, old pi. of brother. 

* Esau. Welcome, brother, to kyn and kythe, 

Thi wife and ebildre that comes the with.* Toumel. Mysi. p. 48. 

' His awen chosen ehUdyrt* Rd. Pieees, p. 31. 

Chimpings, sb. Grits, oatmeal of a coarse description or only 
roughly ground. 

i'robably nearly allied to Chump, a lump or knobby piece cut off a larger. Comp. 
Sw. D. humpa^ to cut smaller lumps from a larger ; kumpingt the pieces cut. 

Chip, V. n. To crack or begin to break: i. As the hands or lips do 
in cold weather or when imperfectly dried. 2. As the egg-shell does 
when the hatching-stage is just begun. 

There is probably a very near connection between this word and our Chap, to knock or 
rap : the one, that is, the crack, being the result of the other, that is, the blow. Comp. Teut. 


kiffen, cud^re, icere ; and Dut. kippen, same meaning, and also, to bmcb. This is Jamie- 
soq's view ; Wedgwood's being that ebip is one of those words which depend upon sound for 
tbdr origin. 

Chip up ; Chipped up, To be, v. n. and p. To trip or be tripped 
up, as by the foot catching against a stone, or other obstacle, in walking 
or running. 

See To Chip. The idea here also would seem to be that of striking, and with a short, 
sharp contact. But the occurrence of such a phrase as the following — mafSr kipH fdtum 
tndan BdrHi tua at bannfeli, the man tripped Bardr up so that he fell, leads us at once to 
0. N. Uppa, which is explained by Hald. by raptart, Sw D. kippa, besides the meaning, 
ta totter, to be unsteady, also has those of, to slip one's shoes on hastily and imperfectly ; 
and, to go slip-shod. And the adj. kipped means to be unsteady, ready to fall. In these 
words again, the first idea seems to be of hasty contact, as in the act of snatching, catching 
op hastily. 

Chisel, chizsel, sb. Bran; the coarser portions of the husk of the 
wheat-grain, dressed out after grinding. 

A.S. ceotdt eeosl; Dut. kesel; Oerm kUs^ gravel, coarse sand, sand. A transference of 
tense to the coarse parts of the rougher matters resulting from grinding gives our word. 
Cf. * In Norfolk, chizzly signifies dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from 
Teut. kUtde, gluma. 'The LtU. Engl. Vocah. Harl. MS. looa, f. 147, gives among ** perti- 
nmda pistrins, Cantabrum^ AngUci chycelle," ' Pr. Pm, note to ' Cbys^, or grauel.' 

Chitterlings, sb. The small entrails. 

Comp. koUUfif intestina, quoted by Ihre as current * apud SUisios ;' Germ, kuttel^ Belg. 
tebyterling (quoted in O. Ol.). Wedgw. makes * cbitter^ to chirp or twitter, then to shiver,' 
the origin of the word. Ihre refers it to the same root as Sw. hbtt^ O. N. kjotf &c., flesh. 
Cf. * Let us have trypis, chitterlyngis, and tryllybubbys (see TroUebobs) ynough,' 
Pr. Pm. note to Cbytyrlynge. 

Cholter-headed, adj. Thick-headed, stupid, dull of apprehension : 
another form of * jolter-headed.' 

Wedgw. thinks that ^jotdt-beady or jolter-bead comes from the notion of wagging the 
head to and fro, and not from the idea of thickness.' Possibly ; but still from the notion 
of the head being moved or jolted, scarcely * wagged,* about on account of its great weight, 
siie, or disproportion ; as in the case of an idiot's head, which is often of abnormal size, lies 
over on one shoulder, and, if moved at all, is moved with a sort of jolt, or uneasy roll or 

Chop, V. n. To cut or break in abruptly upon the course of man or 
animal ; to cut across one. 

* Chop ayont ! ' — to a sheep dog cs run ahead of and across the flock. * Cbop amell I ' run 
in amidst the flock. 

OhoWy V. a. To chew. A mere vocal change of the standard word, 
as in the Pr, yow, = (i) ewe ; or (2) you. 



Ohuoky, sb. A chicken, a hen. Of most frequent ose, in the plural, 
in speaking to children, or by children themselves. 

Probably dae to the note or manner of calling domestic fowls. Comp. 

* And with that word he flew downe from the heme. 
For it was day, and eke the hennis aU, 
And with a cbuckt he gan hem for to call/ NofmitPritt^i TaU, p. t7i. 

Ohunter, v. n. To murmur, to complain or be querulous ; to mutter 
or continue speaking half inaudibly, like one not disposed to give up 
a dispute. 

Han. gives ehundmr and ebumur as other forms of this word ; and according to Cr. Gi, 
* Mr. WUbraham refers the latter word to A. S. eeonian, obmurmurare.' But that word 
icems only to be a mistake or misprint for ceorian ; and if otherwise, though ebumur may 
be a vocal variation of ebunder or ebufUer, the converse is not true. It is at least not 
impossible that as the Dan. kjavU is a derivative from kja/i or kjave, and expressive of the 
motion of the parts in question in the act implied in kjcnde (see Oharel) ; and as 
O. N. kjapta means to work the jaws, and Jutl. kjahu (the exact equivalent, in sense, of onr 
duwel), the same, in point of action, so ohunter may originally have been a derivative 
from Sw. or S. G. kind, or some of its etymons, and have been used to imply the motion of 
the lower jaw observable in a muttering, discontented person's action. 

Churoh-priest, sb. A clergyman of the Church of England: in 
contradistinction to the R. C. priest, or the travelling preachers of the 


Churlish, adj. (pr. chollos'). i. Ill-natured, ungenial; of persons. 
2. Ungenial, cold, rough, bleak ; of the weather, or wind. 3. Cheerless, 
rugged ; of a look out, or a piece of bad rough road. 

A. S. ceorlie, ceorlisc^ churlish, in the sense of belonging to or characteristic of the 
clownish or commonalty, as distinguished from the gentle or well-born ; ' Cbtrlydte, 
eborlyscbet cariyscbe.* Pr. Pm. Our ohurliBh affords a curious instance of transition of 
sense in a word, the original meaning of which is strictly limited to human beings or what 
belongs to them. Comp. Sw. D. kar{l)skerf distasteful, disgusting. 

1. * *' To be dour and cboUos;" to look dismal and act ill-naturedly.' Wb, GL 

2. * ** A shill cboUot wind ;** a cold pining wind.' lb. 

Also ; * Certain medicines, as saline sc^utions, are deemed " cold and eboUos,** ' Ih, 

3. * '* A bad cbollos road ;*' a piece of stony, uneven turnpike.' lb. 

Churr, v. n. To emit a murmuring sound as partridges do when 
undisturbed in their haunts and collected in the covey; to chide or 
chatter in symphony, but with low, not shrill notes, as sparrows going 
to roost in a winter's evening, starlings or fieldfares when sitting to- 
gether in companies; to make a whirring sound as the night-jar in its 
nocturnal flight. 

O. N. kurra, hura^ knurrOt to murmur, make a low, whirring noise ; Sw. D. Amtto, Aorra; 
O. Sw. korra; O. D. kwrra; N. kurra^ to coo or murmur as a dove; Swab, iurrm, 
C(. A. S. ceorian^ cerian, to murmur, complain. Epe-cburr, as a name for the fern-owl 


or night-liar needs no comment. Connected with our word are ehdrm, a hum, low mur- 
nmring noise. Hall. * Charm of birds' in Milton's line; cbermt, — ' I cherme as bjrrdes do 
whan thej make a noyse a great nomber togyther.' Palsgr. (quoted by Hall.) A. S. eyrm, 
noise, shout, &c See OhAr. 

Cmder-hillSy sb. Deposits of scoriae, or slag from ancient iron- 
furnaces, often of considerable extent, and of very frequent occurrence in 

most parts of Cleveland. 


Bosw. quotes W. sindw, forge-cinders : Somn. explains A. S. sindir by ' sinders, dross, the 
Kumme of metal tried by the fire ;* and Dut. tinidel is slag, $eoricB ; all of which are pro- 
biUy allied radically to O. N. sindrt Germ. wtttTt &c., the scoriae or red-hot sparks which 
fly oiff from heated iron under the blows of the smith's hammer ; as well as to Lat. einis. 
Comp. /v. Pm. * Cyttdyr of he smjrthys fyre. Casuma, Cocbiron.' It would appear that 
die deposits of slag referred to in the definition are of remote antiquity, and that the name 
Ot nde r -hilli has been attached to them time out of mind. From a document yet extant 
it is known that the Rosedale Stone was wrought in King John's time ; but I have met 
widi no similar testimony as to the time down to which the Cleveland iron continued to be 
wrooghL In the township of Danby alone there still exist more than sixteen accumulations 
of die sbg in question ; but no traces whatever of any source from which the ore could 
have been obtained : and in many instances the position of the Clnder-hlUfl is such that 
die stone must have been brought to these furnaces, from which they are the residuum, 
from some considerable distance. It would seem probable that, as wood must have supplied 
die source of heat for smelting, and as this entire district, from the earliest historical time 
downwards till a century or so since, abounded with wood, the ore must have been brought 
from afru", on mule- or horse-back, and smelted on the spots where we find the deposits of 
shg ; as is well known was the case in Nottinghamshire and elsewhere. One of these sites, 
some thirty or forty years since, yet presented traces of the ancient furnace arrangement : 
rows of small conical-shaped pits in the vicinity of the Cind«r-hill were still traceable. 
As in operation in times certainly very remote, there is at least a possibility that they were 
in operation contemporaneously with or before the Danish occupation, and that the name 
Gtsideor-liill may have been one of purely Northern origin. 

Clagy V. n. To stick to, or adhere, as any viscid substance does to 
diat which it touches ; or as wet grass to a mowing-machine, interfering 
with its action. Used also metaphorically. 

O. N. kleggit a mass so pressed together as to be characterised by coherency : thence the 
idea of tenadousness or viscidity which is expressed by Dan. klag or hUg, viscid, sticky, 
tenacious ; and Idctgt or Heggi, to be heavy or viscid, as bread ; as, bradti klegger^ the 
bread is heavy; or heavy and tenacious, as soil. Comp. also A. S. dag, day ; Dan. Uag, 
the same. 

* Yan can't dig it, nae kin' o' form ; t' clagt te t' speead sae.' 

* Lahtle un ehgt tiv its mammy.' 

Claggy, adj. Sticky, glutinous, adhesive ; dirty or muddy. 

' Desput cloggy walking, for seear : 'frost *s meead it ower mucky fur owght/ 

Claggam, sb. Any viscid or glutinous substance in mass ; specially 
applied to treacle loUipops, or GkxKlies made of treacle and sugar 
boiled together. 

o 2 



Clam, V. a. i. To pinch, compress, force together. 2. To castrate 
by aid of compression. 3. v. n. and p. To suffer from the pinching 
effects of hunger, to starve. 

0. N. kUmma, co-arctare ; S. O. kl€tmma, primere, stringere ; Sw. Dial, kldtnma ; Dan. 
hlemme; Mid. Gtna. klimmen ; Germ, klemmen. Rietz observes that 'in all probability 
there must have once been extant in O. English a strong vb., climtm, eiam, clemnun or 
elummen.* Possibly our existing vb., generally current in one or more of its senses 
throughout the North, is the only vb. ever in use, no instance of its occurrence being 
quoted as a South English word; although the A. S. sb. elam, dom, bondage or bonds, 
constraint, exists. 

1. * " What *8 wrong with your hand, mun ?" " Getten my fingers elamm'd V t* vice." ' 
3. * Ah 's fairUngs clammed (or clemmed) for want o' meat.' 

Clam, sb. i. Moisture, especially viscid moisture. 2. Any soft adhe- 
sive substance. 

A. S. dam^ * what is clanmiy ; mud, clay, a poultice or plaister.* Bosw. 

Clam, V. n. and p. To stick or adhere to, as one's shirt to one's 
back when hot, or moistened paper to a wall; to stick together as 
one's tongue and palate do with thirst. 

This vb. probably depends upon the sb. clam, and it, no doubt, upon A. S. lam, loam. 
' My mouth and throat are jest clammed up.' 

Clame, v. a. i. To smear or daub over. 2. To smear or daub over 
with some unctuous or adhesive matter. 3. To make to stick upon, or 
cause to adhere. 

0. N. and N. kleima ; Sw. D. klema, kldima ; A. S. clceman ; Old Germ. kUimjan, See, ; 
to smear, besmear, daub. In reference to definition 3, it may be observed that the word- is 
applied to making a paper, or the like, stick (to a wall or door, say) by means of tacks, as 
well as by the use of paste or other glutinous, or unctuous matter. See example. 

1. * ^^at 's t'u claming t* walls for, thatten a way, wiv thah nasty mucky hands?' 

2. * Whah, bairn, thee 's getten t' butter a' clamed ower thah feeace, an' t* treeacle ower 
tha' cleeas.' 

* Deean't clame that breead sae thick.' 

3. * See thee, gan and clame thae posters oop o' t' big yett.* 

* Tell Willy Dogwhipper to clem that notish up o' kirk deear ;' put it up with tacks. 

Clammy, adj. Stickily moist, somewhat adhesive. 

Cf. Pr, Pm, * Clam\ or cleymows (gleymous). Olutinosus, viscosus.' 

Clamoursomey clammersomey adj. Noisily urgent, greedy, rapa- 

Comp. O. Dan. klammer, wrangling, litigation ; and, for form, the words loresome, 
laboursome, lonesome, &c. 

Clampers, sb. i. Fangs or claws, on any metal instnunent or object 
2. Metaphorically, of an animal; the fingers. 

O. N. klampi, a buckle or brooch, also a vice, hlbmhrur ; N. kldmbr ; Dan. klamme or 


MsMflMT, a rice, a thing to hold hit with. Comp. also Dut. klamptH, to hook things 
together, to hold tight ; I/fm-, or klamp-vogel^ a bird of prey. 
3. ' If I had my clampers on him he should feel the weight of my neif.' Wb. Ol. 

Claiiy sb. A considerable number, a great many ; always with some 
bond of connection, however slight, supposed. 

Gael, deum, children, descendants ; of one common ancestor, namely. 
' ** A dan o* bairns ;" a troop or crowd of children.' Wb. Ol. 

Clap, V. a. and n. i. To apply a blow, gently, but also quickly or 
smartly. 2. To use any action in which quick application of hand 
or other member, or material instrument, is characteristic. 3. To pro- 
duce the sound which results from such quick action or application. 
4. To squat, assume a sitting or crouching posture quickly, which may 
be maintained for any length of time. 

0. N. klappa, to stroke or pat, to strike, to smite ; S. G. and Sw. D. klappa ; A. S. clap- 
pioH. Ihre's remark on the vb. is that it implies ' a motion or action of the hand, whether 
for the purpose of patting or caressing, or of inflicting a blow.' As to the sense in defini- 
tion 3, Wedgw. observes that the word itself * is an imitation of the sound made by the 
collision of hard fiat things ;' an obsenration which is, perhaps, hardly borne out by 
the facts, as neither of the Northern words quoted above seems to imply the sound pro- 
duced as well as the action producing it. The sense in question proceeds naturally from the 
other, as in many similar cases, knocks cracky 8cc. 

2. * Clap ho'd, mun ;' catch hold quickly. 

* T' cau'd clapped til her breeost, an' she went off intiv a wearing.' 

4. * Ah seen t' partridge run t' length o' this busk, an' then it clapped;* or squatted. 

Clapperclaw, v. a. i. To assail, or use violence, but with the open 
hand in opposition to the closed fist, the nails being employed as well 
as the hand proper. 2. To abuse, scold, vituperate. 

Perhaps the word might be properly written — as it is certainly sounded — elapper-clore, 
from O. N. and Sw. D. klora^ to scratch with the nails. Still we have claw^ vb. in Townel. 
My St. p. 149. 

* Then the skalp shalle I clefe 1 lyst thou be clawdf* 

and Pr. Pm. * Clatvyn, or cratchyn. Scalpo ;' with which comp. O. N. klaa^ Sw. kla. 

Clart, V. a. To daub, smear, make dirty. See Clarty. 

* T* bairn's bin an' getten his fecace darted* 

* Tak* heed, mun 1 Thoo 'U clart tha' new becak.' 

Clart, sb. i. A spot; either of dirt or other substance that adheres. 
2. Insincerity, outside show, flattery. 

1. • Loo* thee 1 there's a grct clart o' snow o' tha* neb;' a great snow-flake on your 

a. * It's all clart;* not to be depended on, as mere profession, or compliment; what is 
on the surface only, and not in the substance. 

Clarted over. Flattered up, propitiated by smooth and compli- 
mentary language. 


Clarty, adj. i. Unctuous, sticky; the idea being alwajrs of moist 
substances that are apt to stick. 2. Dirty, with the implied sense that 
the object or person qualified by the adj. would be likely to make dirty 
by contact. 

Jam. in t. CHatty (with the same signification, and no doubt the same word, essentiaUy), 
quotes S. O. kladd, fUth, contaminating dirt, with the phrase, Uadda tig ntd — in the Qevd. 
vernacular, ' to muck one's self up.' He also notices S. G. lori^ filth, ordure, and O. N. /«cr, 
which, besides its primary meaning of clayt signifies mire, fltby mud. There can be 
scarcely any doubt that the latter word is the origin of slair, dairy, dart, datbery, or dad' 
dtry, all words of like meaning, and more or less in use in Line, and ancient Northumbria, 
as also of glair, glaur, and glairy, meaning dirt, filth, a muddy puddle, and mucky. And 
just as the addition of t in the former case, of ^ in the latter, forms the derirative in ques- 
tion, so— eren if elarty be not identical with gt4eir4 — a prefixed h would give our present 

I. ' Ah 've bin amangst t' honey, an' ma' hands are jest that dariy wiv it.' 

• T* pudden' *s sair and elarty* 

• It 's gi'en agen a bit, an' t* rooad 's getten varry elarty* 
a. ' A elarty hussy ;' a dirty, dauby uut. 

' Clarty deed ;' doings or circumstances such and so dirty, that some of the dirt may be 
expected to stick to any one concerned. 

Clash, V. a. and n. i. To clap, or shut suddenly with a bang, as 
a loose door does. 2. To cause a door to shut suddenly and with noise. 
3. To throw down, or cause anything to fall, so as to make a noise. 

Comp. Dan. kladsk, sb. ; and hladdte, v. n. 

I. * Whah, there 's street deear eladrm* agen. Wheea 's left it lowse 7 ' 

a. * Nay, marry. It *s yon neer-do-weel JOahny, elasbin* *t fur spoort.' 

Comp. ' With kene dobbej of )>at clos [*ay elatj on )>e wowe^.' 

E. Eng. AUit. Poems, B. 839. 

Clash, sb. I. A blow or bruise, the result of a fall or any intended 
violence. 2. The noise of such a blow or fall, or of a loose door, &c. 
3. Common talk or gossip ; in the pi., news. 

I. ' " Thou's getten a sair dasb, Thomas." ** Aye, Ah hes. Ah's dinged ma shackle 
oot ;** dislocated my wrist.' 

3. • It was lang ? elasb o* t' country side.* 

Clash, sb. A large or considerable quantity or number. 

Welsh clasg, a heap or collection ; elasgw, to aggregate, collect. 
' A elasb o* good things.' Wb. Ol. 

• " Ciadtei o* brass ;" lots of money.' lb. 

Clashing, sb. A shaking or jolting, as in a roughly moving convey- 
ance ; the application of a blow, or the striking of one object or substance 
against another. 

Claty v. n. To talk fast, with but little meaning ; to chatter or prate. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on the word elatter is, that it is * from the imitation of the 
sound of a knock by the syllable clot, equivalent to clack or clap.' The present word 


to be simply a Tolgar tbbrevifttioo of cUuur^ io its sense of loud, empty talk, and to snpply 
the TCfb answering to such a noun. Comp. Sw. D. klSdra, to prattle, as a child does ; and 
obienre that we hare * elat or clait^ as synonymous with * elappe or elakki of a mylle' in 
/t. Pntm 

Clatter, v. a. i. To beat so as to make a rattling noise. 2. To beat 
or chastise. 

Jam. quotes Teut. hUtUm^ fragorem edere, retonare, concrepare. Comp. also the A. S. 
lb. datnmg^ anjrthing which makes a clattering, a rattle. Bosw. Both these words testify 
to the former presence in the Northern languages of others formed from the same origin, 
tod in which our present word also took its rise. We meet with it and its derivatives in 
Eariy English writers in sense i ; and also, more frequently, in the sense of falling noisily, 
or coming down with a crash or rattling sound For instance, in sense I ; 

■ So harde sautes to the cite were jeven. 
That the komli kemeles were Xfxlatend with engines.' 

Will, and tbt Wen», 103. 

In the other sense, this, from the account of the Fox-hunt in Sir Oawayn, and descrip- 
tive of the ' crash' when the fox was viewed by the pack : — 


' When alle ]>e mute hade hym met, menged to-geder, 
Such a sorje at )>at syjt )>ay sette on his hede, 
As alle \>e damberande clyffes hade claitnd on hepes.' (1. 1720.) 

' Sodomas schal ful sodenly synk into grounde, 
And )>e grounde of Gomorre gorde in-to helle. 
And vche-a koste of [»is kytii clattr upon hepes.' 

Early Eng, Allit, PoemSt B. 910. 

^^^ * per as elaterande fro J>e crest |>e colde borne rennes, 

and henged heje ouer his hede in hard ysse-ikldes.' 

Sir Gaw. and Or, Kn. 731. 

Clatter, sb. i. A blow accompanied by resonance or rattling sound, 
from a fall or otherwise. 2. Noise or din; hence chattering talk, loud 
and idle gossip. 

* Caypbas, Weynde furthe in the wenyande 

And hold still thy elattir* Towntl, Myst, p. 257. 

Cf. ' And the women that her herde speke held her for a fool and untrewe, and datend 
it aboute.' Merl. p. la. 

* Every one crieth and ekUtretb what him likith.* Chaucer's Tale o/Milibaut, p. 149. 

Claut, V. a. To scratch with one's nails. 

Cf. * Hweffer )>e cat of helle elaurtde {clacbtt, clabti, in other texts) euer towarde hire.' 
Ancr, Riwlt, p. 103. O. Gl, gives c/auc^/= scratched, clawed; a word exactly coincident 
in form with Jamieson's * elaucbt = snatched, laid hold of eagerly and suddenly ;' both, as if 
from some verb the present of which is lost. It is observable that O. N. kid, klaa, kUejat 
to claw, to scratch, makes its imperf. kid, and befi kUpt in the pret., and so furnishes a 
word very like ours in form and sound, while the formation of a new verb from the pret. of 
an older one is not by any means an unprecedented proceeding. 


Clawer, sb. A rabble; a numerous and not very orderly assem- 

Possibly the same word as ealeever^ which is given by Ferguson as meaning obstreperous 
conduct^ the vb. signifying to make a riot, and which are referred by him to O. N. gidiifi, 
light-headedness, dissoluteness ; gidl/ra, to make a riot. To me it would seem, however, 
more likely to be allied to E. cleave, Dut. Ueverig, sticky ; cf. also Germ, kleben, Sw. D. 
klebbig, 8cc. ; and descriptive of the assemblage, or quasi-cohesion, of the individuals who 
collectively comtitute the Olartrer. 

• Oaw'ers o* folk at your tail.* Wb. OL 

Clawer, v. n. To climb, as one does a hill ; or as a cMd does on to 
its father's or mother's knees. 

O. N. kli/ra ; S. G. klijwa ; Dan JUavre ; Sw. D. hlaiva, to climb, scramble up, using 
both hands and feet. See Molb. in v. Klavre. The Dan. use is * at klavre op i et tret* to 
clawer up into a tree. 

Cled, adj. Clad, clothed. 

O. N. kladdr, clad, clothed ; Dan. Hade, to clothe ; E. clad. Sec, 

* They wur beeath weel fed and weel cled.* Wb. Ol. 

* ffor )>aire knaues ware eledde in clethyng full dene.' Rd, Pieces, p. 92. 

' Some clowde, for sothe, that stame has cled 
From us away.' Toumel. Myst. p. 181. 

* A lytter redy cled' lb. p. 133. 

Cleeas, sb. Clothes, garments. 

* If thou gif me mete and foode 
And close to body.* Toumel. Myst. p. 46. 

The same form occurs again at p. 293, and our present word is just to that form what 
our steean, beean, 8cc. are to stone, bone. See. 

Cleg, sb. The conunon horse-fly {HcBmatopota pluvialis). 

O. N. kleggi ; N. klegg ; Sw. D. kldgg, kl'dgge. I give O. N. kleggi on the authority of 
Rietz. The idea is that of sticking, adhesion ; and certainly no other insect sticks so close 
and so tight to the animal it attacks as does the Cleg. 

Cleik, sb. A hook, fixed in a shaft and intended to catch things 
up with. 

The proper spelling of this word probably would be Oleeak, as the Clevel. form of the 
word cloke; as in Ancr. Riwle, p. 102, * And drouh al ut )>et bodi efter mid clokes of 
crokede and of kene vondunges.' Cleik is properly a Sc. form. Comp. our Cliok, and 
HaUiweU's cleke. 

Cleik-hooks, sb. Four hooks of three inches in the bend, set back 
to back, affixed to a rope and used as * drags,' or to feel for and attach 
themselves to things at the bottom of a pool or other water. 


Clem, V. n. and p. To suffer from the effects of hunger. Another 
fonn of Clam (which see). 

* there company was clemmed: and mvch cold did suffer ; 
water was a worthy drinke : win it who might/ 

Perc3r*s Folio MS. i. p. 225. 

Cf. * £t this whan the hnngreth. 

Or whan thoo clomsest for cold 

Or clyngest for drie.* P. Plough, p. 276. 

Clep, V. a. To call, name, designate. 

A. S. dypum^ eleopian ; Dut. klappen, to speak, call, say. An older and frequent use of 
the word seems to have been to cry aloud to or for a person or thing ; as in Pr. Pm. CUpyn 
mvte, Clepe to mete. 

Comp. also ' f*ere he kneles and call^, and clepet af^er help.' 

E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 1 345. 

And, * And he ryches hym to ryse, and rapes hym sone, 

Clepes to his chamberlayn, choses his wede, 
Bojej forth, ouen he wat3 boun, bly)>ely to masse.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1310. 

Clep, sb. Name, description, kind or species. 

From dep, to name or designate : a transition of sense similar to that exemplified in 
' description,' * species,' our word mak', and the like. 
* It was of a queerish clep.* Wb. Gl, . 

Cletch, sb. I. A brood of young birds, especially domestic birds, 
a. A collection, set, or party of persons. 

O. N. klekja, to sit, as a bird ; to hatch ; Sw. kldcka ; Dan. hlaJche, id. The vb. itself 
appears to have been in use in Yorkshire in former days, and in its full sense of to rear or 
foster young, equivalent to the Dan. klcekke op ; at klakke et lam op : to foster a lamb, the 
mother of which is dead. 

Comp. * Thou art best on thi wax that ever was clekyt* Toumel. Myst. p. 31 1. 

Cleugh, sb. (pr. cleuf). A narrow rocky glen, or ravine. 

Cf. O. N. kley/t fissura rupium, Hald. ; Sw. D. kldv, a breach, gap, chasm, hole or den in 
the rocks ; A. S. clougb, a cleft of a rock. Cf. Pr. Pm. clyff, and Sc. cleucb. 

Clioky V. a. and n. i. To snatch, to seize quickly. 2. To shrivel up 
or contract in folds, as leather or parchment under a hot iron. 

There seems to be some little uncertainty as to the origin of this word. Wedgw. would 
refer it to an attempt to imitate sound, and together with Mr. Morris (Gl. to E. Engl. Allit. 
Poems) quotes Sw. or O. Sw. hldnclca, hldnga, to snatch, seize, as allied. These verbs are, 
it woi^d seem, more closely connected with our Clinch; and the Jutl. expression klcekke 
vedt to stick tight to, to hold fast by, corresponds more nearly to our OUok, especially 
when we find it occurring in the phrase, oliok ho'd, more frequently than in any other single 
allocution. In E. Eng. Allit. Poems the word occurs in the sense of take = get, acquire, 
become possessed of; but more frequently in the sense of taking or rather catching up, 
more or less of quickness seeming to be implied in the action spoken of: thus Abraham, 


after desiring his wife to be * cof and quyk at fns onej' in her preparation of food for his 
angelic visitors, and * saying to his servaunt )>at he hit se)>e faste/ himself, 

* To be bare-heued buske) hym thenne, 

Clecbei to a dene clo|>e and kcstej on )>e grene.' (B. 631.) 

Again, of Lot it is said, at 1. 857, that, — 

* He went forthe tt )>e wyket and waft hit hym after, 
pat a clyket hit dt^ dos hym byhynde/ 

In the lines, — 

* and whyle )>at wat) tUt^ dos in his hert 

)>ere watj no mon upon molde of myjt as hym selven,' 

the sense is evidently the passive of the Jutl. word given above ; viz. held fast. 
In TounuL MyU, p. 314, last line but one, 

* Fro dede you clAt in doke,' 

the sense is seize, snatch, lay grasp upon, which is coincident with ours. 

Cliolnim ftdr. * It was got at Clickum fair ;' Wh, Gl = purloined, 
stolen, taken without acknowledgment. 

Clinch, V. a. i. To clutch or grasp with the hand. 2. To meet with, 
or come upon a person suddenly, so as to arrest him in his course. 

S. G. hlctnga^ to seize or grasp with the hand ; kldneka^ to snatch, seize. Comp. Dan. 
ainke^ to fasten together the parts of a broken plate, &c. by means of klinker^ or flattened 

a. * I just elinebed him at the comer.' Wb. 01. 

Clip, V. a. To hold close together, to compress. 

O.S.kHpat to squeeze, gripe, compress, catch; Sw. D. klipa or klip*; li.klipe; Swiss 

Cf. • Power hem failleth 

To clucche or to clawe. 

To clippi or to holde.' P. Plougbm. p. 359. 

* Somme sayde they lovyd a lusty man 
That in theyr armys can clypp them and kysse them than.' 

Percy's f^L MS, i. p. 109, note. 

Clip, V. a. To cut short off; to shear, of sheep. 

O. N., S. O., Sw. D., N. hUppa ; Dan. hlippe ; A. S. clypan, Dan. at klippe baaret, to cut 
the hair ; at hlippe faar^ to dip, or shear, ^eep. Pr, Pm, * Clyppyn. Tondeo.' 

Clip, sb. A short piece cut off; e. g. a pattern of cloth or calico. 

Comp. Dan. klip, a cut made with a pair of scissors ; O. N. klippa^ a piece cut off. 

Clipping, sb. The act, or occasion, of a general clipping of any 
farmer's flock (see Sheep-olipping), in which his neighbours are in- 
vited to assist, and which terminates in an entertainment: the farmer, 
in his turn, holding himself ready to return the same office to those 
who have been his assistants. The same system holds good with 
respect to the Fig-killing about Christmas. 


Clipping-time, sb. The time or season for shearing sheep. See 

* Laban ferde to nimen kep, 

In dipping-Hnu to hise sep.' Story of Otn. and Exodus, p. 50. 

Cloam, olome, v. a. (sometimes pr. claum). i. To clutch, with both 
hands at once : or, simply to clutch or seize with decided grasp. 2. To 
pull or make tugging efforts, with both hands engaged, as in pulling 
a sack, or the like, along ; to pull about rudely or roughly. 

I have little hesitation in referring this word to O. N. klombrvr, a vice ; that which grasps 
firmly, holds in a tight clutch ; N. kl&mbr, Sw. kldmma, Dan. klamnur, &c. themselves 
derivatives from verbs signifying to grasp tight, compress, squeeze. 

Clock, sb. A general name for a beetle ; for instance, Black-olock, 
the common black-beetle, Water-clock, the water-beetle {Dyitscus 
marginalis) ; and Lady-clock, the lady-bird (Coccinella sepUm-punciaia), 

Hald. gives brunnh*ika^ conmionly but incorrectly written brun-klukka, as the name of 
the Dytisau. The w ord is, therefore, an exact equivalent to our 'Water-olock. But I 
meet with do other imtance in a Scand. tongue, in which the word kluka, or klukka, which 
must be the origin of our present word, occurs. Gamett, however, Pbil, Essays, p. 68, 
speaks of it as * a genuine Germanic word, and of remote antiquity, as is shewn by the 
ancient gloss published by Gerbert — ** ebuleieb, scarabzus." It appears from Schmellcr 
that kiihKk was the Bav. appellation for the scarahctus stercorarius, late in the seventeenth 
century.' He also names the insects called Braoken-olook, wiUow-clock, &c. 

Clock, V. n. To cluck as a hen does. 

Sw. D. klokka, klakka, klukka; Dan. klukke; N. S. klukken ; A. S. clocean; Lat. ghcirt. 

* Sely Capyll, oure hen, both to and fro 

She kakyls, 
Bot begyn she to crok. 
To groyne or to elok. 
Wo is hym of our cok, 

For he is in the shekyls.' Townel. Myst. p. 99. 

Clock-seves, dock-sives, sb. The sharp-flowered rush {/uncus 
acuHflorus), Described as the black-headed bulrush in Wh. GL from 
Marshall, but mistakenly. (Other plants may be included under this 
name, but I am not able to ascertain.) 

Aasen quotes hlekk, as applied to grass and plants, and meaning soft, flexible, yielding (as 
opposed to rigid, hard or harsh). This is the character of the leaves of the Clook-seave ; 
and the existence of the distinctive local name 'Wire-rush, given in Wb. GL as synonymous 
with * the seaves of the moors and wastes,' and really denoting the so-named * hard-rush' of 
the botanists {Juncus glaucus), might be sufficient to decide the origin of the prefix in 
Clook-seaves, were it not that Rietz gives kldk, klak, kloi, a word also applied to plants 
or vegetation ; as klak sad, aker, luxuriant com, or cornfields ; klok sad, klok stut, klokt bam ; 
the word in the two latter instances implying well-grown, vigorous. He also gives Hakt 
Uag, synonymous with N. kl0kk, connecting it with O. N. klokkr, flexible, yielding. It is 

P 2 


not clear, however, that the two words, given by Rietz as separate, are unconnected. 
There b certainly no inconsistency between the meanings ; luxuriant growth is apt to yield 
toft herbage ; and besides that, the special application of the N. and Sw. D. words seems 
fufSdent to do more than hint a relationship. 

Clod-clags, sb. See Clow-olags. 

dodder, oludder, oluther, v. n. To collect in a close group, as 
chickens round the hen; to be closely packed, as people in a small 
room ; to cluster together. 

Gamett, Essays, p. 165, quotes Welsh clvder, heap, pile ; cludeiriaw, to gather in a heap, 
as the origin of this word. There may be also a relationship between bo^ and the O. N., 
N., S. G. hlot, Sw. D. Idotr, the main idea in which probably may be of concretion, or 
agglutination. Comp. Dutch klotteren, coagulare : and * eluttertd blood ' is an expression 
met with in Holland's writings, as well as elsewhere ; e. g. * Clottryn, as blode, or other lyke. 
Coagulo* Pr. Fm, 

* ** They were all duAer^dup;** of a number of people collecting in a room comparatively 
only small.' Wb. 01. 

Cloddy, adj. Thick and short ; full-fleshed. 

O. N. kldt is the ptmimel of a sword, and, generally, a rounded lump ; that in which the 
idea of length gives way to that of thickness. Dan. klodt klode, klodsj all have the same 
characteristic kind of application. Hence our oloddy. 

Clog, sb. A log, block of wood. See Hag-clog, Yule-clog. 

Comp. Dan. kiods^ Sw. klots^ a block, log, clog ; also Germ, klotz^ back-clotz, a chopping- 
block, Hag-clog. Sw. D. klakk, a lump, L. Germ, klak^ come nearer still to our form, and 
to Pr. Pm. * Clogge. Truncus* 

Clogged, adj. Suffering under oppression of the breathing-tubes; 
wheezy, asthmatical. See Closed. 

Cloggy, clogging, adj. Causing satiety or its consequent loathing ; 
heavy, indigestible. 

Clogs, sb. Ancle-shoes of thick leather, with wooden soles strength- 
ened with iron at the heels and edges. 

* From clog in the sense of a block or clumsy piece of wood.* Wedgw. Comp. Germ. 
klotz-scbub, a clog or wooden shoe, Dan. klods. 

Cf. * His luddokys thai lowke like walk-mylne c/o^^«5.' Toumel. Myst. p. ^1^. 

Closed, adj. Experiencing much difficulty in breathing, as in pneu- 
monic affections. 

I do not find this word in any of the north-country Glossaries, nor in Hall. It is, how- 
ever, together with Closing, of extremely frequent occurrence in this district. 

* " How is Willy T. to-day?" *' Despcr't* sair closed, an* like to lose his wind rceght oot, 
a* tahms." ' 

Close-neived, adj. Niggardly, stingy, parsimonious. See Neif. 


dng, sb. I. A diflficulty of breathing, produced by cold or 
pneumonic affection. 2. The producing cause itself; pneumonia, 
bronchitis, &c. 

I. • " What is the matter with your baby, mistress ?" ** Why, it *8 a closin* ; it \ getten 
a sair cow'd an* Ah *s free'tn'd o* lossing *t.** * 

a. * T' au'd man 's getten a eUuiti on 'im, an' it 'II fare te gan hard wiv 'im.* 

Clot, sb. A clod, lump of earth. 

A. S. clud; N. S. kloot, &c. * A clotte, cespis, oecarium. A dottynge malle, ocealo- 
rhtm* Catb. Ang.^ quoted in note to Cioddt, Pr. Pm, ' Ane dot of heui eoi^.* Ancr, 
RiwUt p. 140. 

' That cursyd cloU of Camys kyn 

Forsoth was I.* Toumel. Mysi, p. 328. 

the reference being to * a lothly lumpe of fleshly syn,' as Judas describes himself as having 
been in his mother's womb. 

Clot-bur, sb. The burdock {Arctium lappa), 

* dot-bur, in Chaucer and Pr. Pm. elott, sometimes spelt incorrectly elod-bur; A.S. claUt 
Germ, clettif a bur that sticks to clothes.' Popular Nanus of Br, Plants, p. 49. 

Cloth, To draw the. To remove the cloth when the meal, during 
which it has been spread, is done. 

* So she ete tylle mete was done, 
Tylle they drew clotbes, and had wasshen, 
As is the gyse and maner.' 

Sir Gawan and Dame Ragnsll, quoted in Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 115. 

Clour, sb. A liunp or bump ; an unevenness ; the swelling occa- 
sioned by a blow. 

Perhaps transposed from Su. G. kullra, decidere cum impetu, says Jam. Hall, quotes 
• Bareyn ClounHs, from Lydgate, as an instance of the sense, * hollow ground, or a field,* 
and gives the word as A. N. I believe that in Lydgate as well as in the North, the idea 
implied in clour is that of unevenness, Hald. gives klur, coarse, rough, unfinished, uneven, 
as a word which, in its metaphorical sense, implied a servant or slave, from the contrast of 
such an one's clownish, or boorish behaviour with that of a free-bom gentleman. Super- 
ficial roughness, whether of conduct or manner, or such as may be left by a bad clumsy 
workman, or by a lack of pains in removing unevennesses, seems to be the radical sense of 
the word, and it is more than probable that our word is the same, scarcely altered in either 
sound or spelling. 

Clout, sb. A blow, or stroke, as applied to some limited area or 

Jam., imder this word, quotes Teut. klotsen, pulsare, pultare ; but under the word clutter- 
ing he gives Teut. kloteren, kleuteren, tuditare, pultare, pulsare crebro ictu, in which the 
affinity seems even closer than in klotsen. 


Clout, sb. I. A cloth of limited size. 2. A patch or piec^ put over 
a ragged place. 3. A rag. 

Garaett gives Welsh elwt, patch ; elytiaw, to patch, as words which * appear to be of Celtic 
origin*' Pbil. Essays^ i^. 161, 16 a. Ihre gives Hut in our third sense, a rag ; alleging also 
A. S. e/tf/, cUot in its sense of a seam as the origin of our Engl, clout^ to patch : adding that 
from this the conjecture is a reasonable one, that the ancient and original signification of 
dut must have been a scrap or segment of material applied to the repair of worn garments. 
Certainly, besides A. S. c/v/, * a little cloth or clout,' (Bosw.) we have Sw. D. klut^ 
O. N. l/tt/r, N. hlui^ Dan. Jdud^ in the senses of — a portion of material, or a part of the 
dress, as elotb in £. nteh-clotb^ 8cc ' Clowte of clothe, (cloute or ragge.)' Pr. Pm, 

I. Cf. Chaucer's * An herin elout to wrappe me in,' Pardotur's TaU^ P* 135* 

* In elowtis he was wondene.* Rei. Pieces, p. 41. 

a. * Vor a lute elut mei lodlichen swutfo a muchel ihol peche ;' for a little clout (patch) 
may very lothly impair a mickle whole. Aner, Ritale, p. a56. 

3. ' Thou wald nowthir in purpure ne by«e 

Be lappede, ne in nan o)>er clothes of pryce. 

Hot in vile clowttes for to couer thi body.* Rel. Pieces^ p. 63. 

' And when she of this bill hath takin hede 
She rent it all to cloutU* Marebaunt's Tale, P- 7'* 

Clout, V. a. I. To patch, to mend a hole or ragged place, in a 
garment or the like, by the apposition of a patch, or piece of fresh 

Pr, Pm. * CHowtyn, sarcio* The word was anciently employed to express what was rigid, 
as well as what was pliable, like leather or cloth. Thus * ** A clowte of yme, crusta ferrea, 
et cetera uhi plate." Catb, Ang, In Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron plate 
with which a shoe is strengthened. A. S. eleot, clut, lamina.' Note to * Clowte of a schoo.' 

' Uxor. Yei, Noe, go cloute thi shone, the better wille thai last.' Townel. Myst. p. 29. 

And in Aner. Riwle, p. a56, where directions are given to the recluses to be very careful 
of what they say, on rumour, touching a sister, the writer proceeds, * Cause the person who 
bears the message to repeat it often in the manner she is going to report it, that she may 
not report it otherwise, *' ne ne clutie nanmore )>erto." ' 

Clout, V. a. To Strike, to inflict a blow or blows on any given part 
(see preceding word); no doubt from the idea of applying a blow as 
one claps on a patch. 

* Gout his heead for 'im.* * Qout him weel.' 

Clowen, p. p. of to Cleave. Stuck together by means of some glu- 
tinous substance ; in a state of cohesion. 

Comp. Sw. D. klabbed, cohering, adhesive ; kldjed, sad, heavy, doughy ; of bread, &c. 

Clow, V. n. To work laboriously, to labour or strive at anythmg 
with much exertion. 

Cf. Sw. hluddra, N. and Sw. D. hlatra, to toil, to work with trouble and pains, to labour 
tediously and wearisomely, or to poor purpose. It may, however, be noted that the 
Sw. D. word hlor^ to make slow or laborious progress, by combination witli maur =■ myra. 


an ant, takes the signification of a laborious person who labours perseveringly like an aut, 
only very gently or deliberately ; a sense which corresponds rather more nearly to that of 

Clow-olagged, adj. Having their own dung adhering to their hinder 
parts, dried and clotted : said of sheep and cattle. 

This word may be derived from O. N. klof^ femorum intercapedo, or fork; which word 
Hall, defines ' as the lower half of the body/ adding that * the haunch of a deer was called 
z/brk:* this, with dag, furnishes our word. Cf. Pr. Pm. * Clyff, clyfi, i^uswra, ritna ;* and 
in the note, Cli/lt =* la fourcbeure. Walter le Biblesworth. 

Clow-olags, sb. Dried masses of dung adhering to the wool, or the 
hair, on the hinder parts of a sheep, or other animal. Another form of 
the word is Clod-olags. 

Clow-olashy sb. Disturbance, or confusion; such as occurs when 
a house is turned inside out in the process of the spring * cleaning.' 
See dow, Glower. 

Clower, sb. One who works or labours at his occupation toilingly 
or heartily. 

• " A elower at a trencher ;'* a hearty feeder.' 

A elower cf^er pelf;" a striver af^er money.* Wb, 01, 

« t( 

Cloy, sb. Nausea, inclination to vomit, or the sensation of it. 

O. N. klia, to feel sick : klia, nausea ; kliu Itthningar, emetics. Comp. Sw. D. hto, 
risings from the stomach, heartburn ; found also in composition, as va//eii-Jfc/o— answering 
to our "Water-braBh ; Cr. Gl. watter-taums ; Halliwell's loaier-springs or water-tpringe — 
and brdnmnns^klOf the regurgitation after drinking brandy. The idea involved in this is 
probably the origin of the expression * as drunk as cloy.' See Gloy, v. a. 

Cloy, V. a. To glut, satiate to the pitch of repletion, or rejection 
of more. 

In the expression * as drunk as cloy* (see Wb. Gl. in v.), is not our verb the word 
employed ? This would surely be a preferable explanation to, * as drunk as Chloe,' which 
has been suggested by some. See Gloy, sb. 

Clubster, sb. The stoat {Mustela erminea). 

Called club^aU in Line, and elsewhere — A. S. ittort^ Fris. sterty Dan. stiert, Sw. stjirt. See, 
a tail — a name which leaves the origin of our word not at all doubtful. The merest com- 
parison of the short stiff tail of the animal named, with, e. g., the flexible one of the rat, 
is a sufficient illustration of the appositeness of the name. 

Cludder, oluther, sb. A cluster, close group ; a large quantity, or 
mass of anything, gathered together. See Clodder. 

* ** A rare clutber of money ;" a great sum.' Wb. Gl. 


Clue, sb. Thread, string, cotton, worsted, wound, whether into a ball, 
or upon a bobbin or card. 

Wedgw. says * the origin of this word seems to be a form of the same chss with Welsh 
ddh^ a lump ; Russ. dub , a ball, pellet ; Lat. globus^ a ball or sphere. The b readily passes 
dirough V into a icf or ».* Comp. Dut. klauw, klouwe, a ball of yam ; Sw. D. klatfse, klause^ 
Idowt; Dzn. D. klews; all with the same meaning. Rietz seems to refer these words to 
the yb. kHawi^ to cleave, to separate, as their stem-word. Possibly, however, Pr. Pm. * Clow- 
ebyn, or clowe, clewe. Glomus^ globut^* indicates a guttural as the origin of the w or v. 

Clum, dumb, adj. Tenacious, viscid, sodden, doughy, sticking 
toughly together ; of heavy or clayey soil when trampled upon in a wet 
state ; of heavy, ill-baked bread. See Clung. 

Comp. N. Fris. klum, damp, sodden ; Sw. D. klam, applied to snow when moist enough 
to be compressed into a compact mass ; Dan. and N. Sax. klam ; O. N. kratnr, id. 

Clung, adj. i. Heavy, tenacious; as clayey soils become after satu- 
ration with wet, especially if trampled or otherwise kneaded while in that 
state. 2. Very tough, tenacious, unyielding; of extremely close-grained 

A. S. elingan seems rather to express the toughening or stiffening process which is the 
result of gradual drying of things which have been wet, as in the case of the Sussex phrase, 
a clung bat, for a clung stick. Wedgw. Cf. * Whan thou clyngest for drie.' P. Plougbm. 
p. 376. On the other hand, the idea of drying or withering is wanting in the Scand. forms 
of the word, and simple adhesion or coherence seems to be involved : as in Sw. klanga, to 
ding, stick to, adhere ; Sw. D. kldng-horre^ the bur-dock — literally, cUng-bur ; and in Dan. 
klynge, a cluster, or knot ; klynges, recipr. v., to collect or cluster togeti^er. This approxi- 
mates more to the idea of tenacious cohesion, which is the characteristic of our word. 

Clunter, v. n. To walk or tread heavily, so as to make a noise with 
the feet. 

Comp. Dan. kluntet, awkward, lump-like, or in a limiping way, from klunt, a block, a 
lump, which, there is little reason to doubt, suggests the original of our word. Wedgw. 
quotes Dut. kluntet and kluni in the same sense as the Dan. words. 

Clunter, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder. 

See dunter, v. n. The idea may be due to that of awkwardness or clumsiness. 

Coal-coop, coal-coup, sb. A coal-scuttle. 

Comp. O. N. kupa^ a circular vessel or pail ; Sw. D. kuba^ a round or oblong basket with 
two ears or handles ; pdre-kuba, a potato-coop ; also, Sw. D. and N. kupa^ and Sw. D. kypa, 
gryn-kypa ; with similar or analogous significations. Comp. Ass-coup. See Coup. 

Cobble, cobble-stean, sb. A roundish stone of moderate size, such 
as may be used for ordinary paving. 

Wedgw. says, * from the sound of pebbles rolling on the beach.' Comp., however, 
N. koppel, a cobble-stone ; while Sw. D. has both kobb, a lesser rock, such as is not quite 
covered by the water, and kobbel^ a Mere or boundary-stone. The latter may probably 
be a derivative from, if not a form of, O. N. kumbl^ a pile, a Buck ; while the former, 
as probably, is nearly related to cob in our Cob-stone, cob-nut ; cob =* head ; and to 
copt a mound, the top or summit, 8cc. See Hall. The idea seems to be that of a rounded. 


up-standing lurface, like that of the upper portion of the human head, and the word itself 
to be referrible to A. S. cop^ copp, the top, culmen ; Fris. and L. Germ, kopt the same ; and 
the like. Wedgw., however, takes eoh as meaning * a blow, and thence, as usual, a lump 
or thick mass of anything,* referring the word to W. eob, cobio. Comp. Pr.Pm, 

* CobylUione, or cherystone. PetrUla, lapis cerasinus, ceramus* 

Cobble, V. a, i. To throw stones at, pelt with stones or dirt. 2. To 
pave with Ck>bble8 or rounded stones. 

Ck>bble-tree, sb. A swingle-tree ; the bar to the ends of which the 
traces of a draught-horse are attached before the plough or in double 
harness. Comp. Stretcher. 

This may be simply coupU-tree; Dan. koble: as swmgli^ee^ from Dan. svingel. 

Cobbling, sb. A stoning or pelting with Cobbles and such like 

Cobby, adj. Brisk, lively, hearty ; in good health. 

Comp. Sw. D. kopugur, vigorous, lively : a word applied to the sea when the waves move 
briskly and with consequent sound. 

Coble, sb. A kind of boat peculiar to the north-east coast, in use 
among the fishermen and pilots, with sharp bows, flat, sloping stem, and 
without a keel; used also as a pleasure-boat at the various watering- 
places on the said coast. 

Welsh ceuhal, a boat. From this source, perhaps, the A. S. word euople, a coble, small 
ship, navicula (Bosw.), originally proceeded. 

* AndlSa b« of stag in lytlum scipe t in euople :* and when he ascended into a little ship 
or coble. Nortbumb, Gospels, Matt. viii. a8. 

Cob-stones, sb. Stones of a size to be thrown, or which may be 
applied to paving purposes. See Cobble, sb. 

Cock-light, sb. (pr. cock-leeght). Day-dawn, the hour of * cock- 
crow,' when the first gleams of light shew themselves. 

Comp. * The cock, that horiloge is of thorpes lite.' Assembly o/Foules, iv. 304. 

* The image,' it is said in the note, * brings before us the little remote village, or thorpe, 
and the hinds called up in the early morning by the crowing of the cock, their only bonh 
loge or clock.' 

Cockly, adj. Unsteady on its basis; easily moved or overthrown; 
wavering. Brock, gives the form * cogly.' 

The origin of this word is probably the same as that of Dan. Intgle, and Germ, higd, 
a ball ; htgeln, to roll ; O. N. hogla, id. ; and the idea is that of a standing body, but stand- 
ing on an unsteady basis, as a globular one would be. Wedgw. derives the word from 

* cock, a rapid movement,' which he connects with Du. kokelen, to juggle, * from the rapid 
movements of a juggler's tricks.' 

Cock o' t' midden, sb. One able and disposed to assert his supre- 



Oook-Bhut, sb. The twilight hour at the close of the day. Comp. 

Cod, sb. I. A bag, of leather, as in Fireood; natural, as in the 
scrotum. 2. A pod ; the shell or outer envelope of peas, beans, ftc. 

A. S. codd^ a bag, sack, cod. Comp. Welsh eod^ ewd, the same ; Bret, kdd, gdd, a 
pocket ; O. N. koddi^ a cmJiion ; i. e. t bag with ^>ecial contents ; Sw. kuddi, a coshion, 
but also the bag containing it; a pod* Collate pod with Dan. pudg, a pillow, as well as 
eod with O. N. koddi, Sw. kuddi, Wedgw. is of opinion that there is a near connection 
between the words in question, as in Oa<£ fiod or cifoJ« English dod or doi, 

Cf. Pr. Pm, * Coddi, of frute, or pesecodde. SU^ua,* 

* O belie I O wombe I And O stinking cod 

Fulfilled of dong and of corrupdoun I * Pardotur's TaU, p. 134. 

In the following extract, Thumd, Uyti, p. 84* 

* For even or for od I have mekyDe tene. 
As hevy as a lod I grete with myn eene. 
When I nap on my cod, for care that has bene. 

And sorow,'— 

the sense of the word is pillow, bolster. Cf. ' I senricale cum codbtr contexta.' Pr, Fincb. 
civ. * Coddt a pillow or cushion.' Brockett. 

Coif, sb. A woman's cap or head-dress, of a style which used to be 
worn in days gone by. 

O. N. qytift a hood, a covering for the head. Comp. O. N. k6lfr, a species of female 
head-gear. Hald. Allied to ba/a, Sw. hujva, Dan. hut, A. S. hufe. The S. G. form of our 
word is bunf; Sw. D. bviv. See Ihre and Bosworth. Cojfe seems to have been the name 
for the head-covering of the tonsured clergy. Note to Cappit Pr. Pm. Also, note to 
Coxfi — * A co3rfe, pillius, pUUolus. Pillita mjuvenutn, peregrmumque gaUrum* 

Collar, sb. The leathern Head-stall, or halter by which the horse is 
secured to its stall in the stable. See Head-stalL 

Collier, sb. The swift or deviling {Cypselus a/ms). 

Collop, sb. A sliced piece of meat or bacon. Used also figuratively 
to express, according to Uie connection, the ideas of costliness, distaste- 
fulness, &c. 

Qire quotes the word koUops, slices of meat, well beaten and softened before cooking, as 
common to the O. Sw. and English tongues. * From clop or colp, representing the sound 
of a lump of something soft thrown on a flat surface,' says Wedgw. Ihre is more cautious : 
* If,' says he, * the word originated in the kitchen, I should not doubt its connection with 
klappa, hlopfen* Probably, however, the source of the word is more distant, and not un- 
connected with the root of koKo^U, a cut-off piece ; Koko06ea, to cut short, to mutilate. 
Richardson's derivation is * Collop, by corruption from the obsolete callow or colly, to make 
black with a coal, and then applied to anything of similar form and shape to a collop* (1) It 
is worthy of notice, as at least a curious coincidence, that while Ihre mentions Gr. KoXXcfff, 
pars spinae bovis, — and this word, in its metaphorical sense, means * a youth hardened in 
debauchery' (Donnegan), — in Wb. Gl. we find that *a young spendthrift is pronounced to 
be a costly collop to his parents.* 


Emnple of metaphorical lente: — '** It will be a costly eoUop to him "« prove a very 
expeniive undertakins.' Wb. OL 

* ** A sao't coUop ; something irritating or disagreeable or hard to put op with.' lb, 

* " Ood saue the Queene of England," he said, 

** for her blood is yerry neshe. 
As neere vnto her I am 

as a eoUoppt shome from the fleshe." ' Percy's Fol, MS. i. 141. 

CoUop-Monday. The Monday before Lent, a day on which the 
customary dish is Collops — i. e. rashers of bacon, and eggs. 

* The poor in the country now go about and beg collopt for the feast, of their richer 
neighbours.' H^. Ol. 

* A cock and bacon are, in some farm-houses, boiled on the day after Coilop-Monday, 
Shrove-Toesday, or Fassn's-eve ; and if any one omits to do justice to the dish, Hobthrust 
is sure, at night, to cram him fidl with bigg-chaff.' Brockett, in ▼. Hobibnui, 

Come again, To, v. n. Of a ghost, or the spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. Dan. gi^'-gaHgirt a ghost, that which goes again ; Qtn-fard^ an apparition or 
ghost; Sw. gengOHgan; Sw. D. gen-fird. The south of EngUnd expression is * to walk.' 

Come-away, v. n. (pr. cow-away, or cow-wa). To be on the move, 
leaving one's present place of tarr3ring or resting. 

Comp. Do-way, as in the passages below :— 

* Angelus. Do wa, Joseph, and mend thy thoght. ' Towntl, Mysi, p. 79. 

' ** Mak, with youre lefe, let me gyf youre bame hot vi pence." 
Mai, • •• Nay, do way : he slepys." ' /6. p. 1 14. 

Come by, v. n. To move on one side, so as to be out of the way of 
one passing by. 

Come-by-chance, sb. An illegitimate child. Called also Chance- 
bairn, Love-begot, Sec. 

Comp. O. N. laun-getinn, furto genitus, stealth-gotten, as another instance of the spirit 
which prompts the coinage of such names. 

Comen, p. p. of to Come. 

* " Oan and see, bairn, gin Jossy be eonun.** ' 

' What tydings hast thou brought me, child ? 

thou art eomtH home so soone to me.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 183. 

Comp. ' ouer comnu* Rtl. Puets, p. 43. 

Commother, sb. A godmother. 

Comp. Fr. commit, A. S. eum-padirt godfather ; the latter given by Bosw. 

Company, sb. Any assemblage of persons for a special purpose ; 
attendance at public worship, for instance ; or at a concert or lecture. 

Conceit, v. a. (pr. consate). To suppose or assume ; to be of 

* I eotuaa youll be frae Lunnun.' Wb. 01. 

q 2 


Conceited, adj. (pr. consated). Somewhat flighty, weak, apt to 
entertain silly notions. 

* '* A coHsaied body ;" a person giyen to foolish notions or of nenroos temperament.' 

Conjuror, sb. One able to exorcise the devil or to lay ghosts. 

The power invoWed here is, or was until lately, held to reside in the clergy ; and I have 
mjTself been applied to by a woman, who was sane enough in most points, to lay certain 
spirits which pertinaciously disturbed her : one the ghost of a deceased * minister ;' another 
^e evil one himself. But the power of the Churoh-prieats, or clergymen of the Church 
of England, was held to be light, or almost nothing, in comparison with that of the Roman 
Catholic priesU. See Ord's Hist, of Cleveland^ p. 301. 

Conny, adj. Neat in person and figure; pretty, pleasing to look at; 

Comp. Sw. D. kitm, kotm, iytm, k6m, neat, pretty, handsome, pleasant and pleasant- 
looking ; Dan. kjmn (in the pi. kjmmu) ; Old Dan. and Jutl. kdn. Comp. also the mod. 
Dan. use : en kjmn pigi, a etmmy maid ; saa lader tm kone hjwU i ii buns, in the CleveL 
vernacular, * a misthress i' t' hooss 's comty t' see;' * den gaard bar eosUi kjmruu penge :* 
that farm cost a conny lot o' brass ; or AngUeg, * a pretty penny.' See Canny. 

Con over, v. a. i. To consider, think over. 2. To persuade or 
talk one over. 

O. N. kenna ; S. O. ktBnna ; Sw. and Sw. D. iatma ; D. hund$ ; Fris. hmna^ kanna ; Germ. 
kennen ; A. S. eunnian. The signification of the latter word is to enquire, search into, eon ; 
of the others, generally speaking, to know, to take knowledge of. In O. Sw. kienna, and 
in Sw. Dial, hunna^ there are senses almost exactly coincident with ours. Thus, as to sense 
a, swa kanner nod nakna kono spinna : necessity teaches or persuades the naked woman to 
spin, quoted by both Ihre and Rietz. So also of O. E. htn, 

Consmnpted, pcpl. Suffering under consumption or phthisis. 

* T' doct'r says he *s heavily consumpud ' 

Coom, onm, sb. Dust, fine dirt; also dust or scrapings of wood 
produced by the saw, or in other modes. See Saw-eouL 

O. N. ham, a speck or spot of dust, soot or smut, &c. Comp. Sw. D. Wm, dull, as bright 
metal becomes by the lodgment of dust, or corrosion ; Dut. kaam, particles of mould on 
beer or vinegar ; Germ, hainit the same. 

* Comys, of malte.' Pr, Pm, * Cummynge as malte, germinatus,' Catb, Angl, (note, lb.) 

Coop, ooup, sb. A vessel of wood, possibly made with staves, and 
something of the pail description, though not necessarily so now. See 
Ass-coup, Coal-coop, &c. 

* Coupe or coule for capons or other poultrie ware.' Pr. Pm, note to Coonde. A eouds 
is a tub, and coope or coupe s)'non3rmous with it. 

Cooscot, sb. The ringdove (Columha palumhus), 

A, S. cusceote. The name takes a variety of forms — cowscot, eowsbot^ cushat , cusba-doo, 


homsthoit euubeiti. Sec. Brock, suggests that the name is due to * A. S. ciisc, chaste, in 
allusion to the conjugal fidelity of the bird/ pigeons of all kinds being understood to be 
particularly £iithful in their loves : whence Chaucer's notice of the turtle-dove,— 

* The wedded turtelle, with his herte true/ Bell's Cbttueer^ iv. 204. 

Cordwainer, sb. A shoemaker. 

Pr, Pm, * Cordwaner, Alutarius, Cordwans^ ledyr/ 

* His shone of eordewane* Rime of Sir Tbopaz, p. 1 45. 

' & doe me of thy eordiuani shoone/ Percy's Fol. MS. i. 185. 

And in the note to the same, — ' Cordivant : proprie cordwane, corium denominatum a Cor- 
duba, urbe Hispaniae. The same as Morocco leather, i.e. cordovan. Cordouarif properly 
a goat's skin tanned. Cotgr.' * Of felles of gheet, or of the bukke make men good 
cordewan* Note to Pr. Pm. (ut supra). 

In St. Olqfs Saga (Flatey. ii. 34), when the author gives an account of Olaf 's visit 
to his mother and stepfather, King Sigurdr Syrr, the latter being busy in the harvest field 
when the visit is announced, and not in fit array consequently to receive so distinguished 
a visitor suitably, this is the notice given of his toilet : — * Then sat King Sigurdr down and 
caused draw off his ordinary shoes and drew on hose of cordovan {kordimobosur), and 
bound on his gilt spurs. Then took he off his cape and kirtle and put on a robe of fur,' Sec. 
Whence cordovan was evidently a portion of what the Cleveland folks call their ' Sunday, 
or bettermy cleeas/ 

Com, sb. A single grain or particle of any substance or article 
usually found aggregated ; e. g. of sand, salt, wheat, shot, Sec, 

Comp. Sw. D. kom (det torn or smStt, anything that is little ; bitrf-kom being used as 
a word of affection or petting). Especially observe the Dan. use of the word — * any quite 
small and round, or nearly round, object.' Molb. Guldet findts underiiden i kom : gold 
may be occasionally met with in corns. Sand-horn^ bvede-korn ; senneps-korn, mustard-corn ; 
tenepes-com, A. S. and N. Gospels ; bagel-kontt hail-corn ; peber-kom, and many other like 
compounds are in continual use. Leeds Gl. gives corns of tobacco, applied to the shreds 
left in an exhausted tobacco-box. 

Corpse-yatt, corpse-yett, sb. A lych-gate. 

Cormption, sb. Pus, or matter from an ulcer, boil, &c. 

Corve, curve, ^sb. A small waggon, wheel-less, but having iron 
runners, in use in the coal-pits. 

• Corf, a Urge basket made of strong hazel-rods, called corf-rods, in which the coals are 
drawn from the pits.' Brock, Our Corves, though now made by the carpenter and shod 
by the smith, yet retain the old name. Cf. O. N. karfa, korf; Sw. korg ; Dan. kurv; N. S. 
and Dut. korf; Germ. korb. 

Cot, sb. A man who does those offices for himself which are usually 
done by a female in a house. 

Mr. Wedgwood connects this with 'Cotquean* (which he also spells quotquean), 'an 
effemiiute man, a man interfering in women's concerns. Du. kutte ; Fin. kutta, k%Utu, the 
distinctive feature of a woman ; thence as a term of abuse for a feeble womanly man.' But 
the old Sw. word koHsquinna, a strumpet, from S.G. kdt (salax, lascivus), Ihre— Sw. D. 
kSt, kSur, and Dan. kaad, having the same sense still— suggesU another origin for cot-quean ; 


and I do not see any very evident connection between our Got and the true sense of 
coi-^ean. I should be more inclined to refer it to the same source with Sw. D. kutur, 
k&iWt kyttoTy a poor lodger in a cottage ; O. N. kotungr ; O. N. and S. O. kot-karl, a poor 
cottager ; the secondary or derived meaning being» a miserably poor or wretched being, whb 
would naturally be obliged to do everything for himself, whether woman's work or not. 
See Cot vb., and Cf. Pr, Pm, CotenlU and note. 

Cot, V. n. To cook for one's self; to do one's own household work. 

Cote, sb. A building, hovel or shed, the customary dwelling of some 
species of domestic animal ; e. g. Fig-oote, SheeiMK>te, Hen-cote, Sec 

0. N. kot : S. G. kite ; Sw. D. kdta ; Dan. D. hodd^ ; S. Jutl. h&d; Finn, kola ; A. S. e6u ; 
N. Fris. and N. S. kaU; M. H. Cj. koti; Dut. kot. Sec. ; Wall, cwti; Hind, kutir, koH; Sanscr. 
kota, kuia, Pr, Pm. * Cooit, lytylle howse (co«h, cosche, cosshe). Casa.* See Or. OL 

Cotten, cotton, v. n. To think and feel with another; to agree with 
him ; to take very kindly to him. 

Hall, speaks of this word as ' a common archaism,* by which he probably means that it is 
conmionly met with in old writers. Rich, sajrs * it is, perhaps, merely, — ^to be, or cause to 
be, like cotton, as soft, as easy, as yielding as cotton ; and thus to take anything easily or 
quietly ; ... to yield, to accede, to agree to.' It is more probable that, springing from 
tile same root as eottom, it simply implies the idea of intimacy, harmony of sentiment and 
feeling, as a derivative from that of coherency or sticking together, as clotted wool, or locks 
of hair, &c., do. Comp. our cotter, and cot, a fleece of wool matted together in its 
growth. Wedgw. Comp. also Germ, zolf , the knots on a fleece, dotted hair or locks ; 
Sw. tdtte=iz number of hairs sticking together. Hilpert. See example to Cotter, and note 
cot-gore, refuse wool so clotted together that it cannot well be pulled asunder. Hall. 
Comp. also S. G. kotte, amicus. 

' " I cannot cottm to him :" yield to him ; give up my views for his.' Wb, OL 

* We can't cottm together in any shape.' lb. 

Cotter, V. n. i. To become entangled, to run into a confused twisted 
and interlaced mass, as string, thread, or worsted, carelessly handled, 
does. 2. To contract or run up, as a woollen fabric does imder the 
action of moisture. 

See To Gotten or cotton. Comp. Lang, coutou, wool ; coutis, matted ; coutisses, the 
clotted locks of wool from near the tail ; WaU. cote, fleece of wool ; Germ. zoiSr, a clotted 
lock of wool ; kotzit, shaggy, cottered. Sec, 

1. * All tettered and cottered like a wild colt's back.' Wb, Gl, 

* Cottered up into snock snarls.' lb, 

Cotterils, cotterels, sb. Goods in general ; money, cash. ( Wh. Gl. 
adds, ' materials.') 

May not the idea be of that which has, so to speak, grown together,— of accretions of 
substance, — and which therefore has come to form one lot or mass ? See Gotten, Cotter. 

Coul, sb. A wheal or lump on the person, such as rises after a blow. 

Sw. D. hd, a lump, knob, hump ; * ba en kul pi ryggen :' he has a hump on his back ; 
Sw. hda, a bump ; O. N. kula. 


Goul, V. a. To scrape or rake together; to pull towards one with 
a rake or other instrument. 

Fr. eueiUir, seems to propose itself to our notice here. The Sw. dialects have kyllar or 
kjbUdr^ to tie a lot of things together ; iylls or ij'dlls, a promiscuous mixture of things of 
different sorts ; kyltOt to bundle things together carelessly ; but I doubt the connection with 
our word. It is possible that it may be connected with O. E. eou4e, a tub or vessel, the use 
of a smaller iq>ecimen of which for collecting matters together is conceivable. 

* Tommy has spilt some o' t' flour oot o' t' poke, an' he 's eouling it oop wiv his hands 
again.' Litds Ol. 

* He 's getten a stick wiv a gib tiv it, to coul thae flowers oot in t' beck.' 

Gouler, sb. A wooden scraper, with a long shaft, used for pulling 
mould, ftc. towards one. 

* Reach me here yon eouUr, David ;' spoken by a sexton who was about to use the 
implement designated for the purpose of pulling the up-cast earth back into the grave. 

Ckml-press, oowl-press, oow'-prise, sb. A lever of wood, or staff 
capable of being used as a lever. 

* Mr. Malone says, that in Essex, cowl is used for tub; and hence that eawl'ttaffvt t staff 
to carry hibi or baskets' (A. S. cawl^ cowl) * by the handles. Holland (in his Pliny) renders 
fmtn by bostons, clubs and coulstavis* Rich, in v. Ctwn/. 

*Take up these cloathes heere, quickly. Wher's the eow^taffe?' Mtrry WivnoJ 
Wind. Act iii. Sc. 3. 

It is more than open to question if our present word has any connection with eoui, in 
either sense, tub or basket. It is met with in the forms couprais§. Hall. ; cowpnss, eouhpise 
Or. 01. ; as well as in those given above, all of which seem to be corruptions of the com- 
pound word coul'pTiss or 'prist (comp. Colpicke, Pr.Fincb. Iii; Colpice, a lever, Hall.), 
the first member of which is due to O. N. kylfva, S. O. kyUfva, Sw. D. kylla, kyla, kolva, 
a chib, a strong, thick stick ; Dan. MU, M. H. O. kuiU, N. S. iKi/«, Germ. keuU : the latter 
to O. N. pressa, O. Sw. persa, Dan. pent, N. S. parstn. It should be observed that, until 
a comparatively recent period, the press depended upon leverage for the power of compres- 
sion obtained, and the majority of the cheese-presses in this district are made on that 
principle still ; as are also not a few presses of other kinds, the printing-press, copying-press. 
Sec., not excepted. But suppose for a moment the relative positions of thejulcrum and the 
point d*<tppm inverted, and the pressing power becomes a prising, or in our dialect, pasing, 
power : the latter word resulting from the form perst — comp. ptrsevert always pro- 
nounced passtvtrt, or pa*sivere, Coul-presa or Ckml-prise, therefore, seems to be simply, 
wooden lever. 

Conl-rake, sb. A rake or scraper for collecting or scraping up 
manure, dirt, ashes, &c. 

Pr. Pm. * Coolt rait (col rake). Rtstellum, batillum* * Cowyl rayk de ferro.' Fincb, 
Pr. ccxdx. 

CouinB, sb. Hollow-lying places recessed among the hills or banks 
running up to the moor: a local designation of not imfrequent occur- 

Welsh cwm, a valley ; whence comes the term comb, a low place enclosed with hills, 
a valley ; quoted by Bosw. in his A.S. Diet. 


Ccmp, V. a. I. To baiter, to exchange one artide for another in the 
way of bargain or trade. 2. To overset or overturn ; a cart, e. g., so as 
to empty, or for the purpose of emptying it. 

0,N. im^: S.O. hipti, to traffic, to barter. It nmst be obKrrcd that the andent 
hamfmuOk ot kopmam most hare conducted much of his bosmesi oa the prindple of barter ; 
md these weibt just tamed, with their analogues in the other Northern tongues and dialects, 
al carr J the meaning of to esubamge, as wcU as that of bojing and se&xg ontri^rt. Tbos 
m Ihre is quoted the phrase, — kopajord ijord; to ecnip land against land ; and again, — AojNt 
iS baitra ocb tj lUl tambra : to change for the better, and not for the worse. In £Kt. in 
6OIIP we bare what Rietz caOs the general meaning of coodnding a deal or exchange ; as 
in CkusQ we understand his straitest sense {aukroHktasU hemoHtdst) of an oat-«ndroot 
fvrchase, 9w. kap<i^ Sw. D. hatpd, htpa, Dan. kjwbe, A. S. ctapiam. ctfom, O. Gcnn. hamfiam^ 
0«rm. kttu/m, dec, are other rerbs cognate with those aJreadj gircn. From the tense of 
to exchange, to eb(>p (another form of amp : comp. O. Germ, cfot/, and the imp. and siq>. 
tA Sw. D. htpa, riz, hj6jfU, kj6JP\ that is of one dealer turning orer artides to another, so 
that the articles in question change place as well as hands, comes the sense of a Utcral tam- 
ing orer, or orer-setting, as in a. 

I. ' Will jon coup seats with me?' 

' 1 11 coup thee;'s 1 11 exchange with yoo. 

Coup, coap-cart, sb. A cart with a pole, but only two ^*eds, to 
which oxen were customarily yoked. See Hopping-tree. 

Brockett defines Coup-cart as ' a short team, dosed with boards.' In FmA. Pr. Imnmi, 
p. Hi, the entry, * i coupe bodi pro fimis' occurs. C oupe wa g o ms are also specified in the 
SMne documents, whence the editor objects to BrodKtt's definition, and assumes that 
the bodies were * cooped' or planked at the sides, instead o£^ al more costomaiiljr, railed. 
Cf. coup or coupe, our Coop a pail or wooden ressd. 

Ckmping-word, sb. The final or decisive word which establishes the 
bargain or other transaction. 

Comp. O. Sw. kopumal, kopmaJ, the rerbal part of making a bargain ; Sw. D. kaup^dagA^ 
Sw. kapdaga, to strike a bargain ; kdp-dagam, the completed strildng of a bargain. Dire 
quotes Germ. kauf-ublageH, that (obligation, namdj) which is supposed to arise from 
fhaking-hands on completing a bargain. 

Coup over, v. n. To fall or tiunble over. 

* ** He couped outer heeads an' tails ;" he threw summersets.' Wh. Gi. 

* Puir lahtle bairn, it 's couped ower, an' hotten itsd'.' 

Couther, v. a. i. To comfort by the aid of refreshment and warmth, 
or other means. 2. To make better of a sickness by the use of remedies. 

I am inclined to refer this to ciifSe the imperf. of A. S. cunnam, to know, to be able, as the 
origin of the O. £. adjectire eoutbe, with its gradation of meanings, known, £uniliar, afifable, 
kind, comforting, comfortable, and so, refreshing. The word is of continual occarrence in 
the old writers in the four first of these senses, and Jamieson gives examples of the others : 
thus, * the spence was ay coutbie and dean.' Jam. Popular Ballads, 

* A mankic gown of our ain kintra growth 
Did mak them rery braw, and unco coutb* Galloway's Poems. 

* Cleanliness is coutbie, said the wife, quhen she turned her courchc.' Se. Prov, 

And, the adjective once in use in these senses, a rb. might easily be formed from it, 
admitting of analogous application. 


Coyins, ouwins, sb. Peri>\dnkles or pinpatches ; the common sea- 
snails, eaten with the aid of a pin to extract them ; (Turbo liiioreus). 

O.N. ku/ungr, kufungr, and kuiSungr; N. D. kuvtmg, kutptgji, the sea-snail or peri- 
winlde : more generally a snail-shell, from O. N. ku/r, convexitas ; N. kuv, ku, a small 
roond prominence or bump ; Sw. D. kuv^ a small rounded heap, or knob on an otherwise 
even surfiux, which express the idea suggested by the form of the pinpatch in its natural 

Ck>vm-soar, sb. The low flat expanse of rock especially, where 
CoviiiB, or pinpatches, are found in quantity. See Soar. 

CJow, V. n. I. To subdue, render tractable. 2. To bend or twist: 
hence 3. To walk with the foot atwist, or turned awkwardly inwards. 
See Pow. 

O.N. kuga, cogere, adigere; O. Sw. kufwa; Sw. kufva; Sw. D. kugga; Dan. Um, to 
constrain, subdue, make to 3rield, to bend : * de btm, som hues undtr v<BxUn ;' children who 
are taught to obey while young. Molb. 

I. • His wife will cow him, I Ml a-warrant her.' Wh. GL 

a. * Cound shoes ;' shoes worn down on one side ; twisted by awkward walking. 

$. ' ** To eow and pow ;" to walk atwist, or with the toes turned inward.* Wb, Ol, 

Cow-byre, sb. The farm-building appropriated to the use of the 
cows. See Byre. 

Cow-olagB, sb. Probably a corruption of Clow-dags ; which see. 
Cowdy, adj. Frisky, frolicsome, pert. 

O. N. idtr; S. G. kat, full of life and spirits; Sw. D. kdt, k&ter, k&d; Dan. kaad, lively, 
fircrficsome, wild with overflowing health and spirits. ' Rtt som man seer den kaade dreng, 
dei mys er sluppen ud fra tvang og ikole ;* just as one may see a eouniy lad, newly escaped 
from constraint and school. Molb. 

Cower, V. n. (pr. coor). i. To crouch down, to squat, to stoop low 
by bending the knees, or sitting on one's heels, or the like. 2. To be 
or become submissive. 

Wedgw. is in doubt whether to consider the r as intrusive, marking a frequentative form 
of the verb, or as an essential part of the root. In support of the latter view he quotes 
* the Celtic and Finnish relations,' instancing Welsh cwr, a comer, nook ; eturian, to squat, 
to cower; Esth. kdar^ crookedness; Fin. kaari^ bow, curvature. But the purely Scand. 
relations are omitted or unnoticed, and they surely settle the question. Thus, referring 
«i passani to O. N. kura^ to maintain a crouching posture, expressive of abject sub- 
mission, misery or despair, we find S. O. kura, to hide oneself, bending the legs in 
order to do so; Sw. D. kura^ to bow oneself down for the purpose of concealment, to sit 
bowed together with the head on the breast ; Dan. D. kura^ to hide oneself by ducking 
one's head down; N. kyra, to bow down the head on the breast, to remain quiet and 
cowering. Molb. quotes * kure, som en bone paa <tg eller kylling :* to cower, as a hen 
over eggs or chickens. Further, the phrase, gammel bwnd at kwra^ for an old hound 
to cower, is given in Molb. Dansk Gloss. The second sense follows naturally as a derivative 
from the first. 

a. * rU mak* thee coor under me.' Wb. Gl. 


Cow-fboted, adj. Having an awkward gait ; of a pcrs<m who ^^Iks 
with the toe turned in and on the outer side of his foot See Ctow, vb. 

Cow-gate, sb. Pasturage for a single cow. See Gtate. 

Cow-grip, sb. The channel in the floor of the cow-house just behind 
the part where the cows stand, intended to carry off the Mig, or unne, 
&c., of the cows. See Ghrip. 

Cowl, V. a. To clip, or cut close. 

S. G. kuUa, verticil capiUof abradere ; Sw. D. kuUa, to cUp the hair ; *««^. ^« f^ • 
tad to cut the wool off. a iheep. namely. Comp. also O. N. koUr, bald-pate. CoO m Jam. 

*l*n eoud h'u topping for him ;* Wb. 01. ;— explained mistakenly by the compiler at 
meaning, * 1 11 paD his hair for him.' 

Cow-lady, sb. The lady-bird {Coca'fuIIa bipunctaia or septem-Jmnciata). 
See Lady-olook, Lady-oow. 

This is a curious inversion of both name and sense; the name being curioos, to begin 
with, as presenting an interesting analogue to continental words. The Fr. names arc 
Vacbt a DUu, Bitt a DUu, and Bite de la Viergt ; the Germ. Gottes-^ubUm, httle cow ; 
Ooan^iUh; Htrr-OotUs-tburebiH, Marien-kaiblem or kaJbcben; and then «>™« JP™ 
counterrorts to our E. Lady-bird, viz. Marienvoglein {Htrr-gottes-voglem, also), Manm^ 
hubn. UfUiTi Herm-hubn serves to introduce Dan. Vor Herres Hmne; and MarU-, or Martr 
b^ns, corresponds to two of the Germ, names already quoted. Germ. Marien-idfer answers 
to our Clevel. Lady-olook, and the south-country Lady-bug. * Just as in the case of 
divers plants and sUrs/ says Grimm, speaking of these names. * so here the name of Mmj 
seems to have superseded that of Freya, and Mariib^ne in old days was Freyjuh^na^ whidi 
also lies at the root of our Frauin-benne, Frauen-ktMein: It docs not seem absolutely cer- 
tain that the old names of two beetles {Cbrytomda and Coceinella) have not been confused 
in the list above given ; for in Upper Germany the little Goldkdfer {Cbrysomda), is caUed 
firavaebiUU or litbi froue bmje, in antithesis to berracbvMo (the Lady-bird or coecinMi) ; 
though, as Grimm remarks, the names probably alternate between both the beetles specified. 
This renurk is illustrated by the fact that he quotes Sw. Jungfru Marie nyckelpiga^ the 
Virgin Mary's key-maiden, as the GoW beede, while another authority makes it to be the 
Lady-cow. In spring time the Swedish girls let them creep about their hands with the say- 
ing, — • Now. you shall show me my bride's glove.* Should the insect fly away, then, what- 
ever direction it may take, from that quarter the bridegroom will be sure to come. Thus 
the creature has evidently been regarded as a messenger of the Goddess of Love, or Freya. 
But an augury of another kind, also, has been drawn from the number of spots on its wing- 
covers. Should they be more than seven, com in the ensuing year would be sure to be dear ; 
if, on the other hand, fewer, a plentiful harvest might be reckoned upon. Our own— 

• Lady-bird, Lady-bird, fly away home, 

Your house is on fire, your children will bum :* 
or, as others read it. * your children do roam.* or, • thy children are flown.* may be set side 
by side with the Germ. * Mary chafer, fly away 1 Your house is on fire 1 Your mother is 
crying, your father sitting on the door-step. Fly off, either to heaven or hell I* German, 
children have also another address of the kind. Taking either a cockchafer or a Ijftdy- 
cow, they set it on their finger and question it thus ; — 

• May-bug. May-bug. tell this to me. 
How many years my life is to be? 
One year, two years,' &c.. 


* ontil the little beetle, whose home-place is the sonny air/ says Orimm, * flies away and 
settles the question/ In Switzerland, it is further added, the diildren place a gold beetle 
on their hands, and say, 

* O chafer, O chafer, fly ofl" and awa' 
For milk and for bread and a silver spoon bra.' 

' Chafers in days of yore,' concludes the eminent philologer, * must have been regarded as 
the messcngen and confldants of the gods/ 

Cow-leeoh, sb. A cow-doctor, a veterinary surgeon, or * Horse-doctor' 
of the South. 

Ck)w-pa8ture, sb. A pasture-field near the farm-stead, always kept in 
grass and always fed ; never mowed, that is. 

Craok, v. n. i. To give a loud or resonant report, like a thimder- 
dap. 2. To boast or taUc of in self-gratulatory tone. 

* Hunteres wyth hyje home hasted hem after, 
W3rth such a crakkandi kry, as klylfes haden brusten/ 

Sir Goto, and Gr. Kn, 1 165. 

Comp. Germ, hraebtn^ to crash ; der kracbtn des dontur, the burst of thunder. The 
word is also applied to the roar of artillery or the report of a single cannon. Cf. * But when 
they heard our great guns erakke* Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 1 a 6. Comp. also Sw. D. don*- 
fkrapp, crack of thunder. In its second sense, which results easily from the first, the word 
wu in extensive use in archaic, and in even more recent, periods. Thus, Toumtl, Mysi, 

p. 85 :— 

' Both bosters and bragers God kepe us fro. 

That with thaie long dagers dos mekylle wo. 

From alle bylle hagers with colknyfes that go, 

Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro 

For to erak.* 

Chaucer's Miller {Reeve's Tide), 

* Cracked host, and swore it was not so ;* 

and Turberville, quoted in Rich., says — 

' Then cease for shame to vaunt 
And crowe in craJting wise/ 

a. * To hear him crack, yan 'd say he wadn't own t' Queen, wiv her crown ov her heead, 
gin she cam' tiv 'im and said, ** Hoo is 't wi' thee, Tommy ? " ' 

Craok, sb. i. A crash or peal (of thunder). 2. (And especially in 
the pL), chat, talk, news. 

Pr. Pm, • Crakke, or dyn. Crepitus, fragor* 

I. * A flaaysom' thoonner-cr<xci^, for seear. T* wur fit t' brust yan's ears I' 

a. • What eracki^ Ud,' doon i' t' low-sahd?' 

The second sense flows from the first^-or rather, from the general sense, sound — ^by the 
arbitrary limitation of that kind of sound which is produced by the human voice in ordinary 

Craoky> adj. i. Not quite sound of intellect: equivalent to the more 
Southern * cracked.' 2. Given to or fond of retailing gossip, talkative. 

B 2 


Cntitf, 2^1 Ing^eniods, sklHiil, inventive. 

A. \ ^^ff infKnw-^ft, tkilfal. Botw. ' The A.S. er^k,' 
tf»/i<r* ^inning^ ^x «kul ;' tmi onr preaeat word is an interesting 
^{ 'tie 'je.g^.iiat* uturu'SrjitifA ot a irr>rd which odierwuc woold hare 
Mnw*. f^^^^, «hile la 5cr Gow, aiJ £&« Gr. Km. we read 

* The ttif mon . . Yt std hoodekj, 
Dobbed in a dobkt of a dere tars, 
ic lythen a crafty capados,' 

«|U9K «r^ « ' ikilfaUy made ;' and in JEor/^ £i^. AttU. Poemt^ A. 8S8, 

* N'yw^-lese noa wat) aeoer so qnojixt 
For alle ^ crafU\ >at eoer ^j knewe, 
|?at ni \qx fl^>Dge nijrjt srnge a pojnt ;' 

%tA 1*1 ttUU V Cmm, ^4, of hearenlj * wards' that were 

' Clcnly wroffat and crafty tayied 
Of dene *)rlver and gold enamajld i 

fntvm*\^'\u% beside* Demetrius' eraJhmtM, Acu six. 34 ; and socfa compoonds as 
VrtUh^rnJt, U4,. — it will not be oat of place to remark that the Scand. sense of die weed. 
\. «. fAtftr, fnigbt, appears to hare been at one time not annsnal in Narthiuubna. TIbm* 
*^t\y three line* below tliose just quoted from Hampole, we find, that those same * wudet oC 
tlie cit^ ffi hereri' 

* Rr mare crafty and Strang )»an any kan neren ;' 

and in Early Knf(. AUit. Poemn, C. 1 38, the Dirine rousing of the storm which was to uuc 
the throwing r/rerboard of joiiah is thus described : — 

' For |>e welder of wyt, )»at wot alle |>ynges, 
^at ay wakes and waytes, at wylle hat) he sl3r^es ; 
He calde on [nt ilk craftg he carf with his hondes ; 
*' ?yurns and Aquiloon, ^t on Est sittes, 
Blowcs bo|>e at my bode upon bio watteres." * 

* He wur a crafty chap at fost fun oot thac sun-pictur's.' 

Crake, cruke, sb. The common or carrion crow (Corpus corane): 
gometimcs improperly applied to the rook (Corvus frugilegus). 

O.ff.krdka; S.Q.krdka; ^.krAka; Dzn.irage; O. Germ, h-aia, cbrAa ; M. Ocnn. 
kra,krajt; k.%. cr&ve, 8cc. 

Crake, v. n. To cry, or utter its note, as the crow, or as the land- 
rail, does. 

Comp. O. S. kria ; Br. krid ; Sanscr. krve, 

* Hot begin she (a hen) to erok. 
To groyne or to clok, 

Wo is hym of oure cok/ Townd. Mysi. p. 99. 

CrambaBzle, sb. An old man exhausted more by vicious indulgences 
or habitB than by age merely. 

It U w>t caiy to derive this word, which 1 meet with only in Wh. GL 


Oramble, v. n. (pr. crammel). i. To be halt or infirm on one's feet; 
disabled by natural causes. 2. To hobble along, or walk with much 

We hare the word erump-footMd b dub-footid, O. N. Mumbu-fiOr, quoted by Wedgw. ; 
crump-hadt^ cntmpt or erookt, Nonundator^ p. 44, quoted by Hall. ; also erumflt'fooUd^ 
haring no motion of the toes, n>. ; all closely connected with A. S. erumbt ennnp, crymbig, 
from a possible or probable A. S. vb. erimpan, cramp, erumptn^ to force together so as to 
aose flexures and wrinkles ; see Rietz in v. Krimpa and comp. O. N. krcm, sickness, last- 
ing and serere, from kremja, used of sickness in the sense to af&ict, to oppress. Just as 
Gael entb, to crook, has as an offshoot, embacb, a cripple, so erippli itself follows on 
ai mp OHy crump, there being an actual form, moreover, still retaining the m, ris. erump^ 
Imf, a diminutive or deformed person. Hall. Sw. krymplingt a cripple, one who hobbles 
or moves badly or awkwardly, also retains the m, while in the dialects it seems to be quite 
dropped. Comp. krypling, krdppiingr, krobling, krevling, kruling ; as also O. N. kryppiingr; 
N. krupd ; Dan. hroUing ; Germ, kruppd ; Ehit. krcupk. Our Clevel. D. corresponds with 
the Sw. in keeping the m. S. G. krymplmg is given as ' paraljrticus, cujus membra ita con- 
tracta sunt, ut ambulare nequeat, sed reptando se promoveat;* a kind of action which 
would be almost exactly described by our participle orambliiic. Comp. also Sw. D. krum- 
md'fingrad, havins the fingers numbed with cold, so as to remain bent or curved ; krummd' 
bandt, with a crooked or deformed hand. 

* T and man 's aboot matched to get him crammd*d alang.' 

CrambleB, sb. (pr. cramm*ls). The larger boughs of trees, of gnarled 
and twisted growth ; such as are frequent in the oak. 

Comp. S. G. kramrndf Sw. D. irammtl, a piece of wood used in keeping down the flax 
during the process of steeping ; a pole used in keeping the hay from shaking off the load : 
otherwise krdmmd or krdmil, and kremmd. These words are referred by Rietz to the same 
origin with krum, crooked ; krumma, to bend ; kmmmil, crooked or twisted, 8cc, 

Crambly, adv. (pr. crammelly). Hobblingly, lamely, with difficulty; 
of personal motion. See Cramble, vb. 

Crami>-ringy sb. A ring made from old coffin-tyre, or the metal 
ornaments of decayed coffins, and worn as a preventative of cramp. 

Cranchy v. a. and n. i. To crush any substance, which gives a crepi- 
tating sound in the process, with the teeth; to crush the stones and 
gravel, with the attendant harsh soimd, as the wheel of a heavy waggon 
does on a hard road. 2. To break up with a cracking soimd, as ssdt or 
large sand, or a cinder, under the foot on the floor. 

Probably a derivative from crasb, like cruneb from crush, the insertion of the n contri- 
buting to a more efficient expression of the resonant action implied. Cf. Pr. Pm, * Crascbym, 
as tethe. Frimo,firfmdto, Uridto* 

Cranohy, adj. Gritty, apt to give a cracking sound in the process 
of breaking or crushing. 


Cnmkj, %h, A cbecked linen &bnc, bhie and white, mnch in ok as 
material for aprons some years ago. 

Comp. ertmk, an arm best at li^t angles 69r tnming a wiocSaai ; arwdk, vb^ to 
crotfwajs on brad and batter to pfaoae a child. HalL Qiagli ii'iwyfa; a 'ifBg- B^ 
first idea is that of bending : O. N. hrimgr, O. S. irBs^ar, S«^ N^ Fna^ &c 
a bending round ; and thai fiaUovs that of cxosBng^ jrom die new dk et iiua the bent fmt 
takes in rekmoo to the unbent. The idea of czoiwig is poahed modi fnrdier dian the £■§( 
of material transvexsenesa in the Noctfaem tnngnrt, as indeed it i» in oar own piuaie * cnm 
porpoies.' Thns Dan. irttmge, Sw. D. kramga, a to tun inside oat ; * Utr dm mOmd . . ai 
krmmg ardjam i Uu Fadv wir emftf if joo get bewildocd (or kMt) torn janr 
sarf jfm Oar Fadier witfaoot reawig JErangs is also to be obstinatcv 
fbn of tricks, in Sw. aorv kr wikiif : eomp. E. eramk » jetf, trick. 

Cnmkjy adj. HI able to move, whether from debtlitj originating in 
sickness, or from stifiFness the result of an injury, or of local ailTnent^ or 
of age. See Gxenky. 

O. N. trdtdr; O. Sv. krtmitr, iramek; Sir. D., Dan., and N. Irowl; a<^ wcakhf, iafina. 

CnpB, sb. The shreds of fatty skin left after rendering the &t of 
p%8 into lard. See Tallow-erapa. 

The proounent idea cxprHsed b j this word is that of contraction, the shreds in qacttioo 
from the combined action of heat and partial drying bei 'nmiiig shnmkcn and shrivtdledl« and, 
to a certain extent, eren cri^. Comp. O. N. hrtpfc, to nuke to shrink, to contract ; bntfiir 
I4fi, a contracted or shrank hand ; N. brtppa, Sw. D. krappa or huppa. The Dan. adj. tr^ 
is vp^pHed to twine or cordage-work, wiu nght so tight that it breaks too casilj, becomes, as 
it were, crisp or brittle. Note also Sw. D. ir^p, Dan. D. in^, shrank, scanty. There is 
another deriration possible which perhaps inrolTes the Pr. Pm. word * Onapp^ or gropy% of 
come. Acit$t eribaOvm,' These are what fall oat (see note to Crappe) or are rejected. 
Comp. * Serap, remnant, refuse, learings, what is scraped off. Sw. €^%knMp^ *^^rap^ refuse, 
rabbish ; Dan. tkrab, scrapings, trash.' What Pr. Pm. craccbyn is to seratch that ert^pi 
may be to terap, and oor Craps may be simply scn^. Cf. Pr. Pm. * Craeoke, rdefe of 
m<rfte talowe or grese (cranche, crawke or crappe). Cremium* The editor ccnnects the 
word with Isl. and S. O. krak, qnisqnilisB, from trMa, to throw away. 

Oratohet, sb. The crown or upper part of the head. 

Is this a mere cant word ? Or does the same root gire origin to it and to Gr. cpdt, 

OraWy V. n. To caw or croak ; said of the crow and rook. 

A. S. erawan ; M. O. bruhjan ; Germ, krdbem, to crow like a code ; krdcbzm, to croak or 
caw ; Dut. hroiytn : * a direct imitation,* says Wedgw., ' of the cry of different birds.' 

Oreaker, sb. A rattle ; a child's toy. See Night-oreaker. 

Oreakwamer, sb. A watchman's rattle : called also Night-oreaker. 

Oree, oreere, v. a. To set to soak, soften and swell. Said of rice 
and wheat ; of the latter, in course of preparation for making Fnrmity. 


The grain, when duly prepared, is put into cold water and set by the 
fire to grow warm (or hot), but short of actually boiling. 

I believe this obscure word to be closely connected with the Sw. D. word hrava, to fer- 
ment, which is applied to the earth when subjected to the influences of spring — moistened 
and warmed. lola hravar seg : the earth is becoming creed ; Tola doger inti tt rdg, for 
ho hravar : the earth is unsuitable or unprofitable to the rye before it is oreeved. 

Creel, sb. i. A basket or pannier; especially as intended for the 
reception or conveyance of fish. See Fish-oreeL 2. A lathed frame 
upon legs, used to place the slaughtered pigs on after they have been 
scalded ; or living sheep during the process of salving. 

Jam. makes reference to Ir. kril or erilin^ a basket, or coffer ; Gael, cn'o/, a chest or 
coffer ; and to S. G. karl^ a dish or vessel ; adding that O. N. kurla is to cut twigs or osiers. 
There is no connection between the two words last named, if between hiirl and the Celtic 
words. O. N. krila is to weave, to plait ; and may suggest an origin for Creel, if it be not 
rather referred to Ir. kril. 

Creepings, sb. The peculiar cold sensation which often terminates 
in a shiver, and is usually a symptom of an approaching inflammatory 

* ** I believe I have got my creepings ;" have caught cold.' Wh. Gl, 

Crewelfi, sb. (pr. crules or crewls). Fine worsted of various colours, 
used in a species of embroidery, and especially in covering balls for 
young children, or for indoor use. 

* Properly, a ball of worsted. Germ, knauel^ PI. D. klevel, a ball of thread. The inter- 
change of liquids in this class of words is very conmion.' Wedgw. Ferguson refers the 
word to N. kntlla^ to blend or mix, to curl. 

Cricket, sb. A small, low stool ; which may serve as a milking-stool, 
a foot-stool, or a child's seat, indifferently. 

N. krakk^ a little stool, without cushion or back-rail ; Sw. D. iraik, a form or stool, 
originally formed of the end of a cleft fir-tree, and then furnished with three legs supplied 
by the boughs of the same. Rietz. Comp. Sw. D. krdnkat a little stool ; a bench to set 
tubs or casks on ; Fin. krenkku, a four-legged form. 

Crob, V. n. To revile, worry with bitter scolding ; to hector or bully, 
by word. 

Comp. S. G. krepsk, morosus ; Sw. D. kripinskt krippdjnsk, captious, ill-tempered ; N. S. 
kribbiseb, passionate ; kribbeln, to provoke ; Dut. krihbig^ vexatious. Ihre assumes the 
word kribben^ irritare, as the origin of kribbiscb ; and krihheln is a popular Germ, word, as 
also irMd-kopf a passionate, or enraged man. Rietz says comp. Lat. '\ti-erep-9iXt. Note 
also O. N. grobba^ to brag ; grobhinn, a braggart. Our word is another interesting instance 
of the way in which old words are crystallized in local dialects, like twigs in amber. 

Crook, sb. (pr. cruke, or crCwk). i. A nook or comer; such, e.g. as 
is formed in a field by the sudden and considerable curvature of a stream. 

%- Ti^ is^x, tf^JLh osi viutx eaasL. ^stccL. ItL. urt mna^ and snia^ 
^- A difc^rsiM: XL tbje;*:;; 'viucL raiffif^ ■■ » ^yn' » cr luf tiwik. 4. Xbttv- 
W/L Mf '^urvsftitrt '.if liit iimrier kcf of ax. g"^««»' ■^'r"*"^"»f ic 
or <W:M«t.. vr IrvxL mjuduiscnft irjxdaeaxisaxL. ^ A cnaiiifl:, iiidm, 

4JVMM< » lut^ iif um^ i. '.vn«r ir si^ift : ml umtrniAW. 

MiCn«fi>t<. 2/ait irj^ « m«c n. sim: uf 'fitt sou sua: 'ttns. v j 
^iijL If 'jcvur (tipf ^bt 4M«; ■ «■«> ^rwr «b amp : lie riaic saks s 
^ ^%uuu V tut «t» tc/u. Ntne «ik K. irvi. fm. Z-. hnmi. m tx 

4. ' y^ i(M |g)«n^ < ATM* taurnr. fn. iien.' -.«v>er sine sbc zr » cat I 
t * WW fvbf <rmik€ \ uc^M,^ v-ui v.T 2i>s ? * IT!:. GL 

Oro^k:^ t. z mA tl To hj^xxxs^ or 10 soke crcxated. 

^/ W W^A^, \m I0, kr^i^B^ v^ xakt csxKktd. t& vecnrit cracked. 

fyffj^Mtf %^^}. ^yt. cnofJa or crevki;. Crocked, benx. rnsaed out of 

' A r#«^ V i^wV4 V> <£//'/«< frftT, Uit be 's notbud pdced a iirilr ris csler a*s 

C^/ff, v/, A /yfjr4 cut from the ribs of an ox, and vith the 

h. M Af4^, f/vr»^A4 '/>rf<'>ri« ; «« ir<^ awfai ^ow^ a hcadkv tnak. HaUL ; S 
h»** ^'fff. ^^U tvMA h9$MtiifM» *A uaue. In the cxpnaaoa, quoted br Mofti, 
m^ W« W<f )Umm Mjf m# t4P$4 '^ iero^ : to warm ooe'f naked loms and crop, the m 
M«4^ »f^»f% ^f t^ ^#//f4 r««trj/.Ud »tj]]« and » that part of the body at Urge wUdi lei 

iHffpmt^ ffft/pp^tif \), p. of to Creep ; perf. ereepecL 

A 4. i^ftthtfn u U/fttt whM.h appear* in the imp. and sopine of afanost aD the Scand. 
U¥fi%f**4 0ff4 AUU* U ' 4. f^, fhr, ir#/^« imp. hr6p; Sw. D. Ay>:^ (^^> ^^r^pfe) ; O. N. Irn^ 
ikff*i*lf, yff*ltiff ; (/iir», iJr/<»# {Jrrwhf hr^htf). 

<>f//N»K«fig« oroMi-gAte, sb, A cross-road; a foot-, or other path 
ujftfun « t)t*M t,f (/tiumoti, such as to shorten the distance in passing 

Ortmn, i$rouii0, a^ij, Hrisk, lively, frolicsome, pert Also spelt 

/*"' ♦"/!{*♦•• ><• O. krt^t, krudigf Oerm. kraui, Belg. ib-o«f, all signifying curly, frizzled, 
tfUft, i« tU iHtH\h\m trtlf/Jn of thli word ; * the primary allusion, indeed,' he says, * seems to 


be to a cock who is said to be crotisf when he bristles up his feathers, so as to make them 
appear as if ettrUd. Dan. kruu, adonio, concinnum paro/ Ferg. adopts the hjrpothesis. 
Bot neither of these authors observes that knts, krusig, kraus, all have precisely the applica- 
tion supposed in the languages they belong to. Under knptk. Hire quotes krauskopff and 
hnabufiud; and under hrus^ krusigtbufvudt as signifying a cross, irritable or excitable man. 
Sw. D. knts-buvud seems rather to imply angularity of character than mere pettishness or 
irritability. Sw. krusa bears the meaning of * to be highly complimentary,' and Sw. D. knt' 
stra, * to be very polite.* The idea of crispness, curliness, smartness, lies at the bottom of 
all these expressions (which might be multiplied), and our own word gives another instance 
of a like and almost still more natural transition from the original and material con- 

* As fresh and as eraus 
As a new-washed louse.' 

* '* As erowsi as a lopp ;" as brisk as a flea.' Wb. Ol. 

* Quite erowss and hearty.' lb. 

Crow-berries, sb. The fruit of the crow-beny (Empeirum nigrum). 

Crowdle, craddle, v. n. To crouch, to huddle together in a crouch- 
ing manner, as frightened chickens about the hen, or folks over a fire 
that has burnt low. 

* Crowd, Curd. A crowd is a lump or mass of people ; curdt or ervds^ as it was for- 
merly written, are milk coagulated or driven into lumps ; to cruddU, to coagulate or curdle ; 
to crowd or huddle. To croodle, to draw oneself together into a lump from cold or other- 
wise, to cower, crouch.' Wedgw. Comp. S. G. troia^ conferta turba ; A. S. ert^, 

Crowdy, sb. Oat-meal porridge, made thick enough to turn out of 
the containing basin, like a pudding, when cooled 

* This word is very ancient, and claims affinity with a variety of similar forms in other 
languages ; S. G. grod, O. N. grautr^ porridge, made of meal and water, mixed and then 
boiled.' Jam. Note also Dan. grmd^ Sw. groi. Comp. A. S. grai/, gri/, meal ; E. groats, 
husked oats prepared for making gruel, &c. ; grout, coarse meal. Jam. ; ground malt. Hall. 
Belg. grutle. Germ, gruss, &c. 

Crow-ling, sb. The common heath {Erica cinerea), 

Crowp, V. n. i. To croak, as toads do. 2. To rumble or murmur, 
as one's bowels do when full of wind, or when one has been too long 
without food. 3. To gnmible or murmur, as a discontented person 

A word radically identical with roup, which see : one of the many instances of ' the 
facility with which an initial g, *, «/, or /is added or lost before r.' Wedgw. O. N. brdpa; 
S. G. ropa ; M. G. bropjan ; Dan. raabt ; Sw. ropa. It may be observed that, in ei&er 
form current in Clevel., it is taken to express a hoarse sound or cry, as is also the case with 
croup, the fatal infants' disorder. Neither is the distinction noticeable in the use of the 
Scand. word, as specified by Molb., observed with us. His remark is : ' Both man and beast 
are said at skrige, to scream ; but raab is applied in respect of man only.' Cf. Pr. Ptn, 
* Crowken as cranes. Gruo : as todes, or firosshes (froggis). Coaxo ;' as also O. N. ropa, 
Dan. rab€, to belch. 



Conceited, adj. (pr. consated). Somewhat flighty, weak, apt to 
entertain silly notions. 

* " A cofuattd body ;" z person given to foolish notions or of nenrons temperament.' 

Conjuror, sb. One able to exorcise the devil or to lay ghosts. 

The power involved here is, or was until lately, held to reside in the clergy ; and I have 
myself been appUed to by a woman, who was sane enough in most points, to lay certain 
spirits which pertinaciously disturbed her : one the ghost of a deceased ' minister ;' another 
^e evil one himself. But the power of the Church-priests, or clergymen of the Church 
of England, was held to be light, or almost nothing, in comparison with that of the Roman 
Catholic priests. See Ord's Hist, of CUveland, p. 301. 

Conny, adj. Neat in person and figure ; pretty, pleasing to look at ; 

Comp. Sw. D. i»M, kotm, kynm, k9m, neat, pretty, handsome, pleasant and pleasant- 
looking ; Dan. kfrnn (in the pi. kfmmu) ; Old Dan. and Jutl. kOn, Comp. also the mod. 
Dan. use : en hjmn pigi^ a eotmy maid ; $aa ladtr m kont kjmtU i ei buus, in the CleveL 
vernacular, ' a misthress i' t' hoo« 's eonny t' see ;* * den gaard bar eosUt kj^nne penge :* 
that farm cost a eotmy lot o' brass ; or Anf^iet, * a pretty penny.' See Canny. 

Con over, v. a. i. To consider, think over. 2. To persuade or 
talk one over. 

O. N. kenna ; S. G. katuia ; Sw. and Sw. D. kanna ; D. kitncU ; Fris. kenna^ kanna ; Germ. 
kennen ; A. S. eunnian. The signification of the Utter word is to enquire, search into, con ; 
of the others, generally speaking, to know, to take knowledge of. In O. Sw. kienna, and 
in Sw. Dial, kunna, there are senses almost exactly coincident with ours. Thus, as to sense 
2, Siva kctnner nod nakna kono spinna : necessity teaches or persuades the naked woman to 
spin, quoted by both Ihre and Rietz. So also of O. E. ken. 

Consumpted, pcpl. Suflfering under consumption or phthisis. 

* T* doct'r says he 's heavily consumpud * 

Coom, oiun, sb. Dust, fine dirt; also dust or scrapings of wood 
produced by the saw, or in other modes. See Saw-oom. 

O. N. kdm, a speck or spot of dust, soot or smut, &c. Comp. Sw. D. Wm, dull, as bright 
metal becomes by the lodgment of dust, or corrosion ; Dut kaam^ particles of mould on 
beer or vinegar ; Germ, kabtn^ the same. 

* Comys, of malte.* Pr. Pm. • Cummynge as mahe, germinatus* Catb. Angl. (note, 76.) 

Coop, coup, sb. A vessel of wood, possibly made with staves, and 
something of the pail description, though not necessarily so now. See 
Ass-coup, Coal-coop, &c. 

* Coupe or coule for capons or other poultrie ware.* Pr. Pm. note to Cooude, A eowU 
is a tub, and coope or coupe s}iionymous with it. 

Coosoot, sb. The ringdove (Columba palumhiis). 

A. S. cusceote. The name takes a variety of form? — cowscot, cowsbot, cusbat, cusba-doo. 


kowuboi, euscbetu. Sec, Brock, suggests that the name is due to ' A. S. ettse, chaste, in 
allusion to the conjugal fidelity of the bird/ pigeons of all kinds being understood to be 
particularly faithful in their loves : whence Chaucer's notice of the turtle-dove, — 

' The wedded tnrtelle, with his herte true/ Bell's CboMcer, iv. 204. 

Cordwainer, sb. A shoemaker. 

Pr, Pm. * Cordwatur, Alutarius, Cordwatu, ledyr.' 

' His shone oi cordewoM* Rime of Sir Tbopaz^ p. 1 45. 

* & doe me of thy cordiuant shoone/ Percy's Fol. MS, i. 185. 

And in the note to the same, — • Cordivant : proprie cordwane, corium denominattmi a Cor- 
duba, urbe Hispaniae. The same as Morocco leather, i.e. cordovan. Cordouofif properly 
a goat's skiu tanned. Cotgr.' * Of felles of gheet, or of the bukke make men good 
cordewan* Note to Pr, Pm. (ut supra). 

In St. Olafs Saga (Fbtey. ii. 34), when the author gives an account of Olaf 's visit 
to his mother and stepfather, King Sigurdr Syrr, the btter being busy in the harvest field 
when the visit is announced, and not in fit array consequently to receive so distinguished 
a visitor suiubly, this is the notice given of his toilet : — * Then sat King Sigurdr down and 
caused draw off his ordinary shoes and drew on hose of cordovan {kordunobosur\ and 
bound on his gilt spurs. Then took he off his cape and kirtle and put on a robe of fur,' &c. 
Whence cordotfon was evidently a portion of what the Cleveland folks call their * Sunday, 
or bettermy cleeas.' 

Com, sb. A single grain or particle of any substance or article 
usually found aggregated ; e. g. of sand, salt, wheat, shot, &c. 

Comp. Sw. D. kom (det »om or smAtt^ anything that is little ; bterte-kom being used as 
a word of affection or petting). Especially observe the Dan. use of the word — ' any quite 
small and round, or nearly round, object.' Molb. Gvldet findts underliden i kom : gold 
may be occasionally met with in corns. Sand'kom^ bvede-korn ; senneps-korn, mustard-corn ; 
setupes-contt A. S. and N. Gospels ; hagd-hom^ hail-com ; peber-htm, and many other like 
compounds are in continual use. Leeds 01. givM corns of tobacco, applied to the shreds 
left in an exhausted tobacco-box. 

Corpse-yatt, corpse-yett, sb. A lych-gate. 

Corruption, sb. Pus, or matter from an ulcer, boil, &c. 

Corve, curve, ^sb. A small waggon, wheel-less, but having iron 
runners, in use in the coal-pits. 

• Corf, a large basket made of strong hazel-rods, called corf-rods, in which the coals are 
drawn from the pits.' Brock. Our Corves, though now made by the carpenter and shod 
by the smith, yet retain the old name. Cf. O. N. karfa, kdrf; Sw. korg ; Dan. kurv ; N. S. 
and Dut. korf; Germ, korb. 

Cot, sb. A man who does those offices for himself which are usually 
done by a female in a house. 

Mr. Wedgwood connects this with 'Cotquean' (which he also spells quotquean), 'an 
effeminate man, a man interfering in women's concerns. Du. kutte; Fin. kutta, kuttu, the 
distinctive feature of a woman ; thence as a term of abuse for a feeble womanly man.' But 
the old Sw. word katisquinna, a strumpet, from S. G. kdi (salax, lascivus), Ihre — Sw. D. 
kit, k&ter, and Dan. kaad, having the same sense still— suggests another origin for cot-quean ; 


apd I do not see aoj waj cvideat fUTnrrt inn Ut w oj am Oo* and the tnie te 
€Ci puam. I siftoald be moie inclinnd to refier it to the tamt sooree widi Sw. D. 
Uiur, kyttar, a poor lodger k a cottage; O. N. hummgr; O. N. apd S. G. kot-hmi^ a poor 
cottager; the fecoodarr or derired iramng being, a Miwr i hl y poor or metLh eJ bemg,wfa& 
woaU naturall J be obliged to do creiytfaiDg for liiwfif, wfactlMr woman's work or not. 
See Oo( vb^ and Cf. Pr. Pm. CoHnlU and 

Cot, V. n. To cook for one's self; to do one's own hoosdiold woik. 

Cote, sb. A building, hovel or shed, the costomaij dwdlh^ of some 
species of domestic animal ; e. g. Pig-oote, Sheep-oote, Hent-ootoy ftc. 

O.N. lor: S.Q.hita: Sw.D.idAi; I>an.D.iodUk; S.J«tLAW; Finn.ioiB; A.S.Ate; 
N. Frit, and N. S. kaU; M. H. Gl loir; Dot. iof.&c ; WalL cutt; ffind.iirtBr,ioci; Sanscr. 
hoia^ kuia, Pr. Pm. ' Coott, IjrtyOe howie (codi, ooKfae, covfae). Coml' See O. GZ. 

Cotton, ootton, v. n. To think and fed with another; to agree with 
him ; to take very kindly to him. 

Hall, fpeaks of this word as ' a cominoo archaism,* bj wbich he ptobafalj mems that it is 
commonJy met with in old writers. Rich, sajs * it is, perhaps, moe^, — to be, or cause to 
be, like cotton, as soft, as easj, as jridding as cotton ; mod tlnis to tue anjthiag easQy or 
quietly ; ... to yield, to accede, to agree to.' It is more probable that, springing from 
the same root as eottom, it simply implies the idea of intimacy, hamiaoy of sentiment and 
feeling, as a derivative from that of coherency or stiddng togedier, as dotted wool, or locks 
of hair, 8u., do. Comp. oar cotter, and coi, a fleece of wool matted together in its 
growth. Wedgw. Comp. also Germ. zoCr, the knots on a fleece, dotted han- or lodes ; 
Sw. tdiig s a number of hairs sticking togedier. Hilpcrt. See ezanqpie to Ckytter, and note 
eot^are, refuse wool so dotted together that it cannot wdl he paDed asonder. HaU. 
Comp. also S. G. koiU, amicus. 

' " I cannot eoiUn to him :" yidd to him ; give up my Tiews for his.* Wb. Gl. 

* We can't eoltm together in any shape.' lb. 

Cottor, V. n. i. To become entangled, to nm into a confused twisted 
and interlaced mass, as string, thread, or worsted, carelessly handled, 
docs. 2. To contract or rmi up, as a woollen fabric does under the 
action of moisture. 

See To ootten or ootton. Comp. Lang. couIom, wool ; comiU^ matted ; eoMCusts, the 
clotted locks of wool from near the tail ; WslU. eoU, fleece of wool ; Germ. zoDr, a dotted 
lock of wool ; kotutt shaggy, oottered, &c. 

I. 'All lettered and eotttrid like a wild colt's back.' Wb. Gl. 

* Cottirtd up into snock snarls.' Ih. 

CottorilB, cotterelBy sb. Goods in general; money, cash. (Wh. GL 
adds, ' materials.') 

May not the idea be of that which has, so to speak, grown together,— of accretioas of 
substance, — and which therefore has come to form one lot or mass ? See Ckytten, Chyfetar. 

Coul, sb. A wheal or lump on the person, such as rises after a blow. 

Sw. n. hut, a lump, knob, hump ; * ba in kul pd ryggiti :' he has a hump on his back ; 
Sw. kulot a bump ; (). N. kula. 


Oonl, V. a. To scrape or rake together ; to pull towards one with 
a rake or other instrument. 

Fr. ctimlUrt teems to propose itself to our notice here. The Sw. dialects have hyllar or 
kfcUSr, to tie a lot of things together ; kylls or kjoUs, a promiscuous mixture of things of 
dificrent sorts ; kylta, to bundle things together carelessly ; but I doubt the connection with 
our word. It is possible that it may be connected with O. E. eowle, a tub or vessel, the use 
of a mailer specimen of which for collecting matters together is conceivable. 

* Tommy has spUt some o* t' flour oot o' t' poke, an' he 's etmling it oop wiv his hands 
again.' Liedt Gl, 

* He 's getten a stick wiv a gib tiv it, to eoW thae flowen oot in t' beck.' 

Gouler, sb. A wooden scraper, with a long shaft, used for pulling 
mouldy &c. towards one. 

* Reach me here yon eouler^ David ;' spoken by a sexton who was about to use the 
implement designated for the purpose of pulling the up-cast earth back into the grave. 

Ckyul-presfl, oowl-press, oow'-priBO, sb. A lever of wood, or staff 
Citable of being used as a lever. 

* Mr. BAalone sa3rs, that in Essex, cowl is used for tub; and hence that coud-tiaffis a staff 
to cany tubs or baskets* (A. S. cowl, cowl) * by the handles. Holland (in his Plitiy) renders 
fiittn by bostons, clubs and coulstavcs* Rich, in v. Cowl, 

*Take up these cloathes heere, quickly. Wher*s the coi02#-staffe?' Mmy Wives of 
WhuL Act iii. Sc. 3. 

It is more than open to question if our present word has any connection with CO10/, in 
either sense, tub or basket. It is met with in the forms coupraisg. Hall. ; cowprtss, eouhprisi 
O. Gl, ; as well as in those given above, all of which seem to be corruptions of the com- 
pound word coul-press or -prise (comp. Colpicke, Pr.Fineb, Iii; Colpice, a lever, Hall.), 
the first member of which is due to O. N. kylfua, S. G. kyl/va, Sw. D. kylla, kyla, k^va, 
a chib, a strong, thick stick ; Dan. MU, M. H. G. kuile, N. S. kuU, Germ. keuU : the latter 
to O. N. pressa, O. Sw. persa, Dan. pcrss, N. S. parsen. It should be observed that, until 
a comparatively recent period, the press depended upon leverage for the power of compres- 
sion obtained, and the majority of the cheese-presses in this district are made on that 
principle still ; as are also not a few presses of other kinds, the printing-press, copying-press, 
&C., not excepted. But suppose for a moment the relative positions of ^e fulcrum and the 
point d^ttppui inverted, and the pressing power becomes a prising, or in our dialect, pasing, 
power : the latter word resulting from the form pcrst — comp. persevere alwa3rs pro- 
nounced passevere, or pa'sivere, Coul-press or Ck>ul-prife, therefore, seems to be simply, 
wooden lever. 

Coul-rake, sb. A rake or scraper for collecting or scraping up 
manure, dirt, ashes, &c. 

Pr, Pm. * Code rake (col rake). Restellum, batiUum* * Cowyl rayk de fcrro.' Fincb. 
Pr, ccxdx. 

Coums, sb. Hollow-lying places recessed among the hills or banks 
nmning up to the moor; a local designation of not unfrequent occur- 

Welsh cvmi, a valley ; whence comes the term comb^ a low place enclosed with hills, 
a valley ; quoted by Bosw. in his A.S. Diet. 


Daffly, adj. Half-imbecile, weakened in faculties, forgetfiil and 

childish ; of old people, often. 

* He 's becoming quite dajfly: Wb, Gl, 

Daft, adj. i. Simple, half-sillj, 'not all there.' 2. Flj^ty, giddy, 
thoughtless. 3. Foolish, stupid, dull of apprehension. 

From its fonn possibly a p.p. from the vb. daff. Jam., it wiU be teen, gives dnt yrt, im 
the sense, ' to be foolish ;' but he derives daft from O. N. damfrt btam, or at least from its 
neuter dauft, quoting also S. G. d6/, stupidus. 

I. ' Send daft Willie. He 's nobbut hau'f theear ; but he's canny enengh aboot sik aa 
earrand as yon.' 

a. * T' lass has gaen clean daft. She wcean't mahnd her ain neeam lang, a' this gate* 

3. * As daft as a goose ;' ' As dc^ as a deear-naiL' Wb, Gi, 

DaftiBh, adj. Only of very moderate quickness, or ability and sense. 

* A daftUb, dizsy soort o' body.' Wb. GL 

Dagg, degg, v. a. and n. i. To sprinkle with water. 2. To drizzle. 

Sw. D. dagga ; O. N. doggva, to bedew, sprinkle ; )>at$ doggvar^ it drizzles ; Sw. drnpta^ 
to sprinkle or spUsh ; Sw. and Sw. D. d(^g, O. N. dogg^ Dan. dvg^ dew. 
I. * Oan an' dag thae claithes, Marget. Ah 11 mind t' bairn.' 
a. * A fine dagging rain.' Wb. Gl. 

Dagged, adj. Wet, bedaggled. 

* She 's getten her sko'tf finely daggid* 

Dainflh, den«h, adj. Fastidious, dainty, nice. 

This wr^rd ocairs in the forms dautub, datub, donebj deneb. Hall, and Le§ds GL The 
last word has ftn Its second meaning ' Danish.' The same meaning is given for Dtmbi. HaD. 
It is at least opcfi to qiiettton whether this is not the origin of the word — ^if it does not 
bear with it a reminiscence of Danish assumption and haughty self-preference. * So long as 
the Danish sttprcmacy lasted (in England),' says Worsaae {Minder, p. 187), * the Danes 
naturally cr;iild mily carry themselves as lords in a conquered country. Their innate taste 
for magnificence and luxury was abundantly fostered, and their pride was flattered by the 
subjugatimi of the Anglo^axons. The old English chronicles contain bitter complaints 
touching the humiliations the natives were exposed to. Thus if an Anglo-Saxon chanced to 
meet a Dane upon a bridge, he was obliged to wait in a posture of lowly reverence— nay 
even, if he were on horseback, he was obliged to dismoimt and wait, until the Dane had 
crossed over.' Verily the Dane might be looked upon as 'particular,' or 'nice,' uider 
such circumstances, and his generic name, Dansk, pass into a word expressive of such charac- 
teristics. Further, it may be observed that the Sw. D. word bdnskat — a derivative from 
bbjf a (or rather the) city or town, and signifying, 1. To use fine or 'city' language, to 
talk big ; 9. To set oneself up, or ^to expound dialect by dialect) to be bumptious — 
assumes the form of diuuk, ddfukat OMtka, in difiPerent Sw. localities, and thus furnishes 
a term identical with ours in form, and closely approaching it in meaning. 

' Over difub by owght ;' far too nice or fastidious. 

Dainflh- or densh-gobbed, adj. Dainty about one's eating. See Gob. 
Dale, sb. (pr. deeal). The distinctive name of the valleys which run 


Govins, ouYvinB, sb. Periwinkles or pinpatches ; the common sea- 
snails, eaten with the aid of a pin to extract them : (Turbo liiioreus). 

O.N. hufungr^ kufvngr^ and kufSungr; N. D. kuvung^ kutptgjt, the sea-snail or peri- 
winkle : more generally a snail-shell, from O. N. kufrt convexitas ; N. kuv, ku, a small 
roond prominence or bump ; Sw. D. kuv, a small roanded heap, or knob on an otherwise 
eren surface, which express the idea suggested by the form of the pinpatch in its natural 

Covin-soar, sb. The low flat expanse of rock especially, where 
Ckyvins, or pinpatches, are found in quantity. See Soar. 

Cow, V. n. I. To subdue, render tractable. 2. To bend or twist: 
hence 3. To walk with the foot atwist, or turned awkwardly inwards. 
See Pow. 

0. N. kuga, cogere, adigere ; O. Sw. kujwa ; Sw. hujva ; Sw. D. kugga ; Dan. kut^ to 
constrain, subdue, make to 3rield, to bend : * de fr«m, som hut untUr vaxUn ;' children who 
are taught to obey while young. Molb. 

1. • His wife wiU couf him, I '11 a-warrant her.' Wb. Gl. 

a. * Cound shoes ;' shoes worn down on one side ; twisted by awkward walking. 
3. ' ** To cow and pow ;" to walk atwist, or with the toes turned inward.* Wi. OL 

Cow-byre, sb. The farm-building appropriated to the use of the 
cows. See Byre. 

Cow-olagB, sb. Probably a corruption of Clow-olags ; which see. 
Cowdy, adj. Frisky, frolicsome, pert. 

O. N. kdtr; S. G. kai, full of life and spirits; Sw. D. kdt, k&ter, h&d; Dan. kaad, Uvely, 
frolicsome, wild with overflowing health and spirits. ' Rtt som man sur den kaadt drmg, 
dtinyt gr duppm ud fra tvang og tkole :' just as one may see a cowdy lad, newly escaped 
from constraint and school. Molb. 

Cower, V. n. (pr. coor). i. To crouch down, to squat, to stoop low 
by bending the knees, or sitting on one's heels, or the like. 2. To be 
or become submissive. 

Wedgw. is in doubt whether to consider the r as intrusive, marking a frequentative form 
of the verb, or as an essential part of the root. In support of the latter view he quotes 
' the Celtic and Finnish relations,' instancing Welsh cur, a comer, nook ; cwrian^ to squat, 
to cower; Esth. idoTt crookedness; Fin. kaari, bow, curvature. But the purely Scand. 
relations are omitted or uimoticed, and they surely settle the question. Thus, referring 
en pastani to O. N. kura, to maintain a crouching posture, expressive of abject sub- 
mission, misery or despair, we find S. O. kura, to hide oneself, bending the legs in 
order to do so; Sw. D. kura, to bow oneself down for the purpose of conc«dment, to sit 
bowed together with the head on the breast ; Dan. D. kura, to hide oneself by ducking 
one's head down; N. htra, to bow down the head on the breast, to remain quiet and 
cowering. Molb. quotes * kure, som en bone paa ag eller kylling :' to cower, as a hen 
o^cr eggs or chickens. Further, the phrase, gammel bwnd at kwra, for an old hound 
to cower, is given in Molb. Dantk Gloss. The second sense follows naturally as a derivative 
from the first. 

a. * 1 11 nuk* thee coor under me.' Wb. GL 


Oow-fbotod, adj. Having an awkward gait ; of a person who walks 
with the toe turned in and on the outer side of his foot. See Ck>w, vb. 

Oow-gate, sb. Pasturage for a single cow. See Gktte. 

. Oow-grip, sb. The channel in the floor of the cow-house just behind 
the part where the cows stand, intended to carry off the Mig, or urine, 
&c., of the cows. See Grip. 

Oowl, V. a. To clip, or cut close. 

S. G. iuUa, verticis capillos abradere ; Sw. D. kuUa, to clip the hair ; kuuUt the same ; 
and to cut the wool off, a sheep, namely. Comp. also O. N. koUr, bald-pate. Coll in Jam. 

' I 'U coud his topping for him ;' Wh. Gl. ;— explained mistakenly by the compiler at 
meaning, * 1 11 pull his hair for him.' 

Oow-lady, sb. The lady-bird {Coca'rulia bipunciaia or septem-punciaid). 
See Lady-olook, Lady-oow. 

This is a curious inversion of both name and sense ; the name being curious, to begin 
with, as presenting an interesting analogue to continental words. The Fr. names are 
Vaeht a DUu^ Bitt a DUu, and Biie de la Viergt ; the Germ. GotUsrkMein, little cow ; 
OottnrkiUh; Herr-OotUs-tbureben, Marien-kdlblein or kalbcben; and then come in tiie 
counterparts to our £. Lady-bird, viz. Marim-voglein {Herr-gottes-vogUin, also), Manen- 
bubn. Unsert Herm-btibn serves to introduce Dan. Vor Herr§s Hmne ; and Marit-, or Mori' 
b0net corresponds to two of the Germ, names already quoted. Germ. Marien-ka/er answers 
to our Clevel. Lady-olook, and the south-country Lady-bug. *Just as in the case of 
divers plants and stars,' says Grimm, speaking of these names, ' so here the name of Mary 
seems to have superseded that of Freya, and Marieb^nt in old days was Freyjub^ena, whidi 
also lies at the root of our Frauen-benne^ Frauen-kubltin* It does not seem absolutely cer- 
tain that the old names of two beetles {Cbrysomda and Coceinella) have not been confused 
in the list above given ; for in Upper Germany the little GtUdkdfer {Cbrysomda), is called 
firamaebutle or lid>t fhnt* benje, in antithesis to berraebudo (the Lady-bird or coeeiruUa) ; 
though, as Grimm remarks, the names probably alternate between both the beetles specified. 
This remark is illustrated by the fact that he quotes Sw. Jungfru Marie nyckelpiga, the 
Virgin Mary*s key-maiden, as the Gold beetle, while another authority makes it to be the 
Lady-cow. In spring time the Swedish girls let them creep about their hands with the say- 
ing, — * Now, you shall show me my bride's glove.* Should the insect fly away, then, what- 
ever direction it may take, from that quarter the bridegroom will be sure to come. Thus 
the creature has evidently been regarded as a messenger of the Goddess of Love, or Freya. 
But an augury of another kind, also, has been drawn from the number of spots on its wing- 
covers. Should they be more than seven, com in the ensuing year would be sure to be dear ; 
if, on the other hand, fewer, a plentiful harvest might be reckoned upon. Our own — 

' Lady-bird, Lady-bird, fly away home, 
Your house is on fire, your children will bum :' 

or, as others read it, ' your children do roam,' or, ' thy children are flown,' may be set side 
by side with the Germ. * Mary chafer, fly away I Your house is on fire 1 Your mother is 
crying, your fiither sitting on the door-step. Fly off, either to heaven or hell!' German 
chiljdren have also another address of the kind. Taking either a cockchafer or a Iiady- 
oow, they set it on their finger and question it thus ; — 

* May-bug, May-bug, tell this to me. 
How many years my life is to be ? 
One year, two years,* &c., 


* until the little beetle, whose home-place is the sunny air/ says Grimm, * flies away and 
settles the question.' In Switzerland, it is further added, the diildren place a gold beetle 
on their hands, and say, 

* O chafer, O chafer, fly off and awa' 

For milk and for bread and a silver spoon bra.* 

' Chafers in days of yore,' concludes the eminent philologer, * must have been regarded as 
the messengers and confidants of the gods.' 

Cow-leeoh, sb. A cow-doctor, a veterinary surgeon, or * Horse-doctor' 
of the South. 

Oow-pasture, sb. A pasture-field near the farm-stead, always kept in 
grass and always fed ; never mowed, that is. 

Craok, v. n. i. To give a loud or resonant report, like a thunder- 
clap. 2. To boast or talk of in self-gratulatory tone. 

* Hunteres wyth hy^e home hasted hem after, 
wyth such a crakkande kry, as klyffes haden brusten.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr. Kn, 1 165. 

Comp. Germ, kracben^ to crash ; der krtuben des donner^ the burst of thunder. The 
word is also applied to the roar of artillery or the report of a single cannon. Cf. * But when 
they heard our great guns crakke* Percy's Fol, MS. i. p. 1 26. Comp. also Sw. D. doiif- 
thrafp, crack of thunder. In its second sense, which results easily from the first, the word 
was in extensive use in archaic, and in even more recent, periods. Thus, Toumd, MyU, 

p. 85 :— 

* Both bosters and bragers God kepe us fro, 

That with thaie long dagers dos mekylle wo. 
From alle bylle hagers with colknyfes that go, 
Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro 
For to crak* 

Chaucer's MiUer {Ruve's TaU\ 

* Cracked host, and swore it was not so ;' 

and Turberville, quoted in Rich., says — 

* Then cease for shame to vaunt 
And CTOwe in craJting wise.' 

a. * To hear him crack, yan 'd say he wadn't own t' Queen, wiv her crown ov her heead, 
gin she cam' tiv 'im and said, " Hoo is 't wi' thee. Tommy?" * 

Craok, sb. i. A crash or peal (of thunder). 3. (And especially in 
the pL), chat, talk, news. 

Pr, Ptn, * Crakki, or dyn. Crepitus, /ragor,* 

1. * A flaaysom' thoonner-craci^, for seear. T' wur fit t' brust yan's ean t' 

2. • What crackt, lad,' doon i' t' low-sahd ?' 

The second sense flows from the first — or rather, from the general sense, sound — by the 
arbitrary limitation of that kind of sound which is produced by the human voice in ordinary 

Cracky, adj. i. Not quite sound of intellect: equivalent to the more 
Southern ' cracked.' 2. Given to or fond of retailing gossip, talkative. 

R 2 


Crafty, adj. Ingenious, skilful, inventive. 

A. S. eraftigt ingenious, skilful. Bosw. * The A. S. cr€^,* says Molb., * signifies know- 
ledge, cunning, or skill ;* and our present word is an interesting instance of the preservation 
of the original signification of a word which otherwise would have retained only an invidious 
sense. However, while in Sir Gaw. and the Gr. Kn. we read 

* The stif mon . . I^e stel hondelej. 
Dubbed in a dublet of a dere tars, 
& sythen a erafiy capados,' 

where crafty b • skilfully made ;' and in Early Eng. AUit. Poems, A. 888, 

' Now)>e-lese non wat) neuer so quoynt 
For alle ]>e erafte^ ]>at euer >ay knewe, 
pat of >at songe my3t synge a poynt ;' 

and in Prick$ of Ooiu, 9084, of heavenly * wards' that were 

* Clenly wroght and craftily tayled 
Of dene ^Iver and gold enamayld ;* 

remembering besides Demetrius' craftsmen. Acts xix. 34 ; and such compounds as leedhcre^, 
witeb-craft, &c. — it will not be out of place to remark that the Scand. sense of the word, 
i. e. power, might, appears to have been at one time not unusual in Northumbria. Thus, 
only three lines below those just quoted from Hampole, we find, that those same * wardes of 
the cit^ of heven' 

* Er mare crafty and Strang )>an any kan neven ; ' 

and in Early Eng. Allit. Poems, C. 1 38, the Divine rousing of the storm which was to cause 
the throwing overboard of Jonah is thus described : — 

* For )>e welder of wyt, ]>at wot alle ]>ynges, 

pat ay wakes and waytes, at wylle hat) he sly^tes ; 
He calde on Jntt ilk crafte he carf with his hondes ; 
** Euros and Aquiloun, >at on Est sittes, 
Blowes bo)}e at my bode upon bio watteres." ' 

* He wur a crafty chap at fost fun oot thae sun-pictur's.' 

Crake, crake, sb. The common or carrion crow (Corvus cororu): 
sometimes improperly applied to the rook {Corvus frugilegus), 

O. N. krdka; S. G. kr&ka; N. hraka; Dan. krage; O. Gkrm. kraia, ebr&a; M. Grerm. 
kra,kraje; A.S. crave, 8cc. 

Crake, v. n. To cry, or utter its note, as the crow, or as the land- 
rail, does. 

Comp. O. S. kria ; Br. krid ; Sanscr. kruc, 

* Bot begin she (a hen) to crok. 
To groyne or to clok, 

Wo is hym of oure cok.* Townel. My si, p. 99. 

Crambaszle, sb. An old man exhausted more by vicious indulgences 
or habits than by age merely. 

It is not easy to derive this word, which I meet with only in Wh, GL 


Oramble, v. n. (pr. crammel). i. To be halt or infinn on one's feet; 
disabled by natural causes. 2. To hobble along, or walk with much 

We hare the word erump-fooUd » elub-foottd, O. N. Uutnbu-fatr^ quoted by Wedgw. ; 
erump-hack, erumpt or crookt^ Nomenelaior, p. 44, quoted by Hall. ; also erumplt-foottd, 
baring no motion of the toes, lb. ; all closely connected with A. S. erutnb, erumpt erymbig, 
from a possible or probable A. S. vb. crimpan, cramp, entmpen, to force together so as to 
cause flexures and wrinkles ; see Rietz in ▼. Krimpa and comp. O. N. krom, sickness, last- 
ing and severe, from kremja, used of sickness in the sense to afflict, to oppress. Just as 
Gad. cm6, to crook, has as an offshoot, erubacb, a cripple, so crippl* itself follows on 
erimpan, crump , there being an actual form, moreover, still retaining the m, viz. crump' 
ling, a diminutive or deformed person. Hall. Sw. krympling, a cripple, one who hobbles 
or moves badly or awkwardly, also retains the m, while in the dialects it seems to be quite 
dropped. Comp. krypling, krbpplingr, krobling, krcvling, kruling ; as also O. N. hryppiingr ; 
N. krupel ; Dan. krobling ; Germ, kruppel ; EKit. kreupd. Our Clevel. D. corresponds with 
the Sw. in keeping the m. S. G. krympiing is given as * paralyticus, cujus membra ita con- 
tracta sunt, ut ambulare nequeat, sed reptando se promoveat;' a kind of action which 
would be almost exactly described by our participle orambliiig. Comp. also Sw. D; krum' 
md^ngradt having the fingers numbed with cold, so as to remain bent or curved ; krummd" 
hatidi, with a crooked or deformed hand. 

' T aud man 's aboot matched to get him crammd*d alang.* 

Crambles, sb. (pr. cramm'ls). The larger boughs of trees, of gnarled 
and twisted growth ; such as are frequent in the oak. 

Comp. S. G. krammcl, Sw. D. krammelt a piece of wood used in keeping down the flax 
during the process of steeping ; a pole used in keeping the hay from shaking off the load : 
otherwise kr'dmmel or krdmil, and kremmel. These words are referred by Rietz to the same 
origin with krum, crooked ; krumma, to bend ; krummel, crooked or twisted, &c. 

Crambly, adv. (pr. crammelly). Hobblingly, lamely, with difficulty; 
of personal motion. See Cramble, vb. 

Cramp-ring, sb. A ring made from old coffin-tyre, or the metal 
ornaments of decayed coffins, and worn as a preventative of cramp. 

Cranohy v. a. and n. i. To crush any substance, which gives a crepi- 
tating sound in the process, with the teeth; to crush the stones and 
gravel, with the attendant harsh sound, as the wheel of a heavy waggon 
does on a hard road. 2. To break up with a cracking sound, as salt or 
large sand, or a cinder, under the foot on the floor. 

Probably a derivative from crash, like crunch from crush, the insertion of the n contri- 
buting to a more efficient expression of the resonant action implied. Cf. Pr, Pm. ' Crcuebyn, 
as tethe. Frcmo,frondeo, strideo* 

Cranohy, adj. Gritty, apt to give a cracking sound in the process 
of breaking or crushing. 


Cranky, sb. A checked linen fabric, blue and white, much in use as 
material for aprons some years ago. 

Comp. erank, an aim bent at right angles for turning a windlass ; erankt rb., to mark 
crosswajTS on bread and batter to please a child. Hall. OriMgU^rangU, a zigzag. lb. The 
first idea is that of bending : O. N. krmgr, O. S. krmger^ Sw., N., Fris., 8cc, krmg, a drde, 
a bending round ; and then follows that of crossing, from the new direction the bent part 
takes in relation to the unbent. The idea of crossing is pushed much further than the limit 
of material transverseness in the Northern tongues, as indeed it is in our own phrase * cioit 
purposes.' Thus Dan. krangg, Sw. D. kr'dnga^ is to turn inside out ; * hUr du villad • • ai 
krang trbjan d Ids Fader vdr avigt:* if you get bewildered (or lost) turn your jacket and 
say your Our Father without ceasing. Krdnga is also to be obstinate, cross-grained : or, 
full of tricks, in Sw. vcara krankiig : comp. E. erank tm jest, trick. 

Cranky, adj. Ill able to move, whether from debility originating in 
sickness, or from stiffness the result of an injury, or of local ailment, or 
of age. See Grenky. 

O. N. krdnkr; O. Sw. kranker^ kranck; Sw. D., Dan., and N. krank, sick, wealdy, infirm. 

Craps, sb. The shreds of fatty skin left after rendering the fat of 
p^ into lard. See Tallow-oraps. 

The prominent idea expressed by this word is that of contraction, the shreds in question 
from the combined action of heat and partial drying becoming shrunken and shrivelled, and, 
to a certain extent, even crisp. Comp. O. N. kreppa^ to make to shrink, to contract ; krepiir 
Idfit a contracted or shrunk hand ; N. kreppa, Sw. D. krappa or krdppa. The Dan. adj. h^p 
is api^ed to twine or cordage-work, wrought so tight that it breaks too easily, becomes, as 
it were, cri^ or brittle. Note also Sw. D. krappa Dan. D. krap^ shrunk, scanty. There is 
another derivation possible which perhaps involves the Pr, Pm. word * Crappes, or gropjrs of 
come. Aeus, eribaUum* These are what fall out (see note to Crappe) or are rejected. 
Comp. * Scrap, remnant, refuse, leavings, what is scraped off. Sw. afskrap, skrdp, refuse, 
rubbish ; Dan. tkrab, scrapings, trash.' What Pr, Pm. craeebyn is to scratch that crappt 
may be to scrap, and our Oraps may be simply scraps. Cf. Pr. Pm. * Cracoke, relefe of 
molte talowe or grese (crauche, crawke or crappe). Cremium.* The editor connects the 
word with Isl. and S. G. krak, quisquilise, from krekia, to throw away. 

Cratohet, sb. The crown or upper part of the head. 

Is this a mere cant word ? Or does the same root give origin to it and to Gr. it/kU, 

CraWy V. n. To caw or croak ; said of the crow and rook. 

A. S. crawan ; M. G. brulgan ; Germ, krabin, to crow like a cock ; krdchztn^ to croak or 
caw ; Dut. kraeym : ' a direct imitation,' says Wedgw., ' of the cry of different birds.' 

Creaker, sb. A rattle ; a child's toy. See Night-creaker. 

Creakwamer, sb. A watchman's rattle : called also Night-oreaker. 

Cree, oreeve, v. a. To set to soak, soflen and swell. Said of rice 
and wheat ; of the latter, in course of preparation for making Fnrmity. 


The grain, when duly prepared, is put into cold water and set by the 
fire to grow warm (or hot), but short of actually boiling. 

I beliere this obscure word to be closely connected with the Sw. D. word krava, to fer- 
ment, which is applied to the earth when subjected to the influences of spring— moistened 
and warmed. Tola kravar seg : the earth is becoming creed ; lola doger inie te rdg, far 
bo kravar : the earth is unsuitable or unprofitable to the rye before it is oreeved. 

Creel, sb. i. A basket or pannier; especially as intended for the 
reception or conveyance of fish. See Fish-oreeL 2. A lathed frame 
upon legs, used to place the slaughtered pigs on after they have been 
scalded ; or living sheep during the process of salving. 

Jam. makes reference to Ir. iril or erilin, a basket, or coffer ; Gael, mo/, a chest or 
coffer ; and to S. O. kdrl^ a dish or vessel ; adding that O. N. kurla is to cut twigs or osiers. 
There is no connection between the two words last named, if between kdrl and the Celtic 
words. O. N. krila is to weave, to plait ; and may suggest an origin for Creel, if it be not 
rather referred to Ir. kril. 

Creepings, sb. The peculiar cold sensation which often terminates 
in a shiver, and is usually a symptom of an approaching inflammatory 

* '• I believe I have got my creepings ;" have caught cold.' Wb. Gl, 

Crewels, sb. (pr. crules or crewls). Fine worsted of various colours, 
used in a species of embroidery, and especially in covering balls for 
young children, or for indoor use. 

' Properly, a ball of worsted. Germ, knduel^ PI. D. klevel^ a ball of thread. The inter- 
change of liquids in this class of words is very conunon.' Wedgw. Ferguson refers the 
word to N. krulla^ to blend or mix, to curl. 

Cricket, sb. A small, low stool ; which may serve as a milking-stool, 
a foot-stool, or a child's seat, indifferently. 

N. krakk, a little stool, without cushion or back-rail ; Sw. D. krakk, a form or stool, 
originally formed of the end of a cleft fir-tree, and then furnished with three legs supplied 
by the boughs of the same. Rietz. Comp. Sw. D. krdnka, a little stool ; a bench to set 
tubs or casks on ; Fin. krenkku, a four-legged form. 

Crob, V. n. To revile, worry with bitter scolding ; to hector or bully, 
by word. 

Comp. S. G. krepskf morosus ; Sw. D. kripinsk^ krtppdjnsk^ captious, ill-tempered ; N. S. 
kribhiscby passionate ; kribheln^ to provoke ; Dut. krihbig^ vexatious. Ihre assumes the 
word krihben^ irritare, as the origin of kribbiscb ; and kribheln is a popular Germ, word, as 
also krUhel-kopft a passionate, or enraged man. Rietz says comp. Lat. ia-erep'ZTt. Note 
also O. N. grobba, to brag ; grobbinn, a braggart. Our word is another interesting instance 
of the way in which old words are crystallized in local dialects, like twigs in amber. 

Crook, sb. (pr. cruke, or cr6wk). i. A nook or corner; such, e.g. as 
is formed in a field by the sudden and considerable curvature of a stream. 


a. The iron hooks on which gates, doors, &c. are hung and swing. 
3. A disease in sheep which causes curvature of the neck. 4. Distor- 
tion or curvature of the hinder legs of an animal, originating in weakness 
or disease, or from injudicious confinement 5. A crotchet, whim, piece 
of foUy. 

O. N. krdhr, a crook or hook, a comer ; O. Sw. AroAfr, a hook, a bending or crook, 
a deviation from directness, wile, stratagem, trick ; Sw. D. krok^ generally, whatever is 
crooked ; a hinge or hasp ; a comer or angle ; an underhand device, a trick ; a poor, 
miserable or wretched object or being. We have here all the meanings of our own word 
included. Dan. krog is used in most of the same senses ; thus, at steUe krogen far dmrtn : 
to fix a crook for the door ; veitn gimr en krog : the road makes a crook ; krog-lov, crooks 
or quirks of the law, &c. Note also N. krok, Sw. D. krokOf is to fix crooks or hooks for 
the hinges of a door. - 

9. * Ex t* smith t' coom an' fix thae deeaa-cnaks an* yat'CrvUs t' moom's moom.' 

* Yee, hangyd be thou on a eruke* Toumel. Mysi. p. 349. 

4. * Pigs has getten t' cruik sairly, fra bein' ower close kept iv a cau'd cote.' 

5. • What fond cnti§ 's he on t* waay wiv noo ? ' Wb. Gl, 

Crooky V. a. and n. To become or to make crooked. 

O. Sw. kroka ; Sw. D. kroka, to make crooked, to become crooked. 

' For I can nawthere erowkt ne knele.' Townd. Mysi, p. 163. 

Crookty adj. (pr. cruickt or crSwkt). Crooked, bent, twisted out of 
the straight line. 

O. N. kr6k6ttr; O. Sw. krokoUr; Sw. D. krokei, krokot; Dan. kroget. 

* A vast o* sticks to choose frav, but he 's nobbud piked a cruikt yan efter a *s deean.* 

Crop, sb. A joint cut from the ribs of an ox, and with the bones 

O. N. kroppr, truncus corporis ; m krop vden boved, a headless trunk. Hald. ; Sw. kropp, 
Dan. krop^ with same limitation of sense. In the expression, quoted by Molb., at wxrme 
med sin uld bans nmgne lend og krop : to warm one's naked loins and crop, the meaning at 
least appears to be more restricted still, and = that part of the body at large which lies 
between the head and the loins. 

Cropen, oroppen, p. p. of to Creep ; perf. creeped. 

A. S. cropen ; a form which appears in the imp. and supine of almost all the Scand. 
tongues and dialects : e. g. Sw. kriopa, imp. krdp; Sw. D. krype {krop, krbppe) ; O. N. kriupa 
(kraupt kropit) ; Dan. kryhe {krmb, krwbet). 

Cross-gang, cross-gate, sb. A cross-road; a foot-, or other path 
across a field or common, such as to shorten the distance in passing 
from one point to another. 

CronSy oronse, adj. Brisk, lively, frolicsome, pert Also spelt 

Jam. suggests S. G. krvs, krutig. Germ, kraus, Belg. kroes, all signifying curly, frizzled, 
crisp, as the possible origin of this word : ' the primary allusion, indeed,' he says, * seems to 



be to a cock who is laid to be crouu when he bristles up his feathers, so as to make them 
appear as if eurltd, Dan. hms*^ adomo, concinnimi paro.' Ferg. adopts the hypothesis. 
But neither of these authon observes that krus^ krusig, iraus, all have precisely the applica- 
tioa supposed in the languages they belong to. Under kreptk, Ihre quotes irauskopff and 
knabu/iud: and under krus^ krusigtbu/vud, as signifying a cross, irritable or excitable man. 
Sw. D. knu4mvud seems rather to imply angularity of character than mere pettishness or 
irritabifity. Sw. krusa bears the meaning of ' to be highly complimentary,* and Sw. D. ^m- 
ura^ * to be very polite.' The idea of crispness, curliness, smartness, lies at the bottom of 
all these expressions (which might be multiplied), and our own word gives another instance 
of a like and almost still more natural transition from the original and material con- 

' Ki fresh and as enms 
As a new-washed louse.' 

* ** As crown as a lopp ;" as brisk as a flea.' Wb, OL 

* Quite erawst and hearty.' Ih. 

Grow-berries, sb. The fruit of the crow-berry (Empeirum nigrum), 

Orowdle, oruddle, v. n. To crouch, to huddle together in a crouch- 
ing manner, as frightened chickens about the hen, or folks over a fire 
that has burnt low. 

* Crowd, Curd. A crowd is a lump or mass of people ; curd* or crudst as it was for- 
merly written, are milk coagulated or driven into lumps ; to cruddl*^ to coagulate or curdl§; 
to crowd or huddle. To croodle^ to draw oneself together into a lump from cold or other- 
wise, to cower, crouch.' Wedgw. Comp. S. G. krotOt conferta turba ; A. S. crt^. 

Crowdy, sb. Oat-meal porridge, made thick enough to turn out of 
the containing basin, like a pudding, when cooled. 

* This word is very ancient, and claims affinity with a variety of similar forms in other 
languages ; S. G. grod, O. N. grautr, porridge, made of meal and water, mixed and then 
boUed.' Jam. Note also Dan. grwd, Sw. grot. Comp. A. S. grut, grit, meal ; E. groats, 
husked oats prepared for making gruel, &c. ; grout, coarse meal. Jam. ; ground malt. Hall. 
Belg. grutU, Germ, gruss, 8cc. 

Crow-ling, sb. The common heath (Erica cinerea). 

Crowp, V. n. i. To croak, as toads do. 2. To rumble or murmur, 
as one's bowels do when full of wind, or when one has been too long 
without food. 3. To grumble or murmur, as a discontented person 

A word radically identical with roup, which see : one of the many instances of * the 
facility with which an initial g^ k, w, or /is added or lost before r.' Wedgw. O. N. hrdpa; 
S. G. ropa ; M. G. bropjan ; Dan. raahe ; Sw. ropa. It may be observed that, in either 
form current in Clevel., it is taken to express a hoarse sound or cry, as is also the case with 
croup, the fatal infants' disorder. Neither is the distinction noticeable in the use of the 
Scand. word, as specified by Molb., observed with us. His remark is : * Both man and beast 
are said at skrige, to scream ; but raab is applied in respect of man only.' Cf. Pr. Pm. 
* Crowken as cranes. Gruo : as todes, or frosshes (^oggis). Coaxo ;* as also O. N. ropa, 
Dan. r€ebe, to belch. 


130 GLOSSARr or THE 

Crowping, sb. i. The croaking of toads or frogs. 2. The rumbling 
in one's bowels induced by flatulence. 

Crowpy, adj. Apt to grumble or rtpine ; given to the ezpres^on of 

• " A crowpy body ;" a repincr.' Wb, Gl. 

Crud, V. a. To coagulate, to induce the formation of curds : chiefly 
used in the passive. 

From the older fomi of the present curd. See Orowdle. Cf. Pr, Pm. Curde, cmdde^ 


Cmddle, v. n. To curdle, become coagulated. 

See Orowdlo, with which it would seem to be essentially coincident. 

Crodge, v. a. and n. i. To crush, or jam; as a person's body 
by a waggon against a wall. 2. To push, crowd, or thrust one against 
another, as in a throng of sight-seers, or people whose curiosity is excited. 

This is possibly an intermediate form between O. E. crowd, to posh, shore ; Pr. Pm. 
* crowde with a barow ;' and crush ; and serves to connect the latter with the former. 
Another form is sorudge. See Cnuh. 

CrudB, sb. Curds. 

Crake, sb. The common rook ; or the carrion crow {Carvut frugi- 
legus or C, corone\ 

A. S. hr^. Another instance in which the initial r has taken z c ot g before it. The 
strength of the aspirate would in many cases almost effect the same result as the prefixing 
of k or g. See Grime, Ghriming. Wedgw. is inclined to refer N. E. erouk, a crow — 
another spelling of our word — to croak, as expressing the sound of the bird's cry. 

Crunk, sb. The hoarse cry or croak of the raven or carrion crow. 

O. N. krunk, croaking ; krunka, to croak. . ' Crunk or crunkU, To cry like a crane or 
heron. Lith. krankti, to make a harsh noise, to snort, croak; hrunJanti, krt m kind, to 
croak.* Wedgw; a word formed by the insertion of an n, so as to give a more nasal 
sound, in croak or crake; as in the case of crancb, crunch, from crcub, crush. Prank, 
frankit, are Eastern-Counties names for the common heron: I believe, simfdy because 
there is some resemblance in the word to the sound of the bird's cry. Observe the use of 
the n in this case also. 

Crunkle, v. a. To txmible or rumple linen, &c., so as to cause it to 
form creases. 

* The interchange of mp and nJ^ is so frequent that we can hardly veptjmXt crank from 
eramp, Du. kronkden from E. crumple, E. crinkle from crimple,* Wedgw. This principle 
would bring us in contact at once with Sw. D. krimpa, to press together so as to form 
creases or wrinkles ; but there seems to me a simpler and probably more correct way of 
proceeding. E. crinkle, cringle. Sec, are of the closest relationship to Sw. kringla, knng, 
Dan. om-kring, Sw. D. knng, kringel, kringla, O. N. kringr or hringr, &c. ; and what 
E. crinkle is to Sw. kringla, kringel ^Utitw is a curvature or flexure in every fold or crease 
or wrinkle made — the same is our orankle to Sw. krok, O. N. krokr, Dan. krog, &c., to Sw. D., 


O. N., and N. krokma : and, be it noticed, this word in one Sw. district takes the form 
kromkan : — ryggen gdbbom ba kronJind : the old man's back has grown crooked. Further, 
Sw. D. irol/f, other forms of which are krokla, kroklot, and O. N. brokkin, hare the sense 
of wrinkled ; in othef words, are equivalent to crunkkd, the Sw. word expressing which it 
gkrynkUg, We have here an interesting sequence : the b of brokkin changing into k pre- 
faud to r, the first of the two medial i^'s nasalised — coUate Dan. rynkg, O. N. brukkot to 
wrinkle; brokka, to shrink, of cloth — ^and then, as it would seem, an initial $ assumed 
before all, as in not a few other instances, some of which will be fiiUy noticed below. 

Crash, sb. A crowd or throng of people ; thence, a country enter- 
tainment; as a dance, or other merry-making. See Crudge. 

Cry up, ory up and away. A phrase used in connection with bees> 
and applied to the peculiar note or tone of their buzzing within the hive> 
which, to a person knowing in bees, notifies that they are on the point 
of swarming. 

• They'll be awa* inow ; they *s crying oop this ha'f-hour. * 

Cuddle, V. a. and n. To embrace or hug ; to interchange affectionate 
pressure. See Crowdle. 

* The existence of fomu like eruddU and cuddle, one of which begins with a mute and 
a liquid, and in the other the liquid is omitted, in the same or in related dialects, is a phe- 
nomenon of frequent occurrence,' says Wedgw. ; and he proceeds to quote many instances 
in point; e.g. euffznA duff, to strike; Du. konkeUn and kronkdin, to crinkle ; E. speckU, 
Sw. sprtclda ; E. speak. Germ, sprecken ; Eng. pin, Sc. prin, 8cc. He also quotes from Prior, 
who speaks of the partridge, when a falcon is * towering nigh,' as 

* Cuddling low beneath the brake.' 

Still this is a very unusual manner of appl3ring the word, the next quotation senring far 
better to illustrate the more prevailing application of it as met with in the South of England : 

* They hopped from spray to spray. 
They billed, they chirped all day, 
They cuddled close all night.' 

So far as my own opportunities of observation extend, the idea implied in ouddle is that of 
two or more individuals in close and consenting contact ; in the South, in a recumbent or, 
at least, crouching posture ; here, in any posture whatever. The man ouddles the woman, 
who puts his arm round her as they walk or stand side by side ; the child, or grown person, 
sitting on another's knee and held close to the supporter, is ouddled ; and so on : and the 
idea in all this is but a far-off derivative from crowd, cruddle. It is at least open to question 
if the word be not rather, as Jam. suggests, a derivative from Teut. kudden, coire, or some 
like word. 

Cuddy, sb. The hedge-sparrow {Accentor modularis). 

Of cuddy, as the popular Sc. name for the ass. Jam. says that it is * most probably a cant 
name.* Still, I believe, that so-called * cant names' frequently have some very respectable 
origin ; and, almost certainly, the names of our more familiar birds may be referrible to 
something beyond mere slang. I cannot, however, suggest anjrthing as probable in the 
present instance. 

Cuffldaft, sb. Light or easy talk, badinage, such as people indulge 

8 2 


in when they unbend among their friends, and are in a happy or 
jestmg vein. 

The latter half of this word may probably be a connection of the Sc. word daff, to jest ; 
daffin, jesting, light or sportive talk. It is less easy to suggest an origin for the former 
element. Perhaps the idea involved may be that of light or quick interchange of words, 
and either A. S. ea/^ quick, rapid, or the same source which supplies Eng. etm^ might ori- 
ginate it. The former word is met with three or four times in E, Eng, Awi, Poems, B.. 
in the sense of qutek^ handy. The etymology of the latter word seems uncertain. Wedgw. 
refers it to clap. Ihre refers S. G. ktjfu, verberibns insultare, to ku/wa, to qudl, intimidate ; 
and on Mr. Wedgwood's principle, alleged in the same page with die word cuff, £. a^ 
and Sw. knuff'^ should be set side by side, and the latter used as an index to the origin of the 
former. If euffi in our word be related to E. euff, the idea would be very like that implied 
in the expression * to bandy words.* 

* He was fain for half-an-hour's euffidafi; and for myself I like to blow my horn when 
I list.' Wb. Gl. 

Comber, sb. (pr. coommer). Care, trouble, inconvenience, obstruc- 

O. S. hymber; Sw. D. and Dan. kumnur; Germ, kummer; Dut. komtmr, kombn. Molb. 
quotes it as of Germ, origin. 

For the vb. note the following : — 

* 8c then they tooke him out againe, 
& cutten all his ioynts in sunder ; 
8c burnt him eke vpon a hyll ; 

I-wis the ded him curstly cumber* Percy's Fol. MS, i. 197. 

* pay ware eumbyrde in covetyse, >e caytifs had care.' Rd, Piecea, p. 92. 

Cmnber-groTuid, sb. An useless person or thing ; one that is un- 
profitable, or good-for-nothing. 

Comp. * Cut it down ; why cumberetb it the ground ?' Luke xiii. 7. 

Cuprose, sb. The poppy of the corn-fields (Fapaver rhceas, Sec). 

Currant-beny, sb. The common currant (I^tdes rubrum). For 
Black-currants {Ribes nigrum), see Black-berries. 

CuBhat, sb. The ringdove {Columba palumbus). See Coosoot. 

Cush-love, (pr. coosh-loove). A pet or coaxing term of address to 
a cow. 

Comp. Isl. husa, kussa, kusla, to address a cow coaxingly. 

Custard-winds, sb. The cold easterly winds prevalent on the N. E. 
coast in spring. Probably a corruption of coast-ward winds. 

Cutter, V. n. To talk in a low and confidential tone ; to whisper ; to 
make private communications in an undertone. 

S. G. kuttra^ garrire ; Sw. D. huttr'dy to talk low and in secret. Other forms are hudra, 
kdudrd ; kuttra i bop, to hold confidential conmnmications ; N. S. quadem * Brunsw. (H. G 
Dial.) koddern ; Dut. hoeteren^ to talk slang ; Swab, kudem. 


% sb. Capacity, ability or fitness for a position, duty, or office ; 
also activity, energy. 

Probably connected with dad nearly as triehy is with trick. Hall, gives douity, which 
is probably only another form of this word. Dotomt signifies thriving, likdy to do well ; 
dSMtfjf is indnstrions, notable ; detdily is actively, diligently ; while, in the opposite sense, we 
have dttdUu, dadUst, Comp. Sw. D. dddlos, O. N. dadtaus. 

Daddle, dadle, v. n. To trifle, move lazily or saunteringly, to be 
listless. Also written Daudle. 

This word is supposed to be a diminutive of dau, a sluggard, which is referred to O. N • 
dd, S. G. dd. See Daft 
* A daidlvig, sauntering body.' 

Daff, sb. A coward, a dastard, a fool. 

Cf. Pr, Pm, * Daffi, or dastard, or he >at spekjrthe not yn tjone.' 

One of a numerous family of derivatives reappearing under various forms, and with 
various shades of signification, but all implying a want or a foilure of some power or quality. 
Ihre remarics of the probable root-word (dd, deliquium animi), that it is ' like the stock of 
a felled tree which has pushed forth a great many shoots.' Among others, our Clevd. 
words daiBa, daft, deaf, dowly, Sec., are referrible to this stock, descending through 
the forms d^, db/ka, dafiia, ddligt &c. In Sw. Dial, we find duven, benumbed ; ddven, 
powerless ; ddima, to become powerless or inert ; and, in O. N., dqfi, inertness, want of 
energy ; do/hut, feeble, faint ; in M. G., dhan, to become feeble ; Sansk. div, to be heavy, 
sluggish. See. ; and, just as in these words privation or loss of feeling, vigour, energy, and 
the like is implied, so in our word that of moral energy and vigour, or courage, or intdlect. 
In the old writers it usually means fool. 

« ** Thou doted daffk,** quod she, 
«• DuUc are thi wittes." ' P. Plougbm, p. 23. 

* For lat a dronken daffi 
In a dyk falle, 
Lat hym ligge. Sec* 7(. p. 227 

Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense, cowardly fool :— 

* He auntrith him and hath his nedis spedde. 
And I lie as a draife sak in my bedde ; 
And when this iape is told another day 
I shall be hold a daffi or a Coknay.' Rive's TdU, p. 33. 

Baffle, V. a. and n. i. To confuse, disturb one's mental powers, as 
by noise or disorder. 2. To become stupid or confused. 3. To grow 
weak in faculties, forgetful and childish, from old age. 

See Dalf. Comp. Sw. D. ddvlt, N. dauwUg, both of which adjectives involve or imply 
at least a part of the above significations. 

1. * Ah 's just that dcffitd wi' thae bairns' din, Ah 's nae use o' ma heead.' 

2. * He fails fast and begins to daffit* 


DafSy, adj. Half-imbecile, weakened in faculties, forgetful and 
childish ; of old people, often. 

* He 's becoming quite di^y.* Wb. GL 

Daft, adj. i. Simple, half-silly, 'not all there.' a. Flighty, giddy, 
thoughtless. 3. Foolish, stupid, dull of apprehension. 

From its fonn possibly a p.p. from the vb, daffi Jam., it wiD be seen, gires diat yb. in 
the sense, * to be foolish ;' but he derires daft from O. N. dtuffrt fatuns, or at least from its 
neater dauft, quoting also S. G. d6ft stapidns. 

I. * Send daft WUlie. He 's nobbut haa'f theear ; but he's canny eneu^ aboot sik an 
earrand as yon.' 

a. ' T' lass has gaen clean daft. She wcean't mahnd her ain neeam lang, a' this gate.' 

3. * As daft as a goose ;* * As deft as a deear-naiL' YTb. Gl, 

DaitiBh, adj. Only of very moderate quickness, or ability and sense. 

* A daftisb, dizzy soort o' body.' Wb. GL 

Dagg, degg, v. a. and n. i. To sprinkle with water. 2. To drizzle. 

Sw. D. dagga ; O. N. doggva^ to bedew, sprinkle ; |>aV dbggvar, it drizzles ; Sw. d^gva^ 
to sprinkle or splash ; Sw. and Sw. D. dagg, O. N. dogg, Dan. dug, dew. 
I. ' Gan an' dag thae daithes, Marget. Ah 11 mind t' bairn.' 
a. ' A fine dagging rain.' Wb, GL 

Bagged, adj. Wet, bedaggled. 

* She 's getten her sko'ts finely daggtd* 

Dainflh, densh, adj. Fastidious, dainty, nice. 

This word occurs in the forms dauneb, daneb, doncb, dincb. Hall, and Luds GL The 
last word has for its second meaning * Danish.' The same meaning is giren for Densbe. HalL 
It is at least open to question whether this is not the origin of the word — ^if it does not 
bear with it a reminiscence of Danish assumption and haughty self-preference. ' So long as 
the Danish supremacy lasted (in England),' says Worsaae {Minder , p. 187), ' the Danes 
naturally could only carry themselves as lords in a conquered country. Their innate taste 
for magnificence and luxury was abundantly fostered, and their pride was flattered by the 
subjugation of the Anglo-Saxons. The old English chronicles contain bitter complaints 
touclmig the humiliations the natives were exposed to. Thus if an Anglo-Saxon chanced to 
meet a Dane upon a bridge, he was obliged to wait in a posture of lowly reverence — nay 
even, if he were on horseback, he was obliged to dismount and wait, until the Dane had 
crossed over.' Verily the Dane might be looked upon as 'particular,' or *nice»' under 
such circimutances, and his generic name, Dansk, pass into a word expressive of such charac- 
teristics. Further, it may be observed that the Sw. D. word bdnskas — a derivative from 
boj, a (or rather the) ci^ or town, and signifjring, i. To use fine or * city' language, to 
talk big; a. To set oneself up, or fto expound dialect by dialect) to be bumptious — 
assumes the form of dansk, d'dndta, aenska, in different Sw. localities, and thus furnishes 
a term identical with ours in form, and closely approaching it in meaning. 

* Over dmsb by owght ;' far too nice or fastidious. 

Dainsh- or densh-gobbed, adj. Dainty about one's eating. See Gob. 
Dale, sb. (pr. deeal). The distinctive name of the valleys which run 


far up between the high moorlands of Cleveland and the adjoining dis- 
tricts, each with a small rapid stream, or Book, running through it from 
Head to End, where it empties itself into the larger stream : in Cleve- 
land, into the £sk, which runs along £sk-dale. 

O. N. dair, Sw. and Dan. dal, Comp. A. S. dal. That Dale in Clereland is a purely 
Danish word, to the entire exclusion of any A. S. intermixture, can scarcely be a matter of 
(kmbt to any one who gives a moment's thought to the nature of the prefixes which dis- 
tinguish the rarious dales — all of them Scand. — not to mention the vexy important part 
fiUed by the same word in local Scand. nomenclature, especially in IceUnd. 

Dale-end, sb. The point at which the Dale attains its full expansion, 
and, so to speak, terminates ; debouches or ends in the central or main 

Comp. O. N. daU-mynni, os vel fauces vallis. Danby- or Dale-fiiJ, Fryup-endf Glaisdale- 

€Hd, Sec. 

Dale-head, sb. The upper portion of the Dale at or nearest its 
narrowest or commencing part amidst the moorland hills. 

Dall, daiQ, dawl, v. a. and n. i. To tire or weary. 2. To grow 
tired, to become weary. 3. To become depressed, low-spirited. Also 
spelt DowL 

Comp. Sw. D. dala d, ddla d, to become weary, heavy with sleep ; the primary meaning 
of the word being to fall, the first derived meaning to tend towards settings as the sun does. 
Cf. Dan. ddltt to sink, to wane. Note, also, in another direction, O. N. dvalit torpor, 
swoon ; and Old H. O. ttoelan, to be overpowered with sleep. 

1. ' It datdt me sairly, diz this thravellin* by t' reeal.* 

2. * Ah 's dauTd o* t' spot. Ah can't heeaf tiv it naekins way.* 

* Ah *s dauTd o' my meat.' 

* Ah*s very dauled: it's bin a dree ganging.' 

3. * Ah's fairlings douded to deeath.' Wb. GL 

Dame, sb. (pr deeam). One's wife, the mistress of his house; also 
applied to an aged woman. 

Dander, v. n. To tremble or shake with a tremulous motion, as a 
house does from the passage by of some heavy vehicle, or the like. 

O. N. dfa (imp. <ftS<//), to shake, to totter. Comp. also O. N. datta^ with a similar signi- 
fication. Sw. D. dandrd likewise has very nearly the same meaning. 

Danger, sb. Probability, risk. 

* " Ah 's doo'tful Willy 'U not cast this aihnent ; he 11 dee." " Weel, there *s a danger 

on t. 

DangeronB, adj. In a state or condition of danger ; of persons. 

* " Mn. Dale 's very ill, they say ? " " Ay, 'Doctor says she 's dangerous:* * 


Danglements, sb. Fiinges, tassels, or any such easily moveaUe 
pendants to a garment, &c. 

Dap, adj. Qever, dexterous, handy. See £. dab. 

Wedgw. says, * A dab4>and is one who do«s a thing off-hand, at a tingle blow. Note also 
Langued. tap<i, to strike, to do a thing skilfully and quickly.' See Dap, yb. 

Dap, V. n. To move with short, quick steps. 

* He goes dapping along, as if he were on springs.' 

* Dapping up and down stairs.' 

Dark, v. n. To listen insidiously, eavesdrop, seek for information in 
underhand ways, or with an insidious intention. 

Hall, says, * to watch for an opportunity of injuring others for one's own benefit. In tAA 
writers, to lie hid.' Our word scarcely implies the malicious intention, but doubtless the 
sense of lying hid contains the germ of its actual meaning ; to conceal oneself for the pur- 
pose of hearing without being suspected as hearing, and fiience, to hear in an insidious way. 
Brockett gives us the form dart, Comp. Pr. Pm. * Daryn, or drowpyn, or prively to be 
hydde (privyly to hydjm). Latiio, lateo/ See also note to the same. The connection of 
our word is with this and not with E. dark. See Wedgw. in Dare, 

* They dark and gep for all they can catch.' Wb, GL 

* What are you darking at ? ' Ih. 

Darr, v. a. To dare. 


* Ah dam'd him tiv it, an* he wur fleyed *o tryin'.' 

Cf. ' This gere may never faylle, that dor I undertake.' 7*otPfi«/. MyU, p. 27. 

Dased, dazed, adj. (pr. deeaz'd). i. Astounded, stupefied, struck 
with amazement or terror. 2. Suffering from the effects of cold, numbed, 
lifeless. 3. Dry, sapless. 4. Ill-cooked, ill-baked ; from the oven being 
too slow, or the fire not properly kept up ; or, perhaps, ill-leavened ; the 
result being, in either case, that the bread is scarcely palatable or fit for 
food ; and so of the meat, whether dried up, burnt, or not suifiiciently 

Comp. S. G. dasay O. N. dasadr^ dasasi, exhausted, to be worn out. Ihre supposes ddr§ 
and dSsi to be essentially the same word, in which case the sense of 'stupefjring' would 
come in. Comp. Sw. D. dasa^ to be utterly lazy and inert ; Dut. daesen, to be beside oneself; 
dtvaasen, to be foolish ; A. S. dwas^ N. S. dwes, dwas ; Dut dwaas, dull, heavy, stupid. 
Pr. Pm, * Dasyd. Vertiginosus ;* and dasyn, applied to the eyes, to become dull. O. N. 
dasazjU {Flatey. i. 536), is applied to the joint dfects of cold and exhaustion. 

1. * VHiat's wrang wi* thee, man? Hast ee getten a gliff? Thee luiks deeazed like.* 

' I dase and I dedir 
For ferd of that taylle.' Toumel, Myst, p. 28. 

2. * It 's nobbut a poorish cletch ; bud maist o' t' eggs gat duazed wiv t' aud hen bein* 
aff sae lang.' 

3. * Ay, it 's a strangish frost : t' com an' grass 's fairlings deeazed wi' 't ; an' Ah 's about 
deiazed wi' t' cau'd mysel.' 

4. * T' breead-leeaf's dttaztd* 


Dtiement, sb. See Deeftement, Based. 
Dauby, adj. Dirty, slovenly, untidy. 

Comp. Sw. D. dabba, a ragged, slovenly woman of ill conduct ; dabba, to make dirty, 
dub; dabba tig, to feed oneself dirtily; dabba /«, to make anything dabbigt, that is, 

*Daidfy folks' are people who are * slovenly in household matters.' Wb, OL 

Damn, sb. A portion or share, with an implied idea of smallness. 

Sw. D. dom, a small piece, a morsel. The word is connected with the verb-family. 
S. O. d&ma, O. N. dami, A. S. diman, Sw. domma, &c., to judge, decide, sentence. The 
idea is evidently that of portions allotted, or assigned at the judgment or will of another. 
See Damn, vb. 

* '* It was a dear daum ;** a dear morsel ; very little for the money.' Wb. 01. 

Damn, v. a. To deal out or allot, with the implied sense of sparingly, 
almost grudgingly. 

* ** Dttumtd out ;" dealt out in small or scanty allowances.' Wb. OL 

Comp. • For David demys ever ilk deylle. 

And thus he says of chylder ying :' ToumtL Mysi. p. i6o ; 

where the sense of demys seems to be nearly that of divide, in the expression, * rightly divide 
the word of truth.' 

Day-nettle, sb. (pr. deea-nettle). The common hemp-nettle (Gale- 
ofisis teirahii). Common in corn-fields, especially where the soil is very 
light and the crop thin. 

* Labourers in harvest are sometimes affected with a severe inflammation of the hand, or 
of a finger, which they uniformly attribute to the sting of a Day-nettle, the name by which 
this plant is known among them.' Botany of Berunck-on-Tiveed. 

Daytal, adj. By the day ; applied to a labourer who works * by the 
day/ or to the work done by him. 

Comp. O. N. dagatal, a diary, day-book or register. 

Daytal-man, sb. A man who works, and is paid, by the day; in 
contradistinction to the Farm-seryant who is hired by the Term — the 
year or half-year: May-day to Martinmas, or to May-day again — and 
paid at the rate of so much a year, m addition to his food (see Meat) 
and lodging. 

•••What is your father, Robert? A farmer?" •• Nae, sir, nobbut a working-man." 
•• What, a farming-man (farm-servant) ? " •• Nae, sir, on'y a daytal-man:* ' 

Daytal-work. Work done by the day-labourer or Daytal-man ; in 
contradistinction to work done by the piece — as a job of draining, or 
mowing or harvesting— or by the duly hired Farm-servant. 


DouM, dowM, V. i. I. To drench or tativate wA wmer, wbeAa 

by plunging into the water, or throwing a qoantitf over a penoo or 
thing, a. To strike; thence to strike out, as a fight; to str&e off or 
down, as feathers or finery from a girl's bonnet or dress. 

It li fHPttWiUi that douM may b« nearly allied to dtub. The Sw. 
MfiM lii^niflf ati<if» (rxcr|>t that, in connection with water, it if appSed tD mtt or 
and Intermitting rain-thowerO. with iu cognate words dita, dmtka, dkal, b icfenc^ to 
Sanir </4«. />»«#/, a drixxiing rain, dbtsln, to drizzle, are words used in tbe TjrroL Tbe 
ttmtmiUm with th^h would supply the rationale of the secood mraning Bst see 

I . * ** T)um '• |rf ttrn lair tinuuH, Mally. Wheeah, thoo 's 'a' bin tfaraff t* bcdc. Ah hj." ' 

I. *Slifl'i f/owW o' hrr fcathm/ ^. 01. 

Dousing, Mb. I. A drenching, a. A blow, a beating or thrashing. 

I . **' A koimI lUmeing ;" a thorough loakinff/ Wh. 01, 
I. ' Ah Ml giK thr« a Hou»mg, rf thee dizn't heed.' 

Doui, V. A. To put out, to extinguish ; to do out 

W^tgw, •tigifriti a doubt of do out being the origin of this word. His remarks certainly 
d#N>rvii «lfiiiitH»ii, but arc, |)orhapi, scarcely conclusive. 

Dottt, nU. An cxtlnguiMhcr, wherewith to put out — ' do out' — a candle. 
Dovo, V. n. To doHc, to be heavy and sleepy. 

O.Hw. dti/utfi, III haVf (Mie'i srnici dulled or stupefied. Comp. O.N. dofi, torpidity, 
Invi'luiitsty ImlolofMii, /kr. t Sw. duva, id.; Sw. D. duviH, ddveu; Dan. damn; also 
Santir, dip, in )i« ftUupy, 

♦ •• Vom'm Umii aftUp)!, Jo»«i|)h/' " Naa, nobbut doavin* a bit." * 

Dovln«"dHnk, Mb. A nlccping draught. 

Kw. di\/-dr)ith, Dan. dtiP0ttrik, an anodyne draught. Comp. dowf in Jamieson. 

Dow, V, n. I, To llirivc, prosper, be successful; of either persons or 
things. 7, To nirnd, improve, become better, in respect of health, 
grc»wih, ( ire unihtunc TN. 

(). N, duga, to tm itrong, to be strong enough, or able ; O. Sw. duga, doga, to be good* 
or tit lor; A. N. dugntt, to proHt, avail, be good for; Fris. duga. Comp, especially, Dan* 
du0, H. Jull. f/of #, ill which two wordi not only does the pronunciation approximate very 
cluMly to ouri, but the lenie alio ; a remark that ii likewise true of O. N. dq/na. The 
Scottish Ufc of the word, which we do not appear to have preserved in Clerel., if in N. 
England at all, and which is itrictly conionant with the simple meaning of these old ▼crbt, 
is well illuitrated in thii sentence from the Black Dwarf: — * Nae single man can keep 
a tower againit twenty. A* the men o' the Meams doumz do mair than they dow.' Bnt 
the traniition of idea from this sense to that involved in our word is so simple and necet- 
sary^-like that in valio, from / am tirong or ahl§, to / am will in btaltb or body, and in 
our words ttrons, weak, ■illy, — that there is no need to seek different derivations, as 
Jam. does, for dow^ to be able, and dow in our sense. 

I. '"He dow» bravely;" thrives or prospers exceedingly well.' Wh, Ol, 

* ** March growi, never dcw»;** applied to blouom shewing itself too early, or to any pre- 
mature spurt of vegetation.* lb. 


Deasementy deeasmenty sb. (Pr. of Dasement). The effects or con- 
sequences of continued exposure to cold ; the sensation of being chilled 
. through which is often the fore-runner of a heavy inflammatory cold. 
See Based. 

* Ah 's getten a tair deeas*mtnt.* 

Deeath. (Pr. of death). 

Deeath-smear, sb. The clammy moisture of approaching dissolution. 

Deeath-stniokexiy adj. On the verge of dissolution ; said of one on 
whom the signs of closely approaching death are fully apparent. 

Deeathy-groats, sb. One having a death- doomed look, evidendy 
claimed by death as an early victim. 

From O. N. datSu 2nd grdi^i or gro^r^ a shoot, or production. 

* T* ane it a fahn, fat bairn : t* ither was allays a puir dowly dieaiby-groats.* 

Deed, sb. Doings. A word of most frequent application, and more 
easily illustrated than defined. 

* Mucky dud;* a greeting from one walker to another when the roads are in a very dirty 
condition : or» when a very foul pigsty (or the like) is being cleaned out ; or, in short, when 
anything is proceeding which is emphatically * a dirty job.' 

* Bonny deed;' usually in an ironical sense, nearly equivalent to the south-country 

• a pretty to-do.* 

* Dowly deed;* applied in the case of a person or persons whose condition is one of 
depression, whether arising from sickness, or sorrow, or misfortune, or ill-luck, or even want 
of em{doyment. * It 's dowly deed for t* working man when there 's nae wark t' git.' 

* Went deed;* great stir or excitement, as at a great * coming-of-age' feast, or the 
festivities at the wedding of the squire. 

* Great deed* — * great deed for the lawyers ;* — an election which gives them plenty of 

' Great deed at t' new hooss ;' a grand housewarming. 

* Great deed about nowght ;' a great to-do about nothing. 
Also, * sad deed,* * gay deed,* &c. 

Deedless, adj. Helpless, inefficient, feckless. Hall, writes the word 

* dadless.' 

O.N. ddHiaus, alike unable and unwilling to help oneself; Sw. D. d&dlos, ddlbs, ddlaus, 
&c. A. S. has dcedlic, deedlike, active, but no dad-l<sds. 

Deft, adj. i. Pretty, neat. 2. Handy, clever. 

A. S. da/te, convenient. Hall., Brock., and Todd's Johnson, all look on this word as 
obsolete except in the North : wrongly, as I think. 

I. * A de/i sight ;' spoken ironically, says Wb. Gl., and equivalent, or nearly, to * a pretty 
sight, indeed.' 

Deftly, adv. Cleverly, dexterously. 

A. S. dafdice, fitly, conveniently. 

* " It was all very deftly done ;" dexterously managed.' Wb, GL 

T 2 


Degg. See Dagg. 

Delve, V. n. and a. i. To dig. 2. To work, labour hard. 3. To 
indent or leave a permanent bruise or indentation in a metal vessel, 
or other object capable of such impression, such as a hat, a tin 
box, &c. 

A. S. del/an, to dig ; Dut. delven. In its original sense, to tHg^ the word is scarcclj used 
at all in Cleveland. GraTe is the word in all but exclusive use to express that operation. 
The derived sense, * to labour or toil at anything/ is more frequent, but, in nine cases out of 
ten when the word is used, it is applied in the third sense. Comp. Sw. D. dalpa, doipa, to 
vault or arch over, to turn over or upside down ; dvlpa, a hole or unevenness in the road, 
especially one produced by the inequalities of a heavy snow-fall, or by the continued pas- 
sage of heavy loads ; dalpig, uneven, holey, — spoken of a sledge-road over the snow ; Dut. 
</«/vr, a hole or pit. There is a curious mixture, or succession, of ideas common to our 
verb and its Sw. double ; digging is turning the soil dug upside down ; the piece dug leaves 
a hole and forms a kind of vault ; the hole or rather indentation in a pewter pot or a tin 
box, looked at from the other side, also forms a vault. The coincidence is extremdy 
interesting, and makes one anxious to trace the history of the lonely Sw. word ; for it 
seems to have no fellows in the other Scand. languages. 

a. * He 's allays delving at it, gan when ye will ;' always hard at work at the specified 

The vb. is in frequent use in CbauciTf Towrul. Mysi,, &c., in the sense to dig, and in 
Religious Pieces, Percy's Fol. MS., &c., in that of to bury ; e. g. — 

* All quicke shee shold dolven be.' 
Comp. * He rasyd Lazare out of his del/e.* Toumel, Mysi. p. 230. 

Dented, dinted, adj. i. Notched, serrated, resembling the teeth of 
a saw. Comp. * The woodpeckers have a tongue which they can shoot 
forth to a very great length, ending in a sharp, stiflf, bony tip, dented on 
each side.' Ray, On the Creation, Pt i. 2. Indented, impressed with a 
sunken mark; applied to soft substances, as the flesh, dough, &c., as 
delved is to harder ones. There is a stitch in use among tailors which is 
called dinting, which is done by passing the needle nearly but not quite 
through the stuff, so that the stitch forms a small depression on the other 

Denty, dentyish, adj. Fine, genial, inspiriting. 

Coincident with E. dainty, but with a more limited application. 

* A gay fine, denty morning.* 

* A denty day this has been, partic'r'ly for t* tahm o* year.* 

Derse, (Pr. of Dress.) See Dress ; * durse' in Hall. 
Desperate, adv. (pr. despe't'). Used as an augmentative. 

* A di$pe*t bad cold ;' * a despe't* awk'rt spot ;' • a despe*^ fahn miss,' a vtxy smart young 
lady ; * a despe't* grann' hooss.' 


I, sb. I. A layer or course in any pile or mass that is heaped or 
built up by degrees. 2. The entire pile or mass so built. 

0. N. des^ a hay-stack ; dys, a tumulus, or grave-hill ; S. O. d&s^ a pile made as described 
in the definitioii, a stack ; kom i dyss sattia : to put com together into a heap ; Sw. D. dos, 
doss, piled heaps of stones : * these sien-dbsser have usually been heathen altar-piles,' Rietz ; 
also dosst, a stack of hay or straw. Cf. Pr. Pm. Dise. 

1. (Spoken by a working-man while engaged in excavating a timiulus or grave-hill, 
Houe.) * Wheeah ! it all Ugs i' desses;* it is all laid in layers. 

a. ' A dess of stones.' Wb. Ol. 

Pr. Pm. ' Dsse, of hye benche/ denotes ' the seat of distinction placed on ' the dais 
proper, or 'raised platform always found at the upper end of a hall.' Note to Dest, 
In Toumd. Myst. p. 4, speaking of Lucifer and his beauty, * Secundus malus Angelus/ 
says, — 

* He is so fa3Te, with outten les. 
He semys fulle welle to sytt on des ;* 

where the meaning of des corresponds with that of Prompt, dese. But at p. ao the word 
evidently bears a sense nearly or quite coincident with that of grade, degree, Lat. gradus, 
and thus connects itself with our word : — 

* Of alle angels in brightnes 
God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly he flyt his des. 
And set hym even hym by. 

He thoght hymself as worth! as hym that hym made^ 
In brightnes, in bewty ; thcrfor he hym degrade. 
Put hym in a low degre soyn after.' 

DesSy V. a. To pile up in an orderly fashion, or layer after layer. 

* Gan thoo, William, an' dess that hay oop i' t' chawmcr (hay-loft).' 
' Here 's a vast o' boxes, lad. Thee weeant get *em a* in, wivout thee dess *em oop 
canny;' pile them up orderly, in regular courses, in opposition to throwing them in a con- 
fused mass. 

Dessably, adj. Orderly, in respect of arrangement. Wh. Gl. 
Dib, V. a. and n. To dip. 

Used in the same senses as the standard word, and identical with it. Comp. Sw. D. dobb, 
to dive, dip oneself; and Dan. dyb, deep, &c., in which 6 takes the place of /, as in our 

Dib, sb. A depression in the ground, scarcely amounting to a Slack, 
and much less to a valley. 

Bidder, v. n. (pr. dither). To thrill or shiver from the effects of cold 
or fear. 

Comp. Pr. Pm. * Dyderyn for colde ;* Catb. Ang. • Dadir, to whake.* Dut. sUteren ; Germ. 
zittern ; and also O. N. /iVra, to shiver, tremble with cold or fear. Dodder or dother, 
as also dander, a nasalised form of dadir, together with our word, are connected with 
O. N. datta, to vibrate ; palpitate, as the heart does ; Sw. D. datta, dutta ; and these probably 


with Haldorsen's dua (imp. dudt), to be in a state of motion, or tremulous. Comp. also 
E. toiUr. 

* I dase and I dedir. 
For ferd of that taylle/ Towtul. Myst, p. 28. 

* She ditbertd and shu'k, yan thoght she wad ha' tummled i* bits.' 

Bidder, diddermenty sb. Trembling, shivering, thrilling of the body 
from cold or fear. 

* Ah wur a' iy a ditberment^ 't wur sike a fla3rsome skrike.' 

Diflbring-bout, sb. A verbal dispute or quarrel. 

* Him and me had a sairish dtgrruC-hout along o' thae sheep at was worried.' 

Dike, sb. i. A ditch, a channel for carrying off water. 2. A bank 
or long earthen mound, a fence. 3. A pool, or small pond. 4. A rude 
stone wall on a dike-baek-top. 

O.N. dUri; O.Sw. dike; Sw. D. diht; A.S. die; Dan. ^gt; Hind. dikL The O.N. 
word seems to be limited in signification to a ditch, a water-channel. The S. G. dike has 
both the meanings — ditch and bank. A. S. die^ as Bosworth seems to think, means pri- 
marily a bank, a mound, which is the case with Sw. D. Mte or tUge ; while New H. Germ. 
deieb^ and Beng. dihi both signify a pond, a dam, as well as a mound. Ihre remarks that 
the contrariety of these meanings is easily accounted for when one recollects that the earth 
dug out in forming the dike, in the sense ditch, being laid on the surface at length, forms 
the dike^ in the sense mound. Grimm's remark is that the sense of the word seems to 
depend upon the principal motive or object in doing the work, whether the sinking of a 
trench or the raising of a mound. A dike in the Scottish dialect, it may be observed, 
means a stone wall or fence ; * a slap in a dry stone dike' is a breach in a dry stone wall. 
Probably the gender of the noun may originally have decided the sense ; a presimiption 
that presents itself in more than one instance analogous to this of Dike. See I>ike*bazikt 
Dike-oam, Hedge-dike, Hedge-dike-side, 'Water-dikes. 

Cf. * Twen heuone hil and helle dih* Gen, and Ex, p. 9. 

Dike-back, sb. The bank which forms one side of a dike or ditch. 

Dike-cam, sb. The bank of the Hedge-dike. 

Dike, V. n. i. To be engaged in the labour of making a dike. 2. To 
cleanse out, by digging, the dike at the foot of a hedge bank, using the 
material dug out to repair the bank where necessary. 

* And he wold thresh and therto dike and delve.* 

Prol. Cam, Tales, The Ploughman, 

' Syche bondage shalle I to the3rm beyde, 

To dyke and delf, here and draw. 
And to do alle unhonest deyde.' Townel. Myst. p. 57. 

Dill, V. a. To give ease in pain ; to allay or assuage pain ; to soothe. 

Perhaps connected with O. N. dillat to lull or soothe as a nurse does a baby, with a 
derived or secondary meaning. 

* Ah *s aboot deead wi' t' teethwark. Ah wad gie* owght for somethin* t' dill it.* 

' Maria. My son ? Alas, for care I 

Who may my doyllys dyllef Townel, Myst, p. 136. 


^ V. a. I. To push or thrust violently. 2. To hurl downwards 
with force, or dash down. 3. To strike forcefully. 4. To batter or 
bruise. 5. To surpass, out-do, be superior to, in respect of achieve- 
ment or argument, &c. 

0. N. dengia ; O. Sw. tUtnga^ to dash, thrust, bang ; N. ddngjt ; Dan. dangt ; A. S. 
dtncgan ; M. H. Germ, tengen ; Sansc. tung. 

1. • Puir lahtlc bairn I Didst*ee get dinged (or dung) off t* chccar?* 
a. • Tak* heed, man, or he *ll ding thee doon t* steears.' 

Comp. • 24 of my Next Cozens 

will helpe to dinge him downe.* Percy's Fol. MS. i. 236. 

See, also, Toumel. Myst. pp. 249, 141. 

3. * He dang t' geeaveloc reeght upo' mah foot.' 

Comp. * Fast upon his face I dangt.* Percy's Folio MS. i. 359. 

Cf. Toumel, Myst. p. 260. 

4. * Wheeah, he 's dinged a hole reeght thruff t' skell-beast, he struck sae sair ;' of 
a luckinc; horse or beast. 

5. • 'M 's dmg him fairlings ;" I shaU beat him entirely.' Wb. 01, 
In Townel. MyU. p. 141, and P. Plougbm. p. 295, — 

* Greatt dukes downe dynges for his greatt aw 

And hym lowtys :* 

* Down dyng of youre knees 

Alle that hym seys :' 

* Neither Peter the porter 
Nor Poul with his fauchon 
That wole defende me the dore 
Dynge I never so late ;* 

the usage is of a vb. neuter. 

Ding, sb. The crush and confusion of a crowd, as it sways and 
pushes in different directions ; or the disturbance which always accom- 
panies a crowd. 

• What 's all this ding and dordom about?* Wh. 01. 

Dingle, v. n. (pr. dinn'l.) To thrill, tingle ; expressive of the secondary 
effects of pain or cold or a blow. 

Comp. O. N., Sw. dingla ; Dan. dingle ; Sw. D. dingal. The primary meaning of these 
verbs is to vibrate, to move as any pendulous thing docs, whether more or less quickly. 
The transition is easy to the sensation which is described by Brockett as * if of a tremulous 
short motion in the particles of one's flesh.' Hall., Brock., Wh. G/. all spell the word as 
dindle or dinnle, dinnel ; with which comp. Pr. Pm. * Dyndelyn, tinnio,' and collate both 
with the Scand. verbs given above, and with E. tingle, which Rich, says is the same word as 
tinJde, and which he defines * to sound, or cause to sound, — as metal stricken ; to ring, cause 
or emit the sound of bells when rung ; to feel a tremulous^ jarring sensation, like the 
'^"gi^ 0/ ntetal when stricken.* Comp. also Dut. tintelen, to tingle. This view of the 
essential identity of the forms in g and in </ or / receives confirmation also from the meaning 
the verb bears in some parts of the North — to tremble or shake, as well as to reel, to 
stagger. The word is used metaphorically in Lowland Scotch : — * Ane aye thinks at the 
first dinnle of the sentence that they have heart eneugh to dee rather than bide out the sax 
weeks.' Heart of Mid-Lotbian. 


Dinnot, dinna, deeant'ee. Forms of ' Do not/ ' Do not thou,' 
used entreatingly or wamingly. 

Dint, sb. The greater part or proportion. Wh, GL says, ' it is a 
word we have never heard applied in the sense given, but which, it is 
stated, was formerly in use hereabouts to signify the greater number as 
compared with the less ; " the dini of our town in those days were 
smugglers." ' 

A. S. dynt ; O. Sw. dynter ; O. N. dyntr. Our word takes an indirect sense derived from 
the original meaning, a blow, a push, the exercise of power or force, that is ; just as * by 
dint of argument' is by force of argument. Comp. a * power of folk/ * a power of beasts,* 
&c. ; and also the use of the word given by Jam., * an opportunity ;* ' Stown dinti are 
sweetest :' Ramsay's Sc. Proverbs ; where the meaning probably is a stroke of chance. 

Dinting, sb. A stitch in use among tailors. See imder Dented. 

Dither. Pr. of Didder. 

Di2zy, adj. Simple, half-witted or deficient. 

A. S. (/ysf , dyug^ dyig^ foolish, weak, ignorant. Bosw. quotes Low. O. dusig, and Dnt. 
duUtlig. The Scand. tongues do not seem to have any corresponding word. Hall, gives 
* dizzardly, foolish, stupid ;' and Leeds Ol. gives dizzy as a noun : * What a dizzy (t e. 
simpleton) he is.' 

Docken, dock'ns, sb. The common dock, or dock-sorrel, genus 
Rumex : particularly the species R, ohtusifolius, 

A. S. docce ; Pr, Pm. Dokkewedt, See Sonr-dookens, Bur-dooken. 

Do-dance, sb. i. A roundabout way to a place, or to the accom- 
plishment of a purpose. 2. A fool's errand or bootless mission. 

Cf. Haldorsen's dansar, mocking rhymes ; S. G. darU^ mockery, making a fool of a person. 

* ** They led me a bonny da-dance about it ;" gave me a great deal of unnecessary or 
roundabout work in the matter.' Wb. Gl. 

Dodded, adj. Without horns. Wh, GL gives it as applied to sheep 
with short horns. 

Pr. Pm. * Doddyd^ withowtyn homys ; doddyd, as trees. Decomahis, mutUus* The 
same authority gives also the vb. doddyn^ to lop, cut short, which, of course, is the source 
of our doddedr Hall, quotes dod^ to lop or cut as a tree ; and also, to cut or clip wool 
from, or near, the tail of a sheep ; the name for the locks so cut being doddings. The 
word is also applied to a person who has had his hair cut very short ; whencx doity^pols, 
Toumel. Myst. p. 145, applied in reference to the tonsured priests of pre-reformation times, 
Comp. * Xe schulen beon i-dodded four si'Sen itSe ^ere, uorte lihten ower heaued ;' you shall 
be dodded — i. e. have your hair cut — four times a year for to disburden your head. Ancr. 
RiwUt P* 422. See, also, doddunge^ hair-cutting, lb. p. 14. 

Dodder, v. n. (pr. dother). To be tremulous; to tremble or quiver, 
with age, or with cold, or fear. 

O. N., Sw. D. datta ; Sw. darra. See Didder. 

* Puir au'd carl I He dotbers mair an' mair.' 


Doddenuns, sb. (pr. dothrums). Tremulousness, trembling; im- 
plying both condition and accession. 

* Ah thinks he 's allays i* t' dotbrums, noo/ 

* He tuik a fit o' t' dotbrunu, afore Ah 'd fairlings getten him teU*d.' 

DoflT, V. a. To take or strip off clothes or wrappings. 

In the following passages the origin of doff is sufficiently evident : — 

• All my bloody e armour of me was done* Percy's Fciio MS, i. 362. 

• When J»ou comest byfore a lorde 
Yn halle, yn bowre, or at ^ borde, 
Hod or cappe ^at )>ou o/do 

Xer )>ou come hym allynge to.' lb, note i. p. 189. 

* Doff the duds, Marget.' Wb. GL 

* Doff t' bairn's wet cooats, wilt 'ee.' 

Dog, V. a. To set a dog after sheep for the purpose of driving them 
off when straying where they have no right to be ; to drive them off by 
such means. 

Doggers, sb. The globular concretions or nodules met with in 
certain geological formations, usually containing each a fossil, and which 
are applied to the manufacture of Roman cement. See Scar-doggers. 

Comp. Haldorsen's doggr^ a projecting object of conical form, which may perhaps be 

Dog-jumps, sb. The fruit of the wild rose, or common dog-rose 
{Rosa canina^ and other varieties). ' Dog-hip' in Scotland. 

Marshall gives * Choops ; heps, the fruit of the rose ;' and Hall, the forms eboup^ sboup' 
Note also our Oattijugs. I look upon jump^ jug^ cboop or eboup, and sboup, as merely 
varying forms of the same word, and dependent on Sw. bjupon, N. IjupOt bjupa, A.S. 

Dog-whipper, sb. A parish official, whose duties consisted in ex- 
pelling any dog or dogs which might intrude into the church during the 
performance of any service. 

The office was usually joined with that of sexton and pew-opener, Sec. ; for one person 
discharged many offices in our remote and primitive-mannered moorland churches. The 
short, stout dog-whip was a reguUr part of the Dog-whipper's equipment ; indeed, a 
quasi badge of office ; and his duties, where the land is subdivided into a very great number 
of small freeholds or farms, and where each farmer has a Sheep-stray on the moors, and 
consequently keeps one sheepdog at least, often more, who are used to follow their masters 
on all occasions and into all societies, was really not a sinecure. In Danby Church the office 
has existed down to the year 1862, and had become almost hereditary in one family, having 
been held by Richardsons, father and son, through three successions. Written dog-noper 
by Hall., and dog-nauper in Leeds Ol.t both corruptions of Dog-knapper, 

Doit, sb. A jot, an atom, a fraction. 

* Ah deean't care a doit aboot 't.' 

Comp. Dan. doit ; * Jeg hryder mig ikke en doit derom :' exactly equivalent to our example. 



Dole, sb. (pr. dooal). A distribution of money or food, at a Burial, 
to the poor. See Arval, Bid. Sometimes applied in reference to the 
entire preparation of food, Ac, which is partaken of by — ^in a sense, 
therefore, distributed among— the assembled throng. In Le^ds GI. it is 
quoted as applying to the distribution of bread among certain poor per- 
sons in church after morning service. By Brockett it is limited to 
' Alms bestowed at funerals.' 

O.N. deila; O. Sw. dela; A. S. dalan^ to divide, apportion. The custom of giring 
Pooals at the funerals of persons of substance is only just extinct (if quite so) in the 
Clevel. Dales. The origin is doubtless connected with the old Scandinavian practice of pre- 
senting all (or most) of the guests at an Arval with suitable gifts. Thus when the cde- 
brated Arval in honour of Hialti was held, not only are we told of his sons, * peir bmdo 
ollom bofdingiom^ oc vdro ]>iir tolf hundrut bodsmen ;* but aLo, * oe vdro tdUr mnSnga 
menn nud geb/um hrott leidder ;* all the principal men were let go with presents. 

The following extract from Toumel. Myst. p. 30, Noah's wife being the speaker, gires 
a hint as to the object of the dole, at least in Roman Catholic times : — 

• Lord, I were at ese and hcrtely fulle hoylle, 
Might I onys have a measse of wedows coy He; 
For thi sauUe, without lese, shuld I dele penny doylle* 

DoUop, sb. I. An awkward or clumsy-looking portion of anything, 
as of bread or meat. 2. A quantity or nmnber of individuals forming 
a shapeless whole. 

Comp. Haldorsen's dolpr^ a shapelessly fat brute; Isl. dolpungr^ a round, fat baby or 
puppy ; though it may be, perhaps, open to question if the words be connected. 

1 . * Weel ! thee 's getten a fairish dollops thee has. It *s a wem-fii' fur tweea as big 
as thou.' 

2. • Yon troot *s biggest o* t' dcUop by owght.* 

Dolly, dolly-tub. sb. A washing-tub in the form of a barrel, fitted 
up with an interior cross-headed shaft, terminating at its lower end in an 
object which is not imlike a small four- or six-legged wooden foot-stool. 
Used for washing blankets and other large and heavy articles, the shaft 
(see DoUy-Btick) having a kind of semi-rotatory motion communicated 
to it by means of the cross-bar at the top. 

DoUy-Btick, sb. The shaft or interior instrument of the Dolly-tub. 
Don, adj. Clever, dexterous, apt. 

O. Dan. dannes folk^ dannes nuBn, or dannenuxn, is a word or title implying some kind of 
distinction in the persons to whom it is applied. The prefix also occun separately. Thus 
we have O. Sw. * en bofwelig riddare ok vcd dann ;* a noble knight and a finished ; as well as 
a Sw. D. word dann, Comp. Old D. and Dan. dannes ; Dan. and N. Dial. cEoii ; side by 
side with which may be placed the cognate words of Germ, origin — O. Germ, than, tbon ; 
A. S. ge^on ; Germ, getban^ &c. 

* Ay, he 's a don hand, yon chap ; he 's welly oop tiv owght.* 

Don, V. a. To put on any portion or the whole of one's clothing. 
See Doff. 

* Don thy bonnet.' ' Don tha' cUes : sharp, lad f * 


Donk, adj. Damp, charged with moisture. 

Identical with E. dank, Comp. Sw. D. diinka; Dan. D. denke, dynke; Gttm dunken, 
to make damp, cause to be moist. See Wedgw. under Dankf for the connection between 
closeness and dampness implied in this word. 

' As donk as a dungeon.' Wb. Gl, 

Donnot, donnet, sb. i . A thoroughly worthless person ; a Gk>od- 
for-nowght. 2. A designation for Satan ; probably as the chief Gtood- 

• Dotuui is derived by Brock, from do-naugbt* says Ferg. ; • but in Cumberland donnei 
also means the devil, and do-naugbt would be a very inappropriate title for the ever-busy 
author of evil. It is evidently dow-not, not good ; corresponding to *• evil-one.** ' But 
naught means bad^ ivil^ as well as notbing ; and thus the objection to Brockett's derivation 
falls to the ground. However, the origin of the word is due to the verb duga^ as Ferg. 
suggests, with a privative suffix — cf. Dan. dmgenigt, a good-for-nothing fellow; Germ. 
taugeniebts ; to that, as dugtig means able, eminent, excellent, Donnot means the exact 
converse, good-for-nought, and eminently such. Comp. Ihre in w. Dugan^ Danneman, 
and note the phrase, • That o* t* donnot,' that which belongs to the devil, human or other. 

• *• That 0* /* donnot'i never i' ditnger ;" what belongs to the devil " is not in trouble as 
other men.** ' Wb, GL 

• That au'd donnot,* or. * T' au'd donnot;* Satan himself. 

Boor-oheek, sb. (pr. deear-cheek). Either of the side-posts of a 

Door-ganging, sb. The doorway; the means or space of passing 
in or out afforded by the door. 

Door-sill, sb. The threshold of a door. 

Door-stead, sb. The site or place of the door itself, or doorway, as 
opposed to the space or means of passage in and out. See Stead. 

Door-stone, sb. (pr. deear-stan, deear-steean). The flag-stone, usually 
a single one of some size, placed at the going-in of a door. In the 
plural the word denotes the flags or pavement along the entire house- 

Door, To get to the. To be able to get out or into the open air : 
of an invalid recovering from his illness. 

Doory, adj. (pr. deeary). Diminutive, puny. 

I look on deeary as being to doory what Deear is to door, Soheeal to scbool. Sec, 
Dooiy may perhaps be due to the same origin as the Scot, dearcb, dereb, droicb. See Jam. 
Hald. gives drdg, homundo, which may mean cither a manikin or a scamp : probably it 
means both, as Jam. quotes Gudm. Andr. as explaining it by minutissimum quid et Jugiti- 
vum. In this case, without need of resort to O. N. dvergr, Sw. dvdrg, A. S. dwerg, 
dwtorb, by the common transposition of r and its precedng vowel, we should have a 
word closely resembling our doory in form and sound, and exactly coincident in signifi- 
cation. Cf., however, Isl. durgr (derived from O. N. dvergr), a puny wretch. 

' A lahtle deeary bairn ;' a weakly or puny child. 

' A lahtle deeary bit ;' a very small piece or shred. 

U 2 


Dordum, diirdum, sb. Uproar and confusion ; tumultuous or riot- 
ous proceedings. Also spelt dirdum, dirdam, d^rduiiL 

* I take this word/ uys Ferguson, * to be from O. N. dyra-ddmr, thus explained bj 
Mallet : ** In the early part of the Icelandic Commonwealth, when a man was suspected of 
theft, a kind of tribunal, composed of twelve persons named by him and twelve by the 
person whose goods had been stolen, was instituted before the door of his dwelling, and 
hence called a door-doom ; but as this manner of proceeding generally ended in bloodshed, 
it was abolished." Hence the word might become synonjmious with the tumult and uproar 
which, it appears, generally characterized these proceedings.' Still, note N. dur, an uproar, 
with the corresponding vb. dura. 

* The street 's a' iv a dttrdum* 

Dorze, v. n. (pr. dozz, duzz). Of grains of com ; to fall from the 
ear from over-ripeness, whether by the shaking of the reapers, or under 
the influence of wind. 

Sw. D. drosa^ dr^tsa^ drosOf dr&ssa ; * Komd var sd &gjodt d& vd sidr, att d drossi hodt 
I nd rua markd :* the com was so ripe when we shore it, that it dorztd out on the land. 
Dan. D. drase^ drdse ; * Komet drds^de of negene :* the com dorzed out of the sheaves. 
Comp. Dan. drysse; N. drysia; A. S. dreosan. Another instmctive instance of the trans- 
position of r and its succeeding vowel under dialectic changes. 

Dossel, sb. I. A bunch of ears of wheat, selected for their size, and 
with their straw aliped (stripped of the exterior sheath), applied as an 
ornament or finial at the apex of the completed Corn-pike. 2. A 
homely kind of doll made of a quantity of rags tied up together. 

Pr. Pm. * DoUlU, stoppynge of a vesselle : dossell. Ducillus^ ducfildus ;* probably • a 
cormption of ductulus, which in the Lat.-Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. is rendered ** dosselle," 
from the Fr. dosU^ doucilj or, according to Cotgr., doisU.* lb. note. Hall, gives dossd, 

* a wisp of hay or straw to stop up an aperture in a bam.' This supplies the connecting 
link between the meaning of our word and that given in Pr. Pm. Wedgw. looks upon 

* a bunch of something thmst in to stop an orifice ' as * the fundamental idea.' 

Dosted, pcpl. Dimmed, having lost its gloss or polish; dirtied; 
depreciated in appearance. 

This is, perhaps, a cormpt pcpl. of the verb derse, given in Hall, as implying to dirty, to 
spread dung^ 8cc. The Clevel. pronunciation of dersted would exactly give dosted: other- 
wise there seems to be no clue to the origin of the word. 

Dotterill, sb. A silly old man ; a doating old fellow ; a dotard. 

Pr. Pm. * Dotrelle, idem quod Dotarde.' From the same root, probably, as the Scotch 
doited, doted t doittrie, dottar, &c. ; Beig, doten, to be of enfeebled intellect ; Dan. D. dotU, 
stupid, doting ; which are, in their tum, traceable to O. N. doda^ dodna, 8cc. Grimm, 
however, D. M. pp. 987, 988. suggests another connection : • A. S. ist dyderian, hedyderian^ 
illudere, incantare ; womit vielleicht das H. D. tattem, dottem (angi, delirare) zusammenhangt.' 
Comp. * dusie men t adotede* Ancr. Riwle, p. 222. 

Doubt, V. a. To entertain an apprehensive conviction ; to believe, 
when believing is accompanied ^vith pain ; to fear apprehensively. 

* " If your father does not leave off drinking, he 'U kill himself.** ** Ah doo*ts it, Ah's 

secar." ' 


Comp. * ** Beshrew his hart," says Litle John, 

•• that bryer or thome does doubi.** * Percy's Folio MS. i. 48. 

' For he will come this iike night 
8c into the Forrest slippe anon 
for to waite thee for to sloen ; 
but herof haue thou noe dowbt,* lb. 484. 

Doubtftil, adj. i. Entertaining an apprehension, or unpleasant con- 
viction. 2. Implying the same. 

I. • " It will rain before night, Peter." " Ah *$ dooU/ul it will.** * 

a. • " Hell certainly be convicted, and hung," •• It 's doo'tjul, for seear." * 

Douoe, adj. Decent, sober, well-conducted, neat. 

* Fr. doux, douctt mild, gentle, quiet, tractable ; from Latin dtdcis* Jam. 

Douk, V. a. and n. i. To depress one's head, or the upper part of 
one's person; to bow down. 2. To dive or plunge under water, as 
a water-fowl does. 3. To bathe or wash in the water. 

Comp. O. Sw. duha^ to press or put down ; Sw. duha under^ to yield, to submit ; Sw. 
^ha, Dan. duhhe^ to dive, duck under water. The succession of ideas is plain enough. 

Doup, sb. I. The buttocks or posteriors. 2. A heavy, indolent 

0. N. ddf^ the hinder parts of an animal, from the common interchange of p and /, is 
naturally suggested as the direct origin of this word. It is, however, at least open to ques- 
tion whether dbf itself, as well as our Doup, be not referrible to the same source as Sw. 
doppa, N. dyppQy duppa, Sw. D. duppa^ dolpa, A. S. dyppan, to dip, to plunge into a depth ; 
O. N. djupr^ deep ; O. N. dypty dypi^ N. dypt, dyft^ &c., A. S. ditop^ depth, profundity, the 
deep. The English word for the specified part of the human body involves precisely the 
same idea, and it is easy to note by what transition. By a like transition again, among 
those who use very familiar or coarse and vulgar terms, a lazy, heavily- or reluctantly- 
moving person (and especially if somewhat * Dutch-built,* or * heavy behind,') is apt to be 
saluted l>y some appellation expressive of that peculiarity. Of Doup, thus applied, it is 
enough to say, that it is a great deal less vulgar than most of its synonyms. The word 
dolpr^ Hald., an unwieldy or grossly fat beast, may suggest a derivation for the word in its 
second signification, if the above is not regarded as satisfactory. 

* Loo* thee I there's a gret fat doup !* 

Doup, dowp, sb. The carrion crow (Corvus cor one). 

Dour, adj. i. As applied to the aspect; sullen, gloomy, sour-look- 
ing. 2. To the temper; stern, morose, repellent. 

Jam. gives Lat. durus. O. N. dor, with a nearly coincident sound, and with a signifi- 
cation partly coincident, and partly correlative, may perhaps be as near the mark. 

1. * He looked as dour as a thunner-cloud.' Wh. Ol. 

2. * He 's nobbut a dour *n t' dee wiv ; baith stifi^ an* hard ;' inflexible and without 

Douse, sb. A blow, as with the fist. 

* Gie him a douse in *s chops.' 


Doiiae, dowse, v. a. i. To drench or saturate with water, whether 
by plunging into the water, or throwing a quantity over a person or 
thing. 2. To strike ; thence to strike out, as a light ; to strike o£f or 
down, as feathers or finery from a girl's bonnet or dress. 

It is possible that dome may be nearly alHed to dtub. The Sw. Dial, daska, with the 
same significations (except that, in connection with water, it is applied to soft or gentle 
and intermitting rain-showers), with its cognate words disa^ duska, dmsk, is referred to 
Sansc. ddt. Dual, a drizzling rain, dbuin^ to drizzle, are wwds used in the Tyrol. The 
connection with dasb would supply the rationale of the second meaning. But see 

I. * ** Thou 's getten sair doused, M^lly. Wheeah, thou 's 'a' bin thruff t' bcdc. Ah by." ' 

3. * She 's dou$0d o* her feathers.' Wb. GL 

Dousing, sb. i. A drenching. 2. A blow, a beating or thrashing. 

1. * ** A good doueing;** a thorough soaking.' Wh. GL 

2. * Ah 'U gie thee a dousing, ef thee dizn't heed.' 

Dout, V. a. To put out, to extinguish ; to do out. 

Wedgw. suggests a doubt of do out being the origin of this word. His remarks certainly 
deserre attention, but are, perhaps, scarcely conclusive. 

Dout, sb. An extinguisher, wherewith to put out — ' do out' — a candle. 
Wh. GL 

Dove, V. n. To dose, to be heavy and sleepy. 

O. Sw. dofwa, to have one's senses dulled or stupefied. Comp. O. N. dofi^ torpidity, 
involuntary indolence, &c. ; Sw. duva, id. ; Sw. D. duuen, d&vm ; Dan. dovtn ; also 
Sanscr. div, to be sleepy. 

• *• You've been asleep, Joseph." " Naa, nobbut dodvin* a bit." * 

Doving-drink, sb. A sleeping draught. 

Sw. dof-dryck, Dan. daw-drik, an anodyne draught. Comp. dowf in Jamieson. 

Dow, V. n. I. To thrive, prosper, be successful; of either persons or 
things. 2. To mend, improve, become better, in respect of health, 
growth, circumstances. 

0. N. duga, to be strong, to be strong enough, or able ; O. Sw. duga, doga, to be good* 
or fit for ; A. S. dugan, to profit, avail, be good for; Fris. duga. Comp , especially, Dan- 
due, S. Jutl. doge, in which two words not only does the pronunciation approximate very 
closely to ours, but the sense also ; a remark that is likewise true of O. N. dafna. The 
Scottish use of the word, which we do not appear to have preserved in Clevel., if in N. 
England at all, and which is strictly consonant with the simple meaning of these old verbs, 
is well illustrated in this sentence from the Black Dwarf: — * Nae single man can keep 
a tower against twenty. A' the men o' the Meams dowm do mair than they dow* But 
the transition of idea from this sense to that involved in our word is so simple and neces- 
sary — like that in valeo, from / am strong or able, to 7 am well in health or body, and in 
our words strong, weak, silly, — that there is no need to seek different derivations, as 
Jam. does, for dow, to be able, and dow in our sense. 

1. • " He dows bravely;" thrives or prospers exceedingly well.* Wb. Gl, 

* ** March grows, never dows ;** applied to blossom shewing itself too early, or to any pre- 
mature spurt of vegetation.' lb. 


' He'll never dow, t^g nor bird.' 

2. • •* He nowther dees, nor dows ;" neither dies nor gets any better.* 

Comp. North, Gospel fomi in — * Hu<Et foriSon deg dhUgum nun, gif be all ntiddanggard 
gestrionct* 8cc. : what shall it therefore profit a man, if he gain, &c,, Matt. xvi. a6, with 
• Soc mote I tbo,* Percy's Folio MS. i. 97, and 

' Come thou onys in my honde, 
Shaltin thou never the.* Coke's TaU of GamelyH, p. 40. 

* Evil mote I ibe,* lb, p. 40, &c. 

Dowled, dulled, adj. Dead, flat, vapid ; of liquor which has grown 
flat by exposure to the atmosphere. 

I refer this word to dall or daul. The succession of ideas is from weariness or dis- 
tftste to want of spirit or buoyancy, in the person ; and thence easily to want of savour or 
sharpness in the liquid. Cf. the O. N. idioms do/had bl, do/had i/i», vapid or stale ale and 
wine, with their precisely analagous Dan. equivalents, dovent 0I, dovin vin^ and the various 
applications of deaf in our and the Scand. dialects. 

Dowly, adj. i. Of persons; poorly, heavy with sorrow or anxiety, 
low or depressed in spirit. 2. Of things ; lonely, melancholy, wearying 
or harassing. 3. Of the weather ; dull, gloomy, depressing. 

0. N. ddlegr, hapless, wretched ; dauflegr, low-spirited ; S. G. ddleg, Ihre quotes dauf- 
ligr as cognate with this ; Sw. ddlig, Sw. D. ddllig, dollig, dolig (the g silent in all three), 
Dan. daarlig. 

1. * Ah 's doo'tfu* its nobbut a puir dowly bairn : its nowght like dowin'.' 

' She 's varry dowly, Str. She 've niwer mended sen she getten her bed ;' lay in, was 

• " He 's as dowly as decath ;" so ill, and looks it.' Wb, Gl, 

a. * ** It 's a desput dowly, deeafly spot t' won in ;" it is a very lonely, out-of-the-world 
pbce to live in.* 

Cf. Daufligt fnkir bonum \>ar : he thinks it very dowly there ; of a man in hiding in a 
lonely cave. Flatey, i. 136. See also p. 384. 

* Wiv her man off on 't, an' tweea bairns down wi' t' throat-sickness, an' on'y a silly body 
hersel', she 's had a dowly time on 't.' 

' Its dowly deed carryin' on wi' sikan a lot o' feckless folk.* 

* Ay, it's bin a dowly day, this yan : but we've wan thruff it wi' t' Loord's help/ 

3. * Its nobbut dowly weather: it owther rawks or rains ilka deea.' 

' On'y a dowly seed-time. T' land 's sae doom' t' seead weean't hap.' 

Comp. * Now es the wedir bright and sh3mand. 

And now waxes it all douiland* Pr, ofConse. 144a. 

This is the reading of the CoU. MS,; MS. Harl. reads domland; and MS. Lands, gives 
the word droubelinde. With our use of the word dowly (cf. Dan. ddrligt veir, bad 
weather) there can be little doubt of the correctness of the reading douilland, although 
the question is suggested, is douilland a pcpl., and if so, what is the verb ? 

Down, V. a. To fell, as a tree ; to knock down, as a man, or an 
animal ; to level or pull down, as a wall or building. 

Down-come, down-ooming, sb. A fall in respect of condition or 

' She 's had a sair down-come, she hev. Yance she war ower-mich set cop t' mak' hei 
ain meat : she *11 mebbe be matched t' come by 't noo.' 


Comp. * ** Thou maun do without horse-sheet and surcingle now, lad," he said ; ** yoo 
and me hae had a doum-conu alike." * Black Dwarf. 

Down-oomer, sb. The pipe (of iron or other material) which re- 
ceives the collected eaves-drainage, and conveys it down the side of the 
house to the ground. 

Down-dinner, sb. An afternoon meal, intermediate (as usually 
understood) between dinner and tea, but in which the beverage tea 
forms an important constituent. 

It is scarcely possible to doubt that this is simply a corruption of the word still current in 
N. W. England in the form aandom, omdom, omdooms, undem, 8cc, Professor Wor- 
saae unhesitatingly claims this word as coincident with the S. Jutl. onden, mid-day meal, or, 
as it is written by Kok, undent. By the latter it is defined as nUddagt-nuuUtid^ mid-day 
meal-time, dinner-time, and derived directly from O. N. undom. In a passage from the 
Vbluspd four divisions of the day are named : * morgin, mitijan-dag, undom cik aptam ;* 
morning, mid-day, undom and evening. In strict accordance with this the Finland ondScii, 
and Sw. D. undum, undun, imply a meal taken in mid-afternoon, mid- aJUnsmad. In the 
Kacr district (S. Jutl.), where undent is the mid-day meal, or dinner, for-umUm and efiet' 
undern express respectively the meals intermediate between breakfast and dinner, and dinner 
and supper. But what is much to the purpose, in considering the derivation of ontdom, or 
our Down-dinner, as a corruption of it, is this, — that O. N. undant is coincident with 
undent^ but with a special application to drinking. Egilss. Now the usual equivalent for 
Down-dinner at present current in some parts of the Dales is Drinking or Drinldng- 
time. Hall, gives * Drinking, a collation between dinner and supper ;* and adds, *that the term 
is now applied to a refreshment betwixt meals taken by farm-labourers ;' while dmmdrins 
is 'afternoon drinkings* in Derbyshire, and eamder is 'forenoon drinking* according to 
Thoresby, and * afternoon' according to Grose. The Leeds Gl. also gives • drinking' in both 
these applications. In collating these words it is scarcely possible to escape noticing the 
connection which exists between the term omdem^ aandont^ undent, and the idea of drink' 
ing, or drinking-time ; and thus one is almost led to assume that the Dales term for the 
mid-afternoon meal — Drinking or Drinkings — can be nothing else virtually than a 
translation of the O. N. andam. The form of the word Down-dinner is probably due 
to a confusion or misconception about the word of which its prefix is a remnant, coiq>led 
with the conception that the repast meant is in a sense subsidiary, or, at least, in soccession, 
to dinner. I have somewhere seen a hint thrown out that the first syllable of aandtim 
may be due to Dan. anden, second, the next. This, of course, is out of the question. 
Jam. gives a long discussion about the word, which is well worth consideration. In 
Chaucer, undent, undren, imply a certain hour of the day ; early in the mofning at pp. 
98, 171 ; and possibly a later hour at p. 104. 

Down-gang, sb. A path, or any similar means of descent from a 
height, such as the cliffs above the sea, or a very precipitous moor-bank. 

Down-ligging, sb. A lying-in or confinement. See Idg, Qet 
one's bed, Sickening. 

Down-ligging-time, sb. i. Down-lying-time, bed-time. 2. The 
time of lying-in or child-birth. 

Down-pour, sb. A very heavy fall of rain, the drops both large and 
very thick. Comp. -droppy and dogging. 


Dossen'd, dosen'd, dosand, adj. Of persons ; wrinkled or withered, 
shrunk, effete, feeble in mind and body, shewing the effects of age. Of 
things; (apples or other fruits, &c.) having lost all firmness and round- 
ness, withered, wrinkled. See Bwizzen'd. 

No doubt identical, radically, with dazed or daaed. Comp. D. Dial, dose, to be 
heayy, listless ; dose, to be numb in sense and faculty ; Dan. d0se (pcpl. dmsende\ to be 
drowsy, heavy or dull with sleep ; S. G. d&si, &c. Hall, and Jam. give the vb. dozen, to 
shunbcr : our word is probably only the pres. pcpl. of this vb., and a kind of inversion of 
sense or idea has come to pass with it In Essex and other parts of S. England a pear 
or other like fruit, which has entered upon the first stage of decay and has become 
spongy and tasteless, is said to be slee^, just as in Denmark ale or wine that has 
become vapid is termed dovtn or dovntuuU, So with our word there is an analogous 
txmnsttion of sense, but in such a way as to convey rather the physical than the psychical 
consequences of age. 

DoBsiL Pr. of DroBsel or Drasil. 

Braff, sb. i. Dregs, refuse, especially brewers' refuse, or grains. 
2. Mere rubbish or dirt. 

0. N., O. Sw. draf. Ihre conceives the primary sense to be dregs, lees of wine or beer. 
The secondary sense in the Northern tongues, as in our dialect, seems to have found its 
peculiar application in denoting what was intended to be food for swine, and specially what 
we understand by the word grains. Comp. Sw. D. drav, a mixture made with meal for 
swine or fowls; N. drav, grains. Comp. also A. S. drabhe, dregs, lees; Germ, trdber, 
husks, grains, refuse. Again a derivative meaning, and we have the sense of mere rubbish ; 
* the onscouring of all things.' 

1. • Looks t' ec I thoo gi'e t' best o* t* draff te thae tweea gilts. Deeant 'ee mak* spare 

• Ah *s gannan t* brewer's wi' t' draught, fur a lecad o* draff, an' Ah '11 fetch t' toom barr'ls 

3. * She's nobbut a mean *un. She 's bad as dreff;* utterly worthless. 

Drape, adj. (pr. dree&p). i. Not in milk, or dry. 2. Not with young 
at the usual or proper time ; of cows and ewes : often used in application 
to the former as a noun. 

Brock, gives Sax. drepen, to fail, with the comment * having failed to give milk/ as illus- 
trative of the origin of this word, and adds, ' drape sheep, oves rejiculoi, credo ab A. S. 
dretpe, expulsio ; draped, abactus : Skinner.' It seems to me that this is rather putting 
effect in the place of cause. The probability appears to be that drape, and drepe, to 
speak slowly, and with effort — as if the matter to be spoken came forward very falteringly 
and slowly — are from the same source, and that probably the S. G. drypa, to pour in by 
drops, O. N. driupa, A. S. driopan, drypan, Dan. draahe, supply that source. Comp. 
E. drip, to come in very small quantities ; and the word dropmele, by driblets, or portions, 
coming in drops. The idea thus suggested tallies exactly with the marks of a drape cow. 
The milk comes in less and less quantities, until at last there is *such a drop' only, that it 
is not worth while to continue to milk her ; and strictly expressive of this condition is the 
word drape. It was then natural enough that the word should be applied to express the 
condition of an animal, which in farmer's phrase was * nowther in milk nor in calf,' or quite 
unproductive at the proper time. 

• An* nivver a dreeap amang 'em a*.' Cleveland Song of Solomon^ iv. 3. 


Drasily drosBel, sb. (pr. dozz'l or duzz'l). A sluttish female. 

By metath. the word becomes dorsel^ and then, by the tendency of the dialect to ilur 
the r, dossei or dozzel, Comp. Sw. D. dr'dda^ drosU, a lazy, slovenly female ; droda, to 
be lazy and sluggish oyer one's work. Mr. Wedgw. collates Dan. D. draasd, a dull, inac- 
tive person, and suggests a possible connection with Isl. dr<Bgsl or dragsU, a slut. Rietz, 
however, quotes O. N. drbsla^ and N. S. drysdn^ drUselnt to be sluggish or lazy in moving. 
Comp. also Isl. drdg, a poor jade, and ditsiU-bross ; both, moreover, applicable to persons. 

• " A dizen'd daziiir a tawdry slut.* Wb. Ol. 

Drate, drite, v. n. To talk slowly or hesitatingly, to drawl ; to speak 
thickly and indistinctly. 

Hall, gives droot^ one who stutters, and drotyne^ to speak indistinctly, to stanuner ; both 
from Pr. Pm. The derivation of the word can hardly be doubtful. It is a derived o&hoot 
from the same root which produces the verbs, O. N., O. Sw. draga^ A. S. dragan^ 8cc, ; and 
though I do not meet with any derivatives expressive of slow or drawn-out speaking (except 
£. drawl)t yet there are so many implying slowness and halting in respect of this or that 
action, that it would have been strange indeed had not some of the family come to be 
applied as the present word is. I may instance O. N. drattr^ procrastination, deby ; Sw. D. 
drattt advance by short uncertain steps ; dratta^ with corresponding meaning, &c. Comp. 
drepe, with the succession of ideas which it illustrates. 

Draught, sb. A team of horses or oxen, together with that which 
they draw, whether cart, waggon, or plough. 

• T' surveyor wants a* t* draughts he can git t* moom, to fettle oop t* rooads about 
t* new brigg.' 

• Wiily Franks *s getten* t* Langlands Farm takken, an' he 's boun to have *s pleeafing- 
deca t' moom. He reckons he 'U have mair an tunty draughts on.' See Flouj^hing- 

Dream-holes, sb. The slits or loopholes in church-towers, stair- 
turrets, &c., to admit air and light. 

A. S. dream, i. joy, mirth, rejoicing: 2. what causes mirth; harmony, melody, song, in- 
struments of music. From these senses the usage in the early writers passes on to that of 
loud noise. In Hali Mud. p 21, * Ah al is meidenes song unlich |>eose wi'S engles imeane, 
dream ouer al |>e dreames in heuene,' the meaning is simply harmony, melody, song. 
In Ancr. Riwle^ p. 210, * \>t prude bee's his bemares, drawe'S wind inward of worldlich 
hereword, t eft, mid idel jelpe, puffeS hit utward, ase )>e bemare deS, uorte maiden noise, — 
lud dream to scheauwen here horel,' the sense is a loud noise, but still such as is made by 
an instrument, — a trumpet namely. In Lay. i. 43, — 

* ^a he mihte ihere : 
|>e bihalues were, 
muchel dom, muchel dune : 
muchel folkes dreamt — 

the word is simply clamour, confused noise of a multitude. And so again, iii. 220, in a 
spirited description of a battle and the dreadful din and tumult of it, this phrase occurs : — 

* drem wes on uoike : dream was among the folk ; 

)>a eorSe gon to dunien.' the earth began to din. 

The application of the word to the openings in church-towers, belfries, &c., is simple 


Dreariflome, adj. Dreary, dismal, lonely, wearying. 

* A lang drtarUome road.' Wb. Gl. 

Bree, adj. Tedious, long-continued, wearisome. 

See Jam. Teut. droigb, slow, lazy ; Goth, drig^ driugr, long" drawn out ; O. N. dragr, 
of • what can be drawn out ;' S. G. drdja, to be long over a thing. Comp. Sw. dryg-nUl, 
a long mile ; drygt arbete, a wearisome piece of work ; en dryg bok, a heavy book ; sc. to 
read ; Dan. dni^ long-continued ; en drmit arheide^ a tedious piece of work ; and S. Jutl. 
drmgt which has not only the signification of our dree but also almost the same sound. 

' Ah 's got t' leeas' this coom ; an* a desper't dree job it be : "biggest pairt on 't *s nobbut 
sleetn an' popple, or owght.' 

* '* A dree droppy rain ;" a rain that comes only a little at a time, but continues without 
its ever becoming quite fair.' Wb, Gl. 

* A desper't dree bit o' road, yon, for seear.' 

* •• A dry, dree preachment ;" a dull, uninteresting, tediously spun out discourse.* Wb. GL 

Dree, adj. Sad, doleful, cheerless. 

The sense of this word might seem to be a secondary meaning of the last : but with the 
old Northumbrian noun dre, sorrow, misery, suffering ; — 

* Yhit sal thai that dai dre hafe :' Pricke of Conscience, 5373 ; 
and the vb. dregbe, drigbe, to suffer, endure pain or sorrow, — 

* For thai sal haf a dai thare 
Als mykel bitter payn or mare, 

Als a man mught thole here of penaunce 
A yhere, and fele as mykel grevaunce ; 
And als mykel drigbe thar fourty days 
Als fourty yhere here ;' — 

both of which, as well as A. S. dreorig, probably depend on A. S. dreogan, to bear, suffer ; 
it springs from a totally different root. Comp. the phrase, dreab and aibclde : he dreed 
and tholed ; suffered and bore. Lye. 

* Ay ; it 's a dree life to live, when yan 's parted wiv a* yan's fnn's.' 

Dree, v. a. To deliver slowly, droningly, tediously. 

Originating probably in the adj. dree, rather than otherwise. 
' ** He dreed a lang drone ;" delivered a tedious dissertation.' Wb. Gl. 
(As far as I have been able to ascertain, the ordinary sense of dree, v. a., to endure, to 
bear, is not now recognised in Clevel.) 

Dree, v. n. To endure, to last. 

See Bree, tedious, and Drith ; noting the extract from the Townel, Myst. The vb. 
occurs several times in Gen. and Ex. in the forms drecben, dregen. 

* She *s dreed on sae lang, mebbe she '11 win thruff it now ;* said of a person who has had 
a long illness. 

Cf. * Ther was never a freake wone foot wolde fie, 

But still in stour dyd stand, 
Heaw)mg on yche othar, why 11 the myght dre 
With many a bal-ful brande.' Reliques Ancient Poetry, i. 13. 

Dreely, adv. Slowly, tediously. 

* He talks very dreely* 

X 2 


Dreosome, adj. Tedious, wearisome ; with nothing to gm ai^ pkt- 

sure, zest, or enjoyment. 

Drope, dreep, v. n. i. To drip or drop slowly and 
a. To talk slowly and haltingly, to drawL Brock, gives the fonn 
* draup.' 

0. N. driopa, O. Sw. drypa, to fall by drops, Ac. See Drape. 

1. * Oan thee, Itts, tnd hing't oot t* drtpt.* 

2. * Ay, puir tu'd chap, he gans dneptn* on, bud it*s rarrey dree discoons.' 

DroM, V. a. (pr. derse). i. To set in order, make neat and orderly. 
2. To apply any matter to the surface or outside of a thing, with a view 
to improving it in any way. 3. To soil or make dirty. 4. To beat, 
chastiHc, thrash. 

I. * T kirk't a' i' good fettle, an* Ah't derse oop kirk-garth, an' sike, back end o' t' 
wrf k :' in anticipation of a rural dean's yisit. 

* Wad ye like t' land amang thae berry-trees dersed ower a bit?' the soil among the 
gooseberry bushes lightly dug or stirred. 

i. * (let yon heap o' soot an' soil dersed ower the grassin', John.' 

Drink -draught, sb. . A brewer's dray or waggon, with the horses 
drawing it. IVh, GL 

Drlnk-drtvcr, sb. The driver of a brewer's waggon. 

Drinking-timo, sb. The time of the afternoon refreshment See 

Drite. See Drate. 

Drite-poke, sb. A drawler; one who speaks indistinctly or hesi- 

1 only notice this word further, in order to observe that it presupposes a noun, dSrior, 
slow, or drawling discourse, which noun does not remain in any Glossary, as far as I am 

Drith, sb. (pr. dreet). Endurance, lastingness, substantiality. 

A curious and expressive word, which I have seen printed nowhere save in Wb. GL It 
is a derivative from the old vb. </r«, to continue, to abide, to remain in being, from A. S. 
dreogan. The vb. is also given by Ray — dree^ perdurare. See Dree, v. n. 

' Lovyd he my Lord in will and thoght. 
That his servant forgettcs noght. 

When that he seys tymc ; 
Welle is me that I shalle dre 
Tylle I have sene hym with myn ce 

And no longer h3rne.' Townel. Afyat. p. 156. 

The sense of dre in this passage, which is part of the expression of the aged Simeon's 


feelings on being told by an angel of the infant Christ's coming to the Temple, is exactly 
coincident with that of our word in the example giyen below. 

* Ill-gotten gear carries nae driib iv it/ Wb. Gl. 

Cf. ' I trust your grace will doe mepoe deare 

for spending my owne trno gotten g«€r§* 

Percy's Folio MS, i. p. 509. 

Droke, sb. Wild oats, or so-called darnel. 

The name, like so many other local names of plants, is applied loosely or indefinitely. 
Dr. Prior gives ' Bromus sterilis, Avena fatua,* 8cc,, as among the plants intended to be 
designated; Pr.Pm. * Drawke, wede. Drauea;* CcUb. Ang, 'Drake or damylle.' Ac- 
cording to Forby, drawht or drake in Norfolk and Suffolk is the common darnel grass, 
Lotium perenne; according to Oerarde it is Bromus sterilis, Comp. Dut. dravig, Welsh 
drewg, Br. draoh, darnel, cockle, &c. 

Drop, V. a. i. To knock down, to fell with a blow. 2. To shoot 
a bird, on the wing or otherwise, so that it falls immediately. 

Probably a direct bequest from S. O. drcepe^ to kill ; drdp, death-stroke ; drypa^ to smite ; 
and allied words. Bosw. refers drepe^ a slaying, a violent death, as occurring in A. S. 
writers, to the O. N. 

Drop-dry, adj. Of vessels, &c. ; water-tight, not admitting the 
passage of so much as a drop of water. 

Droppy, adj. Wet, rainy ; a weather term, used when the rain-drops 
are of full size, and fall freely. See Deg and Down-pour. 

Hald. gives pluere as one of the significations of driiipa (perf. befi dropid) : driupr salr, 
the droppy canopy, is an epithet for the sky ; and drupd, in Sw. Dial., means * to rain.' 

* ** A vast o' rain fa'n lately. Tommy." ** Ay ; its bin a desper't droppy tahm sen 
Mart'nmas." ' 

Droppyish, adj. A diminutive of Droppy. 

Drought, sb. (pr. drowt). Dryness ; usually, not to say always, with 
an intensive sense ; continued very dry weather. See Drouth. 

Pr. Pm. * Drowt*^ siccitas,* Rich., following Tooke's leading, sajrs this word ic drouib 
or dry'tb really, from A.S. drygan, drugan^ and ought to be spelt — and he himself spells 
it accordingly — drougtb. The A. S. word is undoubtedly drugafSe or droga^ ; but it is 
idle to assume thence a law for the orthography, and, still more, for the sound of English 
words. It would almost seem as if drougbt or droutb were originally rather two different 
words, than two different forms of the same word ; the one having a distinct passive sense 
(so to speak) — that which is already made dry ; the other, droutbf an almost active sense — 
tiiat which makes dry. And it is noticeable that Rich, writes, * drougbt is that which 
drieth, the 3rd p. s. &c.,' adding, the moment after, *Wallis sajrs, dry, siccus; dmwtb, 
drougbtb, dry'tb, siccitas ;' but siccitas is that which is already made dry. It is also worthy 
of note, that in both the passages from Chaucer adduced by Rich, the word is drougbt, and 
has distinctly the passive meaning : 

* When that April with his shoures sote 
The drougbte of March hath perced to the rote ;' 


where dnmghtt is certainly not an agent, but what is acted on. Comp. the foliowiog 
extract from Spenser : — 

* Let streaming floods their hasty courses stay 
And parching drouth dry up thie crystal! wdls ;* 

where drouib is as clearly the agent. And the same remark applies, with more or lea 
exactness, to nearly every instance of usage given ; while, in respect of the eleven instances 
of the word occurring in the English Bible, eight of them bear the passive sense. See also 
the instance in Jam., in v. Drouth. I may add, that dry occurs iu the Toumti. Myst, in 
the sense of drought, 

Droughted, To be, v. p. To be troubled or oppressed with thirst 

Droughty, adj. (pr. drowty). Very dry indeed; used as a weather 
term, and especisdly as descriptive of long-continued very dry or parch- 
ing weather. 

Drouk, V. a. To drench, soak, saturate with water. 

O. N. drekkja, O. Sw. draenka, Sw. drdnka, Dan. drukne, to immerse, to drown ; O. Sw. 
drunkna, O. N. drukkna, Sw. D. drukhan, drdkkja, S. Jutl. dr<Bhte, to be phinged into 
water, &c. 

' I'm doubtful yon lime 's aboot wasted. It 's sair drouk't wiv all this wet.' 

Drouth, sb. Thirst, dryness in that sense. See Drought. 
Drouthy, adj. Thirsty, more than usually so. 

* Weel, Ah's desper't drootby, Ah's seear. 'Seems t' me there's nae sleek i' t' watter ;* it 
seems as if water had no power to quench thirst. 

Drucken, adj. Drunk, drunken. 

O. N., O. Sw., Sw. D., S. Jutl. drukken, &c. 

Dubler, dubbler, sb. A deep earthenware dish of some magnitude. 

Dr. Rietz, under Dular'd^ quotes Welsh dwblir, and compares O. N. daUr, I do not, 
however, find dwbler in Pughe's Welsh Dictionary. In Pr. Pm. the word stands in the 
forms doheler, dubler. 

* I wisshed ful witterly 
That disshes and douhlen 
Bifore this iike doctour 
Were molten lead in his ma we.' P. Ploughm, p. 251. 

Duffil, sb. A kind of coarse or shaggy woollen cloth, chiefly manu- 
factured in Yorkshire 

Dulbard, dullard, sb. .A stupid person, a blockhead, one of slow 
or deficient comprehension. 

Hall, gives dulbar as one form of this word, and adds, that * dulberbead is also used in 
the same sense.' I look upon dulherd or dulbard as most probably a colloquial contraction 
of dulberbead. Pr. Pm. gives * Dullard. Duribuccius^ agrestis* Jam. gives O. N. </«/, 
foolishness, and 6ir/a, to evince or shew, — a possible but not probable compound. 

Dump, sb. A deep hole in the bed of a river or pool of water. 

* Ich leade ham into so deop dung i> ha druncne9 [lerin.' Seifit Marb. p. 15, translated 


bj the Editor — I lead them into so deep (a) dump that they drown therein. Dung or 
dinge^ he says in the Gl. to S. M,^ * by letter change Dump, a deep bole in waier feigned at 
least to be bottomless. (Grose.) Germ. Dumpfel^ a deep place in a fiver or lake ; a deep 
pudtOe, pool. By throwing off the liquid, A Dub, a pool of water. Kennet's MS. Cf. 
Low G. Dobbe.* 

Dunderhead, dundemoll, sb. A blockhead. 

Jam. suggests a relationship with donnart, bedundered; and a comparison with Dan. 
dummerboved; side by side with which, moreover, Sw. dumbufvud nuy be placed. Both 
these words simply signify dull-head or stupid-head; ' numskuU,' in short. Perhaps, how- 
ever, we may suggest a difierent origin for the prefix in our words, and one that presents 
an analogy to the words thick-head^ jolter-head^ &c., which are used in the same sense. In 
other words, dunder may really imply abnormal or excessive bigness. In the Sw. Dial, the 
prefixes dunder^ dunner^ donner, are of frequent occurrence in this application; and we 
probably have another corresponding instance of usage in the word thundering as frequently 
applied colloquially ; e. g. * a thundering big one,' * a thundering great lie,' &c. Wb. Gl. 
gives dudemollf which must surely be a misprint. 

I>angeon, sb. In the phrase, ' he is a dungeon of wit/ Wh, GL ; 
that is, a person of great natural shrewdness or of much depth of under- 

* She is a dungeon at breaking ;' of a careless, crockery-breaking girl. Communicated by 
author of Wb. Gl. 

Dnngeonable, adj. Shrewd, possessing some depth of thought. 
I>anty, adj. Stunted, dwarfed, stumpy. 

I connect this with dumpty^ dumpy, dubby, short, stumpy. Mr. Wedgw. sajrs, * from 
dab, dub, a blow.* Dint, dunt, in like way, implies a blow. 

* " Dtin/y-homed kye ;*' short or stumpy-homed cows.' Wb. Gl. 

Bwalm, sb. (pr. dwawm or dwam). A swoon, suspension of the 

A word which has its correlatives in all the languages of Gothic origin. Ihre, quoting 
himself from Stiemhielm, defines dwala as a kind of intermediate state between life and 
death, such as flies under the influence of cold, and swallows Ijring (as supposed) at the 
bottom of the water during the winter months, experience. They are said * ligga i dwala* 
He further gives dwalm, in exactly our sense, as occurring * apud Willeramum in Cant. Cant, 
p. X43.' Comp. M. G. dwala, a fool ; dwalmon, to be out of one's mind; A. S. dwelian, 
dwoUan, to be mistaken'; Dut. dwcelen, to play the fool ; dolma, said in Smoland of one 
who is neither wide awake nor fast asleep. Comp. also O. N. and O. Sw. dvcdi, Sw. dvala, 
Dan. dvale, Sw. D. dviilu ; O. Germ, twelan, to be torpid ; Germ, tvalm, a swoon or trance. 

Bwalmish, adj. (pr. dwammish). Somewhat faint, or as if likely to 

Bwine, v. n. i . To pine away, waste, become attenuated ; of a per- 
son or creature under the influence of sickness, &c. 2. To wither, fade 
away ; of a plant or flower. 

O. N. dvina ; Sw. dvina ; A. S. dwinan. Pr. Pm. * Dwynyn awey. Evaneo, evanesco.* 


* Thaifor a mm miy likend be 
Til a flour, that es fajrre to se. 
Than son after that it es forth broght, 
Welkes and duynes til it be noght/ Pr, of Cimse. 704-707. 

* He dwuud away til an atomy/ Wb. Gl, 

Bwiny, adj. Puny, weakly. 

Bwiny-voioedy adj. Weak-voiced, speaking in only feeble tones. 

Bwuzen'd, adj. Withered, wrinkled, shrunk. See DosEen'd. 

Essentially the same word as Dosand or DoBBen'd. Comp. A. S. dw€ts, dwamn^ 
dwuenys, dull, dullness, &c. 

DwiBsen-faoedy adj. Thin-faced, with a shrunken countenance. 


Earn, sb. An uncle ; a familiar friend, a neighbour, intimate acquaint- 
ance or gossip. 

A. S. edm, an uncle; Germ, obm, obtim; Dut. 00m; Fris. iem. Spelt «cfn, emt^ in 
Chaucer ; rm, eme^ in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kmgbt. See Etm^ and the note to it, in Fr, Pm, 

Earn, \^ a. (pr. yearn). To curdle milk or cause it to coagulate. 

Jam. takes this word to come from * Gkrm. gerinnen^ Su. G. nuina, Belg. r<enff«if, A. S. 
gurunnon^ coagulare. This use of the verb is retained in Scotl. : when milk curdles, we say 
that it rins. But as the A. S. verb signifying to run is often written yman, the word earn 
resembles it most in this form.' Cf. air, buttermilk, given by Hald., and which must be 
connected with earn. 

* One did aske her (a noted witch) advise touchinge one of her kyne whose milk did tarn- 
in the galling/ York Castle Depositions, p. 9, note. 

* This informant could not get butter when she chimed nor cheese when she earned* 
lb. p. 38. 

Earning, sb. (pr. yearning). Rennet, the substance which is used to 
turn or curdle milk. 

* Bishop Kennett notices the sense of earn, as used in the North, which is given also by 
Brock, and Jam. ; ** to earn, to run as chees doth. Earning, chees rennet.'* ' Note to 
• Emyn, as horse,' Pr. Pm. 

Ease, V. a. To splash with mud, or bemire. Chiefly used in the 

Hall, gives * easings, dung, ordure.' I find no other provincial word connected with ours, 
which is due to O. N. esia, boggy or miry soil. 

* ** You hae gotten sair eased;'* sadly bemired.' Wb. Gl. 


Easement, sb. i. Alleviation of, or relief from, pain. 2. Any remedy 
or application which produces such a result. 

* Nor att that word shee sayd noe more, 
but all good easemtnts I had there.' Percy's Fol, MS, L p. 362. 

Baain'B, sb. (Pr. of evesings). The eaves of a house or other 

A. S. tfesi, eaves of a house ; efuan, e/man, aftsiaH, to cut in the form of eaves. 

* Orcheyardes and erberes 
Evestd wel clene.' P. Plougbm. p. 460. 

Mr. Marsh's note to this is * tvised should mean provided with etve-troughs ; perhaps, 
here, sheltered with arbours, roofs, or awnings.' More likely, it wonld seem, with the 
eaves proper neatly or *clenely' trimmed. Comp. also O. Dut. ovtsi, Fris. os#, eaves; 
O. N. u/s, ups; O. Sw. ops^ ups; Sw. D. b6fs, ofs, okt; D. D. aas, out, 

Easter-shells, sb. The pinpatch or periwinkle. See Covins. 

These articles of food * are considered to be in season from Easter to Ascension Day.' 
Wi, 01. Hence, the name, no doubt. 

Een, even, sb. i. Evening. 2. The eve or vigil of any feast or 
saint's day. 

A. S. mfen; O. N.. O. Sw., N., and Sw. D. aftan; Sw. afton; Dan. aftm; O.Germ. 
hpandt &bttni; Germ, abend, 

1. • To moom at een;* to morrow at evening. 

2. * Kesseimias een ;' * Mark's even* &c. 

Een-holeSy sb. The sockets of the eyes. 

Comp. Dan. me-bulet Germ, augen-boble. 

Bfter, prep. Alter. 

O. N. eftir, eptir ; Dan. efter ; Sw. efler, 

* E/tyr his lufe me bude lang.' Rei. Pieces, p. 84. 

Eft*moon, eftnoon, sb. Aflemoon. 

* I swere you, sir, by son any moyne, 
I com not here by fore eft none 

Whedcr ye be leyfe or lothe.' Toumel, Myst, p. 71. 

Efi>fi>» V. a. To incite, urge on, provoke. 

O. N. eggia, to incite or provoke ; Dan. egge. Comp. Sw. uppdgga, and Dan. D. ^te. 
The Dan. use of the word is exactly equivalent to ours ; e. g. * bm foniod ai egge bam 
taa Uenge, til ban endelig blev forbittret paa manden:* he persisted in egging him until at 
last he became bitter against the man. Comp. * He was egging the other man on to 

in% sb. Fuel, the material for supporting a fire; peat, turf, 
wood, &c. 

Sw. eldning, fuel, from O. N. eUdr, S. G. and Sw. dd, Dan. ild, A. S. aid, ftc. It may 



probably admit of a question whether oui word be more than simply a contractioa from 
a Scand compound toch as Sw. D. eldiiumg^ with same sense. 

* We arc getting in our winter eldin.* Wb. Gl. 

The word often occurs in the form Fire-eldin, with one of those reiterations of name, 
due to different language-origins, not uncommon in our tongue, and eq>eciaUy in names of 

Eller, eller-tree, sb. The alder (Behda ainus). 

O. N. dm, olan, bin ; S. O. and Sw. id; 9w. D. ala-^dsia, alder-bushes ; Dan. <f, eH, dU, 
ellttra; A. S. o/r, air; Germ. dUr, erlt, 8cc, 

Ell-wand, sb. A name, incorrectly used, for the yard-measure. 
See Tard-wancL 

Elmother, sb. A stepmother. 

* E1-, ^-, ele-, fld-, prefixed to words denotes other, strange, foreign, alius, alienus ; as 
tUand, foreign land; dUnd, foreign; tdfylc, foreign folk or people.' Bosw. A, S. Diet, 
Hall, gives our word, and Brock, also, with the spelling dlmolber ; and it occurs in Wb. OL 
In Pr. Pm. both el{d)fadyr and ddmodyr or dmoder occur ; and d/adyr, ddmoder in 
Caib. Ang. I think Jamieson's derivation of dmotber, referred to in the Pr, Pm, note, 
from A. S. ealde-moder, avia, is mistaken. There is no sufficient authority for the asser- 
tion that dmoiber * must have properly denoted a grandmother,' and the unvarying 
usage of the North, together with the Pr. Pm. and Catb. Ang. words, fairly establish the 
true meaning of the word, which as denoting strange or foreign mother is sufficioitly 

Elsin, sb. A shoemaker's awl. Comp. Frioker. 

Jam. quotes Teut. alsene, elseru, to which may be added Dut. dse, els. 

Enanthers. See Ananthers. 

EndeavoTir-for, v. a. To labour or work, as one does for one's 
wages or living. 

Endeavouring, adj. Industrious, laborious, careful. 

' He 's a stiddy endiwerin* chap, but he *s hard set t' mak' a living.' 

Endlang, adv. Along or forwards in the direction or to the extent 
of the length of an object or person. 

Comp. Dan. D. endelangs^ along, or along the side of, a thing : — * A vil kaasi m grob 
engelangs e rattling :' I shall dig a gutter all along the side of the premises. Molb. refers 
to the meaning, * without intermission,' given for our word in the HaUamsbire Gl,, and 
conceives it to be mistaken. Hall, gives the form endlande, with the explanation * along, 
straight forwards ;' Cr, Gl. gives * along, directly forward ;' and Wb. Gl. * as long as from 
end to end,' which is perhaps both short, and aside of, the full meaning. The exam{de in 
the Gl. last named is, * I ttmrniel'd endlang : I fell down my whole length.' I believe, 
however, our definition is nearer the exact meaning of the word, and the Danish lexico- 
grapher's criticism to be a just one. The word occurs in both Townel. Myst. and Pr, of 
Conscience. In the former the passage runs thus : — 


* Benste, benste, be us cmang. 

And save alle that I se here in this thrang. 
He save you and me overthwart and ituBang 
That hang on a tre.' (p. 85.) 
Here endlong is joined with overthwart in such a way as to make its meaning abun- 
dantly evident as a meaning of direction, not of continuousness ; although in the Glossary 
the word is explained as * continuously ' as well as ' straightforwardly.* It is the same 
idiom again, in Hampole : — 

* Ffor the devels sal, ay, on )>am gang 

To and fra, overthewrt and endumg' (8581) ; 

which is rightly explained * from head to tail,* A. S. andlang, and Germ, entlang being both 
quoted ; to which may be added Sw. etdangs, Dut. onlang. 

Endways, adv. (pr. endus). In a state of progression, whether as 
regards motion, or approach towards completion : often occurring in the 
form Even endways. 

* Weel I Ah *s getting end*us wi *t noo ; bud its bin a parlous lasty job.* 
' They spent all they had even endways* Wb, OL 

Enough, adv. (more guttural in sound than as if spelt enew). 
I. Enough, sufficient. 2. SuflQciendy cooked, enough done; of any 
article of food. 

Mr. Carr speaks of enew^ enow^ as * applied to numbers, not to quantity,' illustrating the 
statement with the example, * I have cake enif, an* apples enew* He then adds that * Piers 
Ploubman is the only writer I have observed who applies this word to quantity, a^ 

" Alle the people had pardon ynow** * 

Out of countless instances to the contrary I give two from one book only ;— 

* Then notes noble in-no^ 

Are herde in wod so wlonk.' Sir Gaw, and Or. Kn, 1. 514^ 

* Wyth dayntes nwe in-nowe* /&. 1. 1401. 

In fact there is no definite rule which, in old writers, marks off enew from enough, and in 
Clevel. * there 's eneugh,' or * there *s mair an eneugh* is said alike of cake and of apples. 
Marsh, lectures, i Ser. p. 492, quotes Gil (who published in 1 6 19), as remarking ^at, 
* in the common dialect, enough was of^en pronounced enuff, instead of with the guttural ;' 
so that really enew, or rather our Bneugh, is the true representative of the one original 
sound of the word. Cf. the forms anog^ynog^ynug, as well as * grene oliues bog, miS-^gt 
the last rhyming with ynog, from Oen, and Ex, ; and inouh, inouz, from P. Ploughm. 
{E.E,T,S.) p. 81. 

Enow, adv. For the present, presently, by and by. See Inoo. 

* This seems to be a contraction of even or e*en now* Or. GL That is possible ; as also 
that it is the Gevel. equivalent or analogue of Dan. i-et-nu, directly, presently. 

* " Do you want anything else, Henry ?'* " Neca : that 's all enow** * 

' Gan thee, honey, an' tell *im Ah '11 be on inoo ;* I'll be with him presently. 

Entertain, v. a. To occupy the attention of an auditory, by preaclu 
ing or serious speaking, quite as much as in any other way. 

* Ah wur at D — church last een an' Ah 's seear Ah wur weel eniertmned* 

Y 2 


Entry, sb. The space just within the principal entrance to a bouse, 
of whatever dimensions. 

Ept, eptish, adj. i. Ready, handy; both in an active sense. 2. Neat 
in execution, as a skilful workman is ; nice, accurate. 

Simply another form of E. apt, 

* He *s epiisb it his book-Iear.' Wb. GL 

Eah, sb. The ash {Fraxinus excelsior), 

O. N. esih', <uk, &c. 

:, ex. Forms of the vb. Ask or Ax. 

Estringlayer, sb. A manufacturer of string, ropes, &c. ' A term 
which occurs in a local document of the fifteenth century.' Wh. GL 

Ettle, V. a. (sometimes pr. airde). To aim at, intend, attempt 

O. N., O. Sw. <ei/a, to think, to propose or purpose. 

• " What are they all airtling at ?" what is their aim or purpose?* Wb. Oi. 

* Now if a kyng of a riche kyngryke 
pat had a doghter . . . 

pe whilk he luved specially 

And egbtild to mak hir qwene of worshipe.* Pr. ofOmte. 5780- 

* The whilk he tgbttld to coroun qwene.* Ih. 5800. 

' This word is sometimes written atded, tyttld, agbteld* Ih. Gloss. 
The Scand. use is precisely analogous. 

Even, V. a. To compare, to liken. 

* What schulde )>e mone )>er compas clym, 
8c to eum wyth )>at wor>ly lyjt 

pat schynej vpon \>e brokes brym?' E. Eng. Allit. Poems, A. 107 1. 

Even-down, adj. Down-right, direct, perpendicular. 

In the description given in Sir Gaw. and tbe Gr Knigbt of breaking a deer, the author 

* So ryde J>ay of by resoun bi he rygge bonej, 
Euendtn to \>t haunche, )>at heng^ alle samen, 
& heuen hit vp al hole, and hwen hit of )>ere.' 

The editor*s questioning note on euenden is • evenly (?), perpendicularly (?).* It is pro- 
bably only our present word as anciently sounded. 

Even-endways, adv. Uninterruptedly, straight on from end to end. 
See Endways. 

Every-like, adv. From time to time, now and then. 

Hall, gives this word, and I find it in Wb. Gl. Hampole also uses it : — * A dameselle 
wysc and wele taghte J>at menc calles Gelosye, J>at es ay wakyre and bcsy euerylyke wcle for 


to do, tall kq>e >e orloge.* Comp. * They kq>t playing the music eviry-liie' Wb, 01. 
Cf. * Me seitS upon ancren, |>et euericb mest haue'S on olde cwene to ueden hire earen :' 
men say of anchoresses that every most (almost every one) has an old quean to feed her 
ears. Ancr. Riwlt^ p. 88. 

(JEvirly, with nearly the same signification, given by Jam., is no doubt the same word, 
but ours retains the older form, and may be collated with A. S. cen/iV, only, that if, om-iih : 
tV9ry4ike being thus several-like.) 

Expect, V. a. To suppose, assume, take for granted. 

Bye, sb. (pr. ee in i and 2). i. An eye (pi. Een or Eyen). 2. A 
spout; perhaps, more properly, the orifice or aperture of the spout. 
3. An open hole, as a pit mouth, &c. 4. A way or passage through, 
a clear road. 5. The bud or sprout — more accurately, the site of the 
bud or sprout — upon a potato, scion, or plant more generally, 

0. N. auga ; S. O. oga ; Dan. mie (pi. mien or •ine) ; A. S. tdgo, &c. * Metaphorice de- 
notat foramen,' observes Ihre : as, bio ktvemstein til augans : he cut through the millstone to 
the very eye ; and Molb. remarks that the Dan. word is used for anything which has any 
resemblance, more or less, to an eye ; as the eyes (buds) on trees, shrubs, &c., from whidi 
shoots, blossoms, &c., issue, the eye of a mill, or in the upper millstone ^ough which the 
com falls to be ground, &c. 

1. * He gloores wiv a pair o' good een* Wb. Ol. 

2. * T* meeal fa 's ower het fra t' mill-#».* 

4. * " A clear eye ;*' a clear road or passage, e. g. to a counter-side in a shop.' Wb, 01, 
• " Go in when there 's a dear eye ;" no crowd in the way, to interfere with free passage 
and dispatch of business.* lb. 

Cf. * Sire, >us ich pleide, o'Ser spec ine chirche : code oSe pleouwe ine churcheie :' fir, 
I played or spoke thus in the church; went to the play in the ebureb'^ye; i.e. church- 
yard ; (?) the open space in which the church stands. Ancr, Riwle, p. 318. 

Fadge, sb. i. A bundle, a burden in which thickness predominates 
over length, 2. One that is short and thick in person, 

Wedgw. connects */adgy, corpulent, unwieldy, and Sc. fodgd^ plump, fleshy,' with */flg', 
to flag or become flaccid.' Jam. refers fodgd (without apparent ground) to Teut. voedsid, 
food, and also gvrts fadge, I. a bundle of sticks; 2. a lusty and clumsy woman, referrmg 
the former to Sw. fagga, onerare. I would rather refer sb. Fadge to W. jffagod (Oamett 
refers it to Welsh ^j^, a bundle) ; and vb. fadge to the same source ^ifidge, fidget. Hall, 
gives figt which is probably the more ancient form of fidge, and Wedgw. quotes Swiss 
figgen^ to rub, shove, or move to and fro, to fidget, connecting it with Sc. fike, and there- 
fore with our flck and Cumb. feek. Still there may be a connection with the Old D. and 
Dan. D. fage^ quoted by both Molb. and Kok, which implies the ideas of haste and rest- 
lessness both, as in the instance, de ere /age til cu bevise ondt^ which might be construed 
* they are fidgetty, or they fadge, to devise mischief.' Again, in detfager «, there's no hurry 
about it, there is a very near approach to the second meaning of our verb. As to sb. Fadge, 
the idea of a short, thick bundle or fagot easily passes on to that of a short, squat person ; 
as, indeed, is the case with the word bundle itself in the West-Midland district. 


Fadge, v. n. i. To move along or about with short, irregular steps, 
as a corpulent person does. a. To move about irregidarlyi as a fussy 
person does. See sb. Fadge. 

Fadgy, adj. Corpulent, unwieldy, stumpy in person. 

Faflf, faff, V. a. and n. To blow in puffs, as when a person blows 
chaff away from com held in his hands, or the wind when it causes brief 
puffs of smoke to return down the chimney. 

Apparently only another form of puff. Jam. quotes Germ, pfyfin (not in Hilp.) in the 
tame tense ; and certainly, in this district, Wedgwood's remark that * the sonnd of blowing 
is very generally represented by the syllable pu, usually with a terminal consonant,' mi^t 
be very well applied with the substitution of the initial sound of/ or ^for that of ^. 

Faffle, V. n. To play or flap idly or gently, as a sail when there is 
not wind enough to fill it, or a loose garment, &c., just stirred by a 
momentary breath of air. See Faff. 

Faffle^ sb. A wavering or intermittent blowing of a light wind. 

* The boat will not sail without a regular breeze ; there is only a puff and a /afi«* 

Fail, V. n. To grow weaker and fall off in general health and ap- 
pearance ; to shew evident signs of bodily decay. 

* T' au'd man 's not lang for this world : he 's szir failed of late.* 
' He 's zfailiHg man, and has been for lang.' 

Fail off, V. n. To shew signs of approaching dissolution ; e. g. in- 
creasing debility, loss of flesh, diminished energies, &c. 

* He *s failed o^desper't sharp sen last back-end.' 

Fain, adj. i. Very willing, ready, fully disposed. 2. Glad, rejoiced. 

A. S./agen^fcegnt S. G. fcBgen^ joyful, ghd, with a willing heart ; O. N. feginn, Comp. 
S. G. fagna^ to be glad, joyful, fain ; Sw. fdgna ; Sw. D. fagna ; O. N. fagna ; A. S. /o^- 
nian. Pr. Pm, * Fayne. Idhens* 

* Apon land here anone that we were, /ayn I wold.' Townel. Myst. p. 34. 

1. • Weel, Ah *%fain for my dinner, any ways.* 

2. * T* lahtle lad '%faxn to gan.' 

* " I hope it will be fine to-morrow." ** Ay, there 's many *11 be /am if it ho'ds fair owcr 
t* moom." ' 

Cf. * Cristene men ogen ben %ofagen 

So fuelles am quan he it sen dagen, 

0an man hem telleth sot$e tale 

Wid londes speche and wordes smale. 

Of blesses dune, of sorwes dale.' Story of Gen. and Ex. 1. 15. 

Wedgw. derives the word in sense i. differently, but I think inconsistently with old usage. 
Cf. *fayH of >i felawschupe,' P. Plougbm. {E, E. T. S.) p. 34. 


•, adv. (used intensitively). Altogether, utterly, entirely. 

* Ah niwer iced sikan a lahtle cat for taking: lUfair wild.' 

There is a remarkable coincidence of sense and application between this word and the 
Dan. D. adj. and adv. /<er, /<err, quoted by Molb. and explained as meaning ' greatly, in 
a high degree, remarkably ;' e. g. bun var fatrt smykktt : she was extremely pretty. The 
same word is used in Jutl^d to intensify a negation, ikke fear signifying * not at all/ ' never 
a bit/ 

Fair, flsdr-up, v. n. To become fair weather again ; to leave oflf rain- 
ing, and grow clear or bright. 

* ** Weel, it 's been a sharpish downfall while it lasted ; but Ah thinks its boun iC fair 
now." " Ay, its V^tfainng oop." * 

irish, adj. Passable, pretty good ; often used intensitively, or with 
a species of irony. 

• Fairish off for brass ;* tolerably well-to-do. 

• Thee'd hev z fairish crop, bairn, gin t' swedes wur as rank as t' fooal-foot.' 

• ¥Lt*s fairish on for bairns: he 's getten three mair wiv his new wife.' 

Fairlings, adv. Fairly. 

Comp. Mostlings, Hardlings, Nearlings, &c. 

• Ah 's fairlings bet wiv it.' 

Fair to see. Easy to be seen or perceived. 

• T* rooad *sfair to see.* 

Cf. • a/a/r* path / • a well faire path.* Percy's Folio MS. i. 488. 
' Its varry fair to see whilk on 'em is biggest favourite.' 

ipy-butter, sb. A species of fungus (Tremella arhorea and albidd) 
found growing on dead wood, and even yet believed by many to be the 
produce of the fairies' dairy. 

A well or spring in Baysdale is mentioned as the site of butter-washing by the fairies, and 
Egton Orange has (as alleged) been famous within the memory of living persons for the 
nocturnal proceedings of the said elves ; one of their pranks being to fling their butter so as 
to make it adhere to the gates and doors of the premises. 

Fall, V. n. I. To happen, to betide. 2. Of lime; to become fine 
and powdery, in consequence of having been slaked. 

Fall away, v. n. To waste in corporal substance ; to grow thin, or 
become attenuated. 

Comp. Sw. D, folia dv^ folia samman, to become lean or thin. 

* Ah thinks Ah niwer seen a man sae failed afore ; he 's/a'n awa* to nowght.' 

Fall in, v. n. To meet with, light upon, prove successful in a quest. 

« " I hear your brother's /a'n in weel/' " Ay, he *s getten all he wanted, an* mair/* * 

• He '11 be yamm by nceght, if in case he/a*s weel in at Stowsley.' 


Fand, ftuid, pret of Find. 

Comp. O. N. Jutna, imp. fann ; O. Sw. Jinmat fern ; Sw. D. Jimna, fcum ; Jimm, fam. Sec. ; 
Dan. Jtndeffandt, &c. 

FantiokleSy flarentioklesy flEimtioleSy sb. Freckles on the skin* 

The first of these forms is simply the shorter or clipped Pr. of the second and third, and 

these are closely comiected (the r being transposed) with O. N./rcfata, S. Q./rtkua^frakma^ 

freckles ; O. N. frtkknoitr, S. O. fnknoi, freckled ; Sw. frakfu^ fraknig; Dan. Jrtgm, 

Jrtgned, 8u, ; the termination being a diminutive of tiok, a mark made with a pencil or 

other means ; a word in frequent use both as vb. and tb. in GereL 

Far, adj. Further, more remote or distant 

S. G. jgdr, fiarrt, adv. ; O. ^.firr^far; A. S. /wr, >Br, fim ; Dan. j^^n, adj. and adv. ; 
O. H.fictr^ adj. ; S-w.Jurran^ adj. 

• Tfar side o' yon field.' 

* Si thee 1 Yon 's a hare liggin' : o' yon far land ov a', anenst t' gatesteead.' 

Cf. * bu steorest te sea stream j) hit fleden ne mot>£r |>an \n markedest/ S.Marb.p, lo. 
Note also that O. Syr. farmer, Warmest; O. H.firri.firttr, are adj. although Ac positive in 
either case is an adv. 

Farantlyy adj. i. Decent, well-behaved, respectable, a. Neat, 
orderly, with regularity. 

This word occurs as an adv. in E, Eng, AlUt, Poiftu, C. 435 : — 

* Farandily on a felde he (Jonas) fettele) hym to bide. 
For to wajrte on |>at won what schulde wor|>e after.' 

The more usual form of the adj. is fiurrand, fiarand, or fmrrant. Both lA§d» and 
Wb. Gl.t however, give the word as above, — * a farrantly body,* * furantly folks.' The 
zA],/arandt is met with several times, in much the same senses as belong to our word, in 
E. Eng. AUit. Poems :— 

* Lest les thou leve my t»le farandi :* (A. 1. 864) ; 

* If bay wetfarandi and fre and fayre to behold :' (B. 607) ; 

' p*e solace of )>e solempnet^ in |>at sale dured 
Of \>2X/arande fest, tyl faylcd the sun :' (76. 1757) ; 

and the same expression, farandi fist, is found again in Sir Gtatf. and Gr, Kn, In refe- 
rence to the origin of this word. Jam. says, * I have sometimes thought that we mi^t trace 
this term to S. G. and Isl./ora, expend; as Isl. wil ortbun farin signifies experienced in 
speaking ; lag-faren, skilled in law.' Ferg., however, is rather inclined to refer it simply 
to O. N. farandi^ a traveller ; one who has seen the world, and, therefore, presumably, 
knows how to behave ; has learnt to be polite, well-conducted, decent-mannered, and so 
forth. Morris, Gl. to E. Eng. AUit. Poems, simply quotes Gael, fcarranta, stout, brave, 
which is the more worthy of notice, inasmuch as neither of the Scand. tongues or dialects 
seem to assume any sense for ybrflt, or any derivative from that word, very nearly approach- 
ing, or even suggesting that of our farantly or Jamieson*s farrand. As for the word 
farand or farrand, as occurring in our au'd-farrand and Scfeur-farand^find-farrem^ 
euil'/arandt &c., I cannot but look upon it as distinct from farrantly or farrant, in the 
sense decent, orderly, well-behaved. I take it simply to be the obsolete form of the pqrf. 


•of to fare^ to behave or conduct oneself, to seem or appear. See Fare. It may be ob* 
served that Jamieson's explanation of * the maist semely farrand personage/ Doug. Virgil., 
as * one appearing as the most seemly personage,' is more than open to question ; as wiu be 
seen by a reference to the passages quoted above. And the same remark applies with more 
than equal force to his interpretation of/arand^ in the passage quoted from Barbour: — 

* Tharfor thai went till Abyrde)me, 
Quhar Nele the Bruyss come, and the Queyn, 
And other ladyis fayr and /orom/, 
Ilkane for luff off thair husband ;' — 

the interpretation in question being * they fared from home' — travelled forth — * animated 
by love to their husbands.' * Fayr and/orancf,' */arande and hyre to behold,' seems simply 
to have been a sort of * household word ' to express fair seemliness of person and array. 

Far away, adv. In a great degree, beyond comparison. 

• Far away the best.* 

Fare, v. n. i. To go, to proceed. 2. To approach, draw on, or 
near. 3. To get on, or succeed. 4. To behave or conduct oneself. 
5. To seem or appear. 

0. N. and S. G./ora, Sw. /ara, Dan. /ar«, A. S.faran^ to go, proceed, make a journey. 
Ihre further gives, * agere, agendi modum sequi,' as a secondary sense of the O. Sw. fara, 
and quotes a vb. fara (with its cognates, Al. /arm, Itl./ara), 'to acquire, experience; 
whence, erfara,/br/ara^ &c. Comp. Dan. er/aren^ possessing experience. Rietz charac- 
terises Sw. D./ara, as possessing many of the qualities of an auxiliary vb., and some of the 
instances adduced by him are such as to present a strong analogy to the applications of our 
own vb. : c. g./ara/HJes^ to begin to proceed, literally ; with which comp. our * he/ar*s te 
gan slowly.' Indeed this very idiom also occurs : — as fara ga ; also fara laup, to fare to 
ran, &c. In Finland, he adds, fara is used somewhat in the way of an expletive (utan syn' 
nerligt hem'drkelse)^ but certainly so as to present a significant likeness to our own usage, 
eq>edally in that sense which led Jam. to explain the word as meaning *to seem,' and 
fearand as * seeming, having the appearance :' thus ban far & dejer : he fares to be dying ; 
be far a val ilakt : that fares to be all wrong. Further, the word, with a particle joined, 
seems to take the sense of to proceed to (an action or endeavour, namely), besides other 
various {i'dr skilta) usages not easily classified. 

1. * An' seea he fared away.' 

* >enne /ar* forth.' E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 929. 

3. * T* coo fares a cawvin.* 

3. * Ht fares nobbut ill, atwixt his wife an' 's maaster.' 

Comp. * tt rauen raykej hym forth |>at reckes ful lyttel 

How alle fodej fare, ellej he fynde mete.' E. Eng. Allit, Poems, B. 464. 

4. * lAt fares like a feeal ; an' a feeal he be.' 

Comp. * My frendej, your fare is to strange.' lb. 861. 

5. • Yon chap /ares fond, Ah think.' 

Fare, sb. That which happens or proceeds ; chance, or lot. 

* Weel, Ah mun tak' my fare.* 

* ffeele folke ware thi frendes |>are )>ou ferde froo. 
And for to frayste of thi /ore )>e to)>er ware fayne.' Rel. Pieces, p. 91. 



VWr-encL A point near the close of a matter or action. Of per- 
petual occurrence in the form at the fiur end, and as varied in aj^ca- 
tion as frequent. 

* Ay, he 't desper't iU : he'll be aboot t' far mud. Ah hy ;' at the end of his lift ; Bkclj 
to die. 

• " Almoit done your Usk, Willy ? " " Aye, Ah *% aboot i'/ar mtd o' 't." ' 

' ** They say he 'i got thniff all his money?" ** Whyah, Ah't doubtful he's nighhand 

Farliea, sb. i. Something strange, unusual, or wonderful a. Pecu- 
liarities of conduct or character; thence, failings, foibles, weaknesses, or 

A. S. fcerliet, ferlic, sudden, unforeseen, startling, frightful ; S. O. farUg, periculocus ; 
O. H./drUgr, id. ; ferltgr, monstrous, horrible. Sw D./arUga and Dan. D. (Jutl.) /ariigr 
are used principally as augmentatives, exactly in the same senses and applications as our 
parlous. Old Dan. /ar/«s comes nearer to our present word, signifying sudden, unfore- 
seen. Farlies more seldom occurs with us in the first sense, in whidi mere is a marked 
deviation from archaic usage. 

* If he J>an haf drede, it es nz/erfy,* Pr. o/Qmse, 2955. 

* For )>er a/cr/y bifel J>at fele folk seien.' E, Eng. AUit, Poems, B. 1529. 

* Mo ferlygs on Hs folde han fallen here oh 

pen in any o)>er |>at I wot.' Sir Oaw, and Gr. Kn, 23. 

Besides instances of this kind, which are innumerable, /^y sometimes seems to stand in 
ictiye sense, as in the following passage from E. Eng. AUit. Poems, A. 10S4 :» 

* I stod as stylle as dased quayle 

For ferly of >at french (?fresch) figure.' 

Our present usage is seen in the example from Wb. Ol. : * " A spyer out of other folks 
farliis;" a censorious person.' 

Fftmtioled, adj. Freckled. 

Farrish-on, adj. Pretty well advanced; of people in years, or at 
their cups, &c. 

Far-side. The off or right-hand side in riding or driving ; the other 
being the Nar-side. 

Comp. Sw. D.JJarmer ocb ndmmer; bbger ocb venster^ omjortpanda dragart: right and 
left, of draught-animals when yoked ; Dan. D.Jiermant; fiermer in Ssdland. In the Dan. 
provinces narmant answers xo Jiermant, as ncemur \o fiermer. See Rietz, and Molb. Dansk 
Dial. Lex. 

Faah, v. a. and n. i. To occasion trouble or inconvenience, to 
worry or annoy. 2. To take trouble, or put oneself to inconvenience. 

Jam. concludes that * we have borrowed this word immediately from the Fr. ; and there 
is no evidence, as far as he has observed, th^t it is more ancient than the reign of Mary.' 
Still, there is * reason to believe that it is originally Gothic ; S. G. Jaa being sometimes used 
with th* passive termination, as ban ei or god at faas vid; of a passionate man whom it is 


not prudent to meddle (or fash) with.' The ' borrowing from the Fr.* may perhaps seem 
questionable to any one who considers the currency of the word over all N. England, 
though the derivation from a Gothic source will not. Carr quotes an ezpreitioa from 
Archbp. Spottiswoode, ' to put one in great fcubirM.* Comp. with this Dan. D.yStfssirr, 
bothering over small matters, a word which Molb. looks upon as allied with ^,ficuk^ 
fmsa^ to give oneself unprofitable or useless trouble ; fiatka, tarde circumcursare et parom 
proficere ; alleging also E. fuss. The Sw. D. has both jjd* and j^os, as well as the vb. 
nofkt the %A),^<iStugt f}o$ku^ &c., all bearing in their significance more or less likeoett to 
ash. It may be observed that Wedgw. quotes ficuatri^ fioi^ fiaska, 8cc. in connectioa 
vith^tfs, while Rietz, with some hesitation, collates them with the Sw. adj./Ws, hasty, pre- 
chitate. To me, however, Dan. D./osm, to seek with trouble, to toil and trouble onctelf 
after a thing, presents a stiU closer analogy. 

* Niwer heed, lad I Deean*t thttfasb theesel' about it.' 

]fuh, sb. Trouble, bother, inconvenience, annoyance. 

ytohouB, adj. Troublesome, annoying, vexatious. Comp. Fr. 

* kfashout sort of body ;' * ^fasbous job.' Wb, GL 

Fast, adj. At a standstill, unable to proceed. 

• " Why, you don't get on with that job, Henry." " Neea ; Ah 's about /as/ wi 't." * 

* Fati for want of materials ;' the miiller, fast for lack of water ; the sower, for want of 
seed ; the workman, with bad or unmanageable material ; and so on. 

Fasten out, v. a. To turn the Moor-sheep to the moor for the 
season, excluding them for good from the enclosed land. 

The phrase is of^en used figuratively ; e. g. of a person whose opportunities for further 
action in any special direction are summarily cut off, or who has been desired to abstain 
from further visits to any given house : thus, — ' So-and-So 's getten hissel' fassmd oot, noo» 

Father, V. a. i. To impute, to ascribe to or charge with, 2. Of 
a child, and in a reflective sense ; to suggest its own origin by a strong 
personal resemblance to its father. 

Comp. O. S.fedra^ patrem indicare, pronuntiare. 

X. * Ay, 't wur a mean act: but he faihertd it mainly on 's wahfe;' his wife insti- 
gated it. 

' Has'n't 'ee heared at Mally Fawcett lays her bairn on Tommy Stone'us V imputes it 
to him. * Ay, an' she'll get it/atbend on him at Oisbur'h, Ah lay ;' affiliated to him. 

2. * Weel, t' lahtle 'n faatbwn hisself anyways. There's nae need t' ex wheeas bairn 
he be.' 

Fat-rasoal, sb. A kind of rich tea-cake compounded with butter or 
cream (or both), and with currants intermingled besides. 

Faugh, V. a. (pr. fawf). To fallow. 

Faugh, faxLghing, sb. Fallow land; the portion of a farm which 
lies uncropped although duly tilled. 

E,fallouft with the same sense as our Faugh, is ordinarily referred to A. S,/ialOfJialwe, 

Z 2 


FiAhing-gad, sb. A fishing-rod. See QmSL 

Fishing-taum, sb. A fishing-line. See Tanm. 

Fit, sb. A season, a defined portion of time characterised by some 
distinct peculiarity of the weather. 

' A ttrange dryJU we *wt had for secar. A lahtle soop o' wef 'd dee a Tast o' gnid.' 
SimilarljT, * a wet//;' • a blowy//;* • a tempestj/r,* &c 

Fit, adj. Disposed to any given course or proceeding; likdy to 
adopt it, or to be led into it. 

* Well, Ah 't aboot// for ma dinner, fax yan.' 

* He wur// to fell 'im, he war ; he wur that fell.* 
' Fit fur bed ;' tired, and wanting to go. 

' Fit to drop ;' from weariness or exhaustion. 

' Fit to bfjggie ;' disposed, or shewing symptoms of being about, to shy ; of a horse. 

FiBSle, V. n. To be in a state of bodily restlessness ; to fidget 

Kidi. refers this word to Jisk. Comp. Sw. J^aska, to fidget. But note also Sw.D. 
flnln, to twist up or entangle, which seems to involve the same idea; while /ssa means to 
\tt ill an excited or restleu condition, and/isa & dansa explains itself. 

Flackor, v. n. i. To flutter, or move the wings quickly as a bird 
(lorH. 2. I'o be in quick or palpitating motion. 

H. ( }. Jlacha^ circumcursitare. Ihre adduces O. N. flaka, adding that Gudm. Andr. 
M«ftl^ii« to that word the meaning of having a fluttering motion (pendulum motari). Molb. 
i;lvr* (). N. fl'ogra as the etymon of Dan. flagre^ which btter coincides precisely in sense 
with otir wor<r. and to which it is obviously co-ordinate. Comp. also Sw.D. flagra; 
t'r, t*m. ' FUhtryn^ as ioiigc byrdis. Volito^ nideo* 

Flaga, h1). Flakes, laminae; applied alike to the fiat or flag-stones 
iiMrd for j)iiving, and to snow flakes. 

Hw. I), flttg, flak^ thin flakes, such as loosen and separate themselves from iron; any 
flilii mimI stiiali matters which separate from the mass in the form of scales. Comp. iht 
form Itirnftnr with our form Snow-flag. Other forms of the word ^i^flaga^flagu^flag^ 
m ftt%gii ; N. fltik ; N. S. flag, fl(ige> a flat surface ; O. N. flaga^ a chip, a scale. Either 
Mom tlir Nw. yvxh fliieka, to divide, separate, OTflaga^ to split (Rietz); the prevailing idea, 
III rltlirr (tmr, bring that of separation in the form of flat scales or lamin^B. The Danes 
ki>«'|> MfpflnsiP '** ^c ^"* implying by it, also as we do, the large woolly-looking flakes 
wliiiti (mII wiicn tlic cold is anything but intense; som den folder ved balv tm : as it falls in 
N Imirtluw. Comp. also flag-fmrv, flag^ floge^ flat sods of turf peeled off the surface of 
^rii9«-//iowii IhikI. l^licKC arc used in sonic parts of Jutland, says Molb., as a covering for 
pfNt mid Itiri-slacks; and Kok adds, as materials for roofing: just as they are in Cleveland. 

FlokoH, hI). (pr. flcaks or fleeaks). i. Hurdles, or stack-bars ; pro- 
perly HU( h UH iirc composed of wattled-work, or sticks interwoven 
tc)>(i'lh<'r. a. The hunlle-formed quasi-shelf suspended horizontally 
l)rh)w Ihr ccilinj^ in old-fashioned houses, and used to support bacon- 
sidcN, or the like. 

Sw. I), flakf, wattled matters, hurdles or moveable fences of wattle, or made as a gate 


Feather-fowl, sb. (pr. feather-fewl). Birds, * fowl of the air.' 

Rietz gives /Jarfogjel^ jjdderbona, as the provincial name of the wood-grouse or Caper- 
cailzie. Our word is simply a Northern form of * feathered fowl.* Comp. the form ftudt^ 
Rd. Puees, p. 79. 

Featly, adv. Neatly, dexterously, properly. 

* He ^tfetfy in face fettled all eres ' E, Eng. Allii, Poems, B. 585. 

* Fetly hym kissed.' Sir Gaw, and Gr, Kn, 1758. 

From • O. Fr. faict, Fr. fait, a deed, a feat.' Gl. to E, Eng, Allit, Poems The prov. 
Dan. feit, neat, pretty, handsome, may be put side by side with S. G. /a//, ready, handy, 
of which Ihre says he cannot affirm that it is not borrowed from Fr. fait, Comp. also 
Sw. H.faiter (same sense), which takes the Tormfatt in the neut. and fern. (Rietz). 

Feck, sb. i. Activity, ability, might. 2. Number, quantity, mass. 

Jam. regards this word as * of very uncertain origin.' As implying quantity or space, 
' it corresponds to A. S. faec, space, interval, distance ; Gtrm.faeben, to divide into equal 
spaces ; facb, one of these spaces.' As meaning * the greatest part,' ' it seems to have more 
analogy to A. S. feob, Teut. veegb, opes.' As implying * of value,' or * deserving consi- 
deration,' ' it probably claims a different origin, and is nearly allied to Fr. bomme de ptu 
deject, a weak and witless fellow.' I would rather regard it as formed upon the model of 
E. sb. migbt and its analogues in the Northern tongues ; O. N. md, mdkii Sw. mi^, magt; 
Dan. maa, magt; Germ, mag (mogen) macbt; A. S. mag, mibt; — the imperf. of the vb. 
being, in every case, the intermediate step. So O. N./d {imp. feck) ; S. Q.f&,fi3t,fech,fak ; 
Dan./aa*,^; Sw. D.fd,fikk, &c., fully supply both the form and the sense of our Feok. 
As to the latter point, Molbech's remark on Dan. faae — a remark more or less applicable 
also in the case of the other Scand. tongues and dialects — is that it generally assim:ies the 
meanings ' to own,' * possess,' ' enjoy,' * feel and suffer,' besides several others more or less 
corresponding with * to suit (be suitable to),' * to retain,* * to receive,* * to acquire,' * to 
earn or become entitled to ;' and in the various instances of usage we meet perpetually with 
cases in which ability, power to make, to obtain, to keep, is the prominent idea. Like cases 
of the formation of a sb. from the imp, of the vb., and with perfectly analogous transitions 
of sense, are by no means rare. It is at least open to surmise, that the Jutl. word ^kke, 
a purse, a pouch, may be of similar origin. 

Feckless, adj. Feeble, weak, incapable of helping oneself or others. 

Feed, v. a. and n. i. To fatten; as a beast or pig. 2. To become 
fat ; of an animal or a person. 

Comp. Dan. fede, to fatten, make fat, the vb. f^de signifying • to give food to, or feed ;' 
as also do O. N. fada, S. G. fdda. Sec. The Dan. idiom at fede kreature, sviin, gas. Sec, 
corresponds precisely with our own, and the passive form yields our second signification : — 
Enbver, som vil selv fedes of den flok, ban burde fmde og vogte : every one who desires 
to become fat through the flock, must needs feed and tend it. See also Sw. D. fejta, to 
become fat ; O. N. feita, to make fat. 

Feft, V. a. To secure to any one in a formal or legal manner. 

• O. N. ft, A. S. feob. Sec, cattle, riches, money, adopted into the Romance tongues, 
became pray, feu, fieu, Yx,fief Latinized, it became ^i/</ttm, signifying the property in land 
distributed by the Conqueror to his companions in arms, as a reward for their past services 
and a pledge for their rendering the like in future. Hence the term fee, in English law, for 


members of the human body, of the nature of an abscess. See 
fellon, Fell. 

Pr. Pm. * Fdonit K>ore. Antrax^ earbunculus.* 

* Som, for envy, sal haf in |>air lyms 
A Is kylles andfelouns and apostyms.* Pr. o/Comse. 2994. 

Fellon, Bone-, sb. A painful swelling, frequently in a finger, or 
other part of the hand, arising from an abscess, which suppurates and 
breaks after a time, and very frequently, then, is accompanied by die 
passage of particles of the bone. This, the bone, is consequently 
assumed to be the seat of the disorder, which is usually intensdy 

There can be scarcely any doubt that, in at least the vast majority of cases, the bone 
becomes diseased from the action of the confined matter. There is usually an almost 
insuperable reluctance among the people to call in the aid of the surgeon. Consequentlj, 
for days after the abscess requires opening the matter remains pent up ; and, too often, if 
the medical man be eventually called in, the mischief is already done, and the onfoitonate 
practitioner gets the credit of having inflicted it. In its first stages, that, which in the end 
becomes Bone-fellon, is a very manageable disorder. 

Fellon, Joint-, Skin-. 

* The animal shows some stiffness in moving, and if the hand is pressed on any part of 
the back, the beast will shrink as if from pain. This is called Cbine-fiUon in many 
parts of the country :* in Clevcl. Skin-fellon. * Generally, in two or three dajrs, the 
animal appears stiff in the joints : these afterwards begin to swell, and are evidently painful, 
particularly when he attempts to move. Sometimes the stiffness extends all over the body, 
and the beast is unable to rise without assistance. This is termed Jutnt-feUon,* Clater's 
Cattle Doctor^ p. 59. 

FeUon of the Udder (pr. yuer). 

The udders of cows are frequently thickened and enlarged in the progress of the disorder, 
in which case the term Yuer-fellon is employed. 

Fellow-fondy adj. Enamoiu-ed, in love ; said of a female. 

Felly, felve, sb. The felloe of a wheel ; one of the curved pieces, 
several of which go to make up the rim. 

A,S./<glg*,/<Elga; Germ, ftlge; Dut.velg; Dzn. /ctlge. In the second form we have 
another instance of the transition of the {"-sound into v, as m Dan. plog, plov, and Clevd. 
Pluf or Flewf. 

Felly, V. a. To break up fallow land. 

Dan. D. (Jutl.) /aide, falle or fetlge ; falle elsewhere ; to break up sward ; to plough 
lightly and for the first time, before the deeper ploughing for the seed. 

Felt, pcpl. Hidden, concealed. See Fele. 

Felter, v. a. To entangle, to clot or cause to intertwine and become 


mixed and confusedly coherent ; of hair, wool, &c. : chiefly used in the 

A. S. felt, clotted hair; Genn/r/z; Dut. velt; Dzn, Jilt; and Sw.Jilt. Molb. connects 
^ Dan. sb. with O. N. fell, feUdr; and Morris, Gl. to E. Eng. AUit. Poems, collates 
Vf.gwalt, Gze\./alt, hair of the head. The later Lat. writers, says Ihre, seem to have derived 
ihas JBtrum, filtrum from the Goths and Alemanni, the older Lat. allied form being wUut, 
There is scarcely room for doubt that prov. Dan. atflte sammen ; atfite penge sammen : to 
tcrape money together in a miserly way, involves a figurative use of the same word. The 
Lmds Gl. affords another illustration of our word : * The wheel gar (got) ho'd 'n his brat 
(pinafore) an* felttr'd an' draew him in, poor bam ! ' 

' With a hede lyke a dovrdt felterd his here.' TotoneL Myst. p. 85. 
Of Nebuchadnezzar, it is said, E. Eng. AUit. Poems, B. 1689, 

' Yzntfyltered and felt flosed hym umbe 
That schad fro his schulderes to his schyre wykes.' 

From the notice of the casting of the devils from out of heaven, Ih. 224 : 

• Fylter fenden-folk forty dayej Iencl>e 
Er |>at styngande storme stynt ne myjt.' 

* Feitered locks ;' quoted from Fairfax's Tasso by Brockett, Carr, Morris. 

* As shaggy and rough as a fettered foal.' 

FeltricSy sb. A disorder to which horses are liable, in which g^eat 
thickening and hardness of the skin and the integuments beneath take 
place, and the hair becomes matted and staring. See Felter, to entangle, 
clot, as hair or wool does. 

FelvOy sb. See Felly. 

Femmer, adj. Slender, slightly made, weak. 

Another instance of a word preserved accurately as to form, while its sense is simply 
transitionary or derived from its original sense. Comp. Sw. D. femmer, D. \>,Jimmer,fim, 
quids in one's movements, active, dexterous or handy, light. The next stose would natu- 
rally be what is given above as the meaning of Clevel. femmer. 

Fend, v. n. To be careful and industrious ; to strive or labour, or 
employ oneself; to manage or make shift. 

Dan. \i.fcente,fente oifinte, to seek, try to acquire, with care and toil ; atfintefor noget: 
to give oneself trouble to obtain anything. Molb. adduces the Eng. D. vtoid ferui, fend for 
tmemf in his notice o{ fante oxfente; as also Jutl./om/ and N./<en^/«. The latter ap- 
proaches more to the Sw. D. fonn fdngta. Fdnta, however, also occurs. A Dan. example 
is, feente om foder til kreatureme til foraaret, naar vinterfoderet er gaaet op : to fend for 
^ning-fodder for the stock when the winter supplies are consumed. Fending for fodder* 
here, seems often to be done by means of a khid of indirect begging from the neighbours. 

* •* He tries to fend at all points;" he is industrious in a variety of ways.* Wb. Gl. 

* I assayed him, and heffended weelc.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 365. 

Fendy sb. Careful and provident action or labour, contrivance or 
management ; industrious striving, activity in one's business or employ- 

A a 


ment ; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself and provide things 

* They make a good fmd for a living/ 

* No more find than a new-bom bairn ;' of a helpless person. Wb, Ol, 

Fendable, fendible, adj. Active, industrious, notable, contriving. 

Fend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously ; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing Uame to others. 

*Fmd, from Fr. eUtfindre, to forbid, defend, protect; definsi, prohibition, protection, 
fence.' Wedgw. *Fendtr, i.e. defender; that which fends, defends, guards.' Rich. He 
also quotes from Beaum. and Fletcher : 

* Your son, an't please you, sir, is new cashiered yonder. 
Cast from his mistress' favour ; and such a coil there is. 
Such finding and such proving* 

* The landlord was to hold a court. 
And there his tenants were attending. 

Sundry debates prguving and finding* JoeoSer, Discourse, p. 24. 

Fend-headfly sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife, 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admitting of defence or justification; capable of 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Fent, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or left, in any article 
of clothing. See Vent. 

F seems sometimes to take the place of v in our dialect, as in this word and in Fusom, a 
word given in Wb, GL Observe also Pr, Pm. Fente, and note. 

Fenty sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The ' binding' is a narrow strip of material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pose of protection, and, secondarily perhaps, ornament. The narrow strip, however, seems 
to supply the idea of the word, which is exactly correspondent to that in Dzn.finte, ex- 
pbined by Molb. through the word strimmei^ a strip. 

Fent, v. a. To bind, or sew an edging on to a garment, &c. See 
Fenty sb., Fents. 

FentSy sb. Remnants of cloth, calico, &c. 

Comp. O. D.fiittt which Molb. defines as, ' a small strip of land lying alongside other 
lands, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.' Our word most frequently 
occurs in the phrase Fents and fag-enda ; but it is also used simply. See Fent, v. a. 
and sb. 

Featy V. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which is probably what Molb. {Dansi Dial. Lex.) 
means when he says o{ fiestemand^ fiBstemm, fiestensgave, fastensml that they are gamle og 


<Mgte DoHske ord, old and genuine Danish words. Ihre defines /ss/a, * firmare aliquo modo, 
physioo aut morali :' in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, ' sponsalium solenni ritu 
sponsam sponso addicere ;' whence /<es/«mo, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; fatiteman^ &c., 
die man she is engaged or betrothed to ; f<z%temngt-ring^ the ring of betrothal. In the 
forensic usage, he adds, it varies in sense ; as f<Jt&ta ed^ to stablish an oath by some security 
given ; /asia kop, to confirm or make binding a bargain ; from which comes the term 
faes/^pening^ the money>pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Festing-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Kok in v. FtBste-^T), faestg 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth oneself. Rietz gives /asta in the same senses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire : as fasta tjenstebjon, to hire farm-servants ; /asta sjoman, to engage or ship sailors ; 
and this almost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Ilu^e's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of band-fasting over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making fast or firm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is the more probable, and Kok certainly errs in his derivation. 

Festing-peiiny, sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiiing-penny, Gk>d'8-peniiy, Aries. 

S. G. fcestt'pemng ; O. fi . festi-peningr ; Dan. fctsiepenge. The first of these words it 
explained under Feat. In Jutl. the Dan. word — under the prov. form fabstpen^ — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was — if not, is yet — held under a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term fceUe : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession on one of these farms, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for all ; which payment is called fabsi-peng'. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb. f<Bsta^ or fctste^ which, Uke O. Sw. fastt' 
pening, imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of forming 
the contract whether of future marriage, actual marriage, or what not. Thus festanda/m 
is mentioned by Ihre ; fastensgave by Molb. {Dial. Lex.) ; faste/a^ fcestningfaB^ fcuttndtfm^ 
fdistnedefct in Dansk Gloss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mentions /«s/«»sg;av, 
and Rietz fdstning^ in the same sense. Clevel. Festing-peiiny is as completely analogous 
as possible: and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hiring- or Fe8ti]ig-];>eiin7, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an unlooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Festing-penny with the 
notification of her altered plans, shews the force or bindingness yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-time of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. * \>essa skikkiu kaupir Haukr ok reidir \>a firir fe^arpenning ok gengr i brott ok efitr 
ftnu :* this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the festing-penny^ and gans forth and after the 
money. Flat. i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i. To cany anything with one, when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

• WanU a speead, diz he? Tell *im, Ah '11 be on inoo, an' Ah '11 fetch yan wi' me.' 
Cf. *And8et$e ys itppan bys bust, ne gd be n^^Ser Vat be dnig \nng on bis buse feeee,* 
A.S. Gospels, Matt xxiv. 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

I have zfetcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.' Wb. Gl, 

A a 2 

4 (« 


Fettle, V. a. i. To adapt, arrange, fit up. 2. To prepare, equip, 
get ready, supply. 3. To contrive, accomplish or manage a thing. 
4. To put into a state of repair. 5. To beat, thrash, overcome or 

In his notice of the Sw. D. word /iissa^Jiisa, to scour, to furbish up, Rietz cdUtcf not 
only N. S.fitjent Oerm. Dial. ySssr/n, to rub, polish, dress or trim up assiduously ; M. Genn. 
ftiten, to make neat or pretty ; M. O. ftitian^ id., but also our own fettle. Morris, OL to 
E. Eng. AUit. Poems, also gives PI. D.fisseln, with the sense * to bustle about,' and Goth. 
feitian; but quotes besides O. Yns. fitla, to adorn, and ^.fitloy to labour at a thing to get 
it right. Wedgw. also gives most of these words, adding * PI. D.Jissel-mdien (fettle-maid), 
an under housemaid.* But he seems to halt between this derivation — founded on * the Hght 
work required to finish the preparation of a thing,' — and that which assumes as * the fimda- 
mental idea, that of binding up, binding together, from A. S./r/c/, a girdle, Sw. faedU, a 

firdlc, band, handle of a sword, the equivalent of Germ, fessel, a thong, firom fassm, to hold.' 
give the following from Landnamabok^ p. 409, explanatory notes on one of the 'songs' 
in the text, * Fetill ligamtn, mitella, et in specie, tania qu& clypei suspenduntur, Hinc et 
fetill metonymice pro elypeo vel armU, adhibetur.' If for arms generally, why not for entire 
equipment ? Valcat quantum. Certainly the transition of meaning from that of ' bnckling 
to,' — accingendi se ad aliquid, applying oneself to a matter — to arranging or completing 
the matter itself, is rather less natural than the converse : from busy and dBT^ptual actiTity, 
that is, to resolute effort and application. I should, therefore, be inclined to adopt Rietx's 
view. The word is of continual occurrence in our older North Eng. writers : c. g. * yUeffi^, 
in Toumel. Myst. p. 309. Again ; — 

• Now alle hese fyue syj>e5, forsoJ>e, were fetled on Jns kn3r3t, 
& vchone halched in o))er, )>at non ende hade, 
& fyched vpon fyue poyntej, l>at fayld ncuer,' Sir Goto, and Gr, Kn. 1. 656 ; 

in which passage the sense seems rather to approach to that of S. G.fittja, coUigare, with 
which f<BtU is closely connected. But the sense may preferably be that Aese five specified 
* syl>e3* — graces or moral excellences — were, so to speak, a kind of vesture or array, nice^ 
fashioned and ^tttd— fettled — upon this knight, rather than simply united im him or hii 
character. In the following, however, — 

• When hit (the ark) wzt^/etded and forged and to J>e fulle grayj>ed,' 

E. Eng. AUit. Poems, B. 343 ; 

• And he J>at fetly in hce fettled alle eres,' lb. 585 ; 

• Fettled in on (one) form,' spoken of Patience and Poverty (C. 38) ; 

and * farandely on a felde hefettele^ hym to bide,' lb. 435 ; 

there can be no mistake either as to sense or the general turn and run of the idea. Comp. 
the following examples : — 

1. • *• A hnveiy fettled house ;" well furnished.' Wb. Gl. 

* Ktifetded t' lahtle chap a spot i' t' au'd cau'f-pcn fur 's rabbits.* 

2. ***We are just fettling for off;" getting ready to start on a journey or expedi- 
tion.' Wb. Gl. 

* •• Fettle me that, an ye please ;" to a shop-keeper, the speaker presenting at the same 
time an order for goods.* lb. 

* We'll be leading to moorn's moom. Gan an* get pike-bottom /r/rf^rf.' 

3. * Ay, Ah aims we'Wfetde it for him ;* get something managed or arranged— e. g. get- 
ting a boy into a situation, or out of a scrape, and the like. 

4. • I wish you could fettle me my coat a bit.' Wb. Gl. 
' Ah fun' h\m fettling 's au'd sled.' 


'5. • Ah 11 /«///« *m an' Ah get grip ov Mm.' 

* Noo, young un : thou *\\ fettle t' au'd cock, yit ;' of two cocks fighting. 

FetUe, sb. i. Stale, condition: the precise sense qualified by an 
adjective, or by the application or connection of the word. 

* Nobbut in bad fettle for work ;' of animal or man, when out of condition, or poorly. 

' Ah 's feared he's in hzd fettle^ poor chap ;' of a man whose circumstances are supposed to 
be but poor or bad. 

* In ^lime fettle ;' * out of fettle;* of man, animal, machinery, tool, instrument, &c. 

Pew, adj., but used substantively. A quantity or number: if un- 
qualified by an adj., a small quantity or number. Comp. the use 
of Vast. 

A,S.feaufa; O.N. /or; S. G.^^; Dan./ba, &c. Some unnecessary ingenuity has been 
applied to explain the idiom * a few broth.' A specimen may be found in Leeds Gl.^ where 
the explanation is made to depend upon the pieces of meat boiled in making the broth, or 
upon the pieces of bread broken into it preparatory to * serving it out.* The Cr. Gl.^ how- 
erer, seems to be much nearer the mark, by suggesting that the word hrotb is * generally 
used as a noun of number ;* and Rich, gives a quotation in which it is actually used in the 
pi. : * When they exceede, and haue varietie of dishes, the first are their baked meates, and 
then their brotbes or pottage. Hackluyt, Voyages, vol. i. p. 496.' Cf. • Brewcf is derived 
from the plural of A. S. briwy jusculum.' Pr. Pm. note to Browesse^ brcwes. The further 
e]q>lanation depends upon the substantival use of the word few, analogous to that of little 
in the phrases, * a little water,' * a little bread,' &c. Comp. the usage oipaululutn in Latin, 
till peu in French, &c. It is worthy of remark that O. N. far is used in almost exactly the 
same manner : thust fir jotunn^ a few giants ; fdss erfrd^um vant, of but a few (cs Uttle) 
is there want to the wise. The neuter, /a//, also is used absolutely, exactly as our few is ; 
e.g. fdtt er til^ nema . ., equivalent to our there's nobbut . . to do this or the 

* There was a good few at church this morning.* Wb. Gl. 

* There was nobbut a poorish few.* lb. 

* There 's a gzyfew side-aways amang thae whoats.* 

* Not a good crop of apples, but a canny scattering ^Wc/ amang t* trees.* 
•Nobbut a lahtle /«£/.' 

Pey, V. a. To cleanse, or remove impurities. 

At first I added to the above definition this more, — ' hence to winnow, the ordinary wind 
being the agency employed ;' but I am inclined to think it would be an error to confound 
fey, to winnow by aid of the natural wind, with the present word, which originates in to cleanse, to scour. Comp. Germ, fegen^ to cleanse, &c. ; M. Germ, vegen; 
'H.fegja; Dan. /?/>, to sweep, clean up. Comp. also 0.14. fdga, fa, both signifying to 
clean, to brighten. See Fey, to winnow. 

A curious adaptation of the word is given in the following example, taken from the lips 
of an old lady remarlcable for her * " Yorkshire " undefiled :* — 

* Fey out thae sheep out in t' garth.* 

Pey, V. a. To winnow, or clear com from its impurities, by aid of 
the natural wind. 

Rietz gives fo{g)a or/oa, and faua^ in as nearly as possible the same sense as our word ; 
viz. to sift com in such a way that the refuse is removed from it. Foges'dll is then given 


as a finer kind of sieve, or a winnowing-fiin, while Molb. gives Jtii md, fm af h %i 
a customary N. Scdl. expression for to cleanse com, by aid of a sieve, after thmhin g, 
and removing the coarser impurities by other means. 

FesBon, v. a. i. To seize with fierce eagerness, whether on food, as 
with the avidity of extreme hunger, or as a bull-dog on a bull Hence 
2. To fight, engage in active strife. 

Possibly a mere vernacular corruption of fasten; especially as in Wb, Gi. it is given as 
only used with the prep, on following. Thus * they fairly Jtzzoned on' is ezpkined, * tiiey 
got at last to blows.' 

Fike, flck, feek, v. n. To move restlessly, or fidget, with the feet 
and toes, as an infant does ; applied to any resdess acdon of the feet, 
whether purposeless and unconscious, or otherwise, and of both man 
and animal. 

O. N.,/£fca, to make haste, to bustle ; S. G,Jika ; Sw. D.J!ka,Jiga ; O. Sw, JSkia; D. Dial 
fige; Switz. JicbUn — all implying more or less of haste, bustle, fidgetty eagerness, and the 
like. Our word in process of time has come to bear a somewhat varied, but still doseij 
allied signification. 

* T' puir bairn nobbut Jicks wi' *s Ues a bit He 's not jrabble to meeav else ;' of an 
idiot ii^nt. 

' He fuk'd an' he fiii^d, while he gat t' boong oot ;' of a hot-water bottle, in bed, 

Comp. ' He flang yan (a cracker) upon my breeks, 

And truly, sir, it burnt my leg 
And garred me/etk like hen with egg.' Joeo^er. Disc, p. i8. 

' He louped t' yat' an' nobbut /t«i^'</ a bit wiv his hind feet ;' of a pig, which jumped over 
the door of the sty, all but clearing it. 

Cf. * ffbr they reysede J>e crosse with l>i body, 

And fycbede it in a tre mortasse vyolently.' Rd. PUees, p. 66. 

* The kynge Boors redressed hym in his saddle and ficcbtd hym so in his steropes so 
harde that the iren bente.' Merlin'^. 328. 

Pile over, v. a. To smooth over, wheedle, cajole, whether by dis- 
arming suspicion, or applying flattery. 

In Ancr, RiwU we have flcelungy flattery ; fjeeles, vUfeUC, flattereth ; wiyfiUs^ wiles, passr 
ing into wibeles, vneles^ all connected with A. S. wigelung, gewiglung^ deception, juggling, 
enchantment. Contraction from the form wiyles^ retaining only the interchangeable /or v, 
gives us our present word with unaltered sense. Comp. Fris. Jueheln^ to flatter, give good 
words ; and with it again the iS*. Marb. and Ancr. RiwU {oxmjiken^ to deceive, impose on. 

Find, V. a. (pr. finnd). To find (pret. fand, fund ; p. p. fun). 

Finks, sb. The residuary substance left after the extraction of the 
oil from the blubber. 

Comp. Sw. D.Jinktr, sb. pi., i. various small parts from the interior of the goose when 
cooked : a. The fat of pigs cut into small pieces in order to be melted ; ttdg-fidttr. 


Rietz quotes also Dut. vinktr^ small angular bits of meat. Note also Dan. V./inhr, shreds 
of apple, and Dzn^Jinktr, a dish of minced meat, especially of the lirer and lights of the pig, 
cut up and cooked with vinegar and seasoning. 

Fire-oodSy sb. Bellows. See Cods. 

• " Blast it up wi* X^Jtre-cods;" take the bellows to the fire.* Wb. OL 

Fire-eldin, sb. Fuel generally. See Eldin. 

Fire-fanged, adj. i. Of food; burnt, or 'caught/ in the prepara- 
tion. 2. Of a person ; fierce or vehement of disposition or tempera- 

S,Q.fanga; Sw.D, fanga; Dsin.fiengt; S./engja; H.S, fmgiftt anftngen; Oerm. 
Dial, anfangen ; Mid. Germ, vanken, venken — all, but the last, signifying to take fire, as well 
as to set fire to, to kindle. Our word is a direct p. p. from the original Scand. form, and 
as O. Sw. /(Btnga is doubtless derived from fangOy to catch, to take, — see Hire in v. Fanga, 
and Molb. in v. Fcmge, — the coincidence in sense between our word, and the prov. Eng. 
word eaugbt is interesting. Sw. eld-/angd, inflammable or hot-tempered, coincides with the 
second sense of our word precisely. 

Fire-flaiLght, sb. i. The flaming coal which sometimes leaps from 
the fire with a report. 2. Any luminous appearance which seems to 
shoot or dart through or athwart the sky; meteors. Northern lights, 
lightning. 3. Metaphorically a hasty-tempered person. 

Jam. says this * is evidently from Su. G.Jyr^ Teut. vfVr, ignis, and vlaeken, spargere flam- 
mam ; vibrare instar flammae, coruscare.' Rather from Sw. flioga, or some Dialect form ; 
e. g. Sw. D. flauga,flyge,flyg,fluug (imp. flaug) ; O. Sw, flivga, fliauga; O. N. fijv^a, 
Cmnp. the forms vlubt, Ancr. Riwle ; flvbt^ Mali Meid. ; flaugb, for flew, Percy's Foi, MS, 
i. p. 71. The idea is simply that of fire or flame in flight or motion. 

3. • ** A Ttgahr Jire-flaugbl ;** a hasty-tempered person.* Wb. Gl. 

Fire-foddery sb. Fuel ; aliment for the fire. 
Fire-porr, sb. A poker. See Fire-pote. 

Dan. purre^ as, at pttrre ved ilden : to stir, or poke the fire ; N. S. purren, id. The Dan. 
word is used figuratively, much as E. poke is in so-called slang, and stir in more formal 
speech ; thus, at purre ten, to remind one ; at purre folket ltd, to rouse or stir the people up. 
Jam. gives * por, a thrust with a sword,' and quotes Teut. porren, urgere. 

Fire-pote, fire-poit» sb. A poker; the instrument used for poking 
the fire. See Peat or Pote. 

Fire-smatch, sb. The savoiu* or twang which accompanies an 
article of food which has been burnt in cooking, or * caught.' See 

Fire-8tead, sb. The place appropriated to the fire. 

First, adj. In the sense of next, applied to a day of the week ; as 
' ' Sat'rda' first,' for Saturday next. 


Fishing-gad, sb. A fishing-rod. See GkuL 

Fishing-taum, sb. A fishing-line. See Tatun. 

Fit, sb. A season, a defined portion of time characterised by some 
distinct peculiarity of the weather. 

* A strange dryy£r we 've had for seear. A lahtle soop o' wet 'd dee a vast o' gold.* 
Similarly, * a -wttfit;* * a blowy ^/;* • a tempcsty^// &c. 

Fit, adj. Disposed to any given course or proceeding; likely to 
adopt it, or to be led into it. 

* Well, Ah 's abooty£r for ma dimier, ftir yan.' 

* He wury£r to fell 'im, he war ; he wur that fell.' 
' Fit fiir bed ;' tired, and wanting to go. 

' Fit to drop ;' from weariness or exhaustion. 

* Fit to boggle ;' disposed, or shewing symptoms of being about, to shy ; of a horse. 

FiBzle, V. n. To be in a state of bodily restlessness ; to fidget 

Rich, refers this word to fish. Comp. Sw. fiasha^ to fidget. But note also Sw. D. 
fissla^ to twist up or entangle, which seems to involve the same idea ; while fissa means to 
be in an excited or restless condition, andy£ssa & dansa explains itself. 

Flacker, v. n. i. To flutter, or move the wings quickly as a bird 
does. 2. To be in quick or palpitating motion. 

S. G. fiacka^ circumcursitare. Ihre adduces O. N. fiaka, adding that Gudm. Andr. 
assigns to that word the meaning of having a fluttering motion (pendulum motari). Molb. 
gives O. N. flogra as the etymon of Dan. flagre^ which latter coincides precisely in sense 
with our word, and to which it is obviously co-ordinate. Comp. also Sw. D. flogra ; 
Pr, Pm. * FUkeryn, as ionge byrdis. Volito^ nideo* 

Flags, sb. Flakes, laminae ; applied alike to the flat or flag-stones 
used for paving, and to snow flakes. 

Sw. D. flagt flc^% thin flakes, such as loosen and separate themselves from iron ; any 
thin and small matters which separate from the mass in the form of scales. Comp. the 
{onn jamflag with our form Snow-flag. Other forms of the word sneflagatflagu^flagd 
or flagd ; N. flak ; N. S. flag, flage, a fiat surface ; O. N. flaga, a chip, a scale. Either 
from the Sw. verb^o^rilra, to divide, separate, or flaga, to split (Rietz) ; the prevailing idea, 
in either case, being that of separation in the form of flat scales or laminx. The Danes 
keep snee-flage as we do, implying by it, also as we do, the large woolly-looking flakes 
which fall when the cold is anything but intense; som den folder ved baJv 10: as it falls in 
a half-thaw. Comp. also flag-frv, fl^S-> fl^S^y ^^^ sods of turf peeled off the surface of 
grass-grown land. These are used in some parts of Jutland, says Molb., as a covering for 
peat and turf-stacks ; and Kok adds, as materials for roofing : just as they are in Cleveland. 

Flakes, sb. (pr. fleaks or fleeaks). i. Hurdles, or stack-bars ; pro- 
perly such as are composed of wattled-work, or sticks inter^^'oven 
together. 2. The hurdle-formed quasi-shelf suspended horizontally 
below the ceiling in old-fashioned houses, and used to support bacon- 
sides, or the like. 

Sw. D. flake, wattled matters, hurdles or moveable fences of wattle, or made as a gate 


is ; other fonns- being, Jlagt, Jlakt, flakt ; N. S. flah^ flake ; N. Fris. flage^flacki, Rietz 
adduces alio O. N. fldki^ any expanded and level surface, and D. flage^ which seems to me 
to be in oversight of the true analogy of the word. For this, comp. Germ, fltebtm, to 
interweave, to wattle; fleebt-werk — the exact equivalent of Sw.fldt-verk, used by Rietz to 
explain flak§ — wattle-work, basket-work. The true O. N. etymon surely is flakia, to 
entangle, thence to interweave ; intricare. Hald. Comp. also Dan. D. flaggf which Molb. 
illustrates by Dut. vlaak, N. S^flakt^ but, like Rietz, refers to O. fi.flaga, a chip, scale. 

Flam, sb. Flattery ; sometimes, if not always, with the implied idea 
of falsehood rather than simple hollowness. 

Wedgw. sajTs of flim-flam^ under Flam, that it is evidently of an * imitative character, 
probably representing a flapping motion with some light implement,' and compares fiddle- 
faddU^ Germ, fick-fack, &c. There is, however, Sw. D. flavny yet current in some parts, 
almost obsolete in others, signifying both the buffoon, fool or jester, and also a jest, a piece 
of buffoonery, such as the professional jester or fool might display or indulge in. The 
transition thence to our sense is simple enough, and even in a sense necessary. Comp. also 
Sw. D. flams, loud, noisy talk, chatter, loudly-spoken nonsense ; flamsa, flatnser, the corre- 
sponding vb. and person. 

Flam, V. a. To flatter, to beguile by the use of flattery. 

Flan, V. n. To spread or expand more widely towards the top, as 
a vessel or utensil with sides sloping outwards. 

Hall, gives 'flan, broad and large. North ;* and Wb, Ol. gives ' To flan, to spread wide 
at the top, to expand upwards as the sides of a bowl or scuttle,' — an O. Dan. word, un- 
altered in form and sense. Molb. {Dam^k D. Lex.) ^vtsflane, i. To gape, to stare; 2. In 
a sense closely analogous to our own : * It is said of a waggon whose wheels do not 
stand upright, or parallel with each other, on the axletree, so that the space between them 
above is greater tlian where they touch the ground : thus, den vogn flaner for meget og er 
vadtenem : that waggon fians over mich an* 's like t* ower-welt.' The occurrence of the 
Sw. D. words flana, an unsteady, thoughtless girl ; flane, a downright fool ; flanun, un- 
steady, flighty, tottering; flanka, to be unsteady, I. as to conduct, and 2. as to stability ; 
several of which words, as well as Dan. D. flane, an unsteady, flighty, easy-going female, 
being referred to O. li.flan, thoughtlessness, flana, to be heedless, inconsiderate, rash, leads, 
to the inference that our own word and its O. Dan. original are due to the same transition 
of idea which gives force to the expression * unstable as water thou shalt not excel ;' first, 
unsteady or unstable of character ; tlien unsteady or unstable in the physical sense ; thence, 
narrow at bottom and wide at top, so as to present the form of instability. 

Flappery, sb. The various small appurtenances to one's personal 

Kappy, adj. i. Wild, unsteady; applied to a person. 2. Light; 
marked with levity or unsteadiness ; of a person's ways or manners. 

This may, of course, be simply a derivative from flap, * the extremity of any loose and 
pendulous garment or the like ;' but it should be observed that Sw. D.flabba, a sImI, flabber, 
a sloven, and Dan. D. flab, a silly, pert, immodest girl, suggest the possibility of a more 
direct origin ; and also that Rietz distinctly refers Dan. flab, as well as the Sw. D. words, 
and the Sc. flaff, a fool, or noodle, to Sw. D. flabb, the lip, mouth ; and that to Lat. 



Flatchy sb. One who wheedles, or tries to gain his ends by the arts 
of flattery. Generally applied to children. 

There can be little doubt that this is simplj another form of Sc. JUeeb <n Jleieb, to 
wheedle, flatter, or f»wn. Cf. Sw. D. Jleka, to caress, fondle, h.wn ; O. Sw. Jueira, to 
flatter; U.fliira; Dzn.D.Jlegrt, Old Qtrm. Jlecben, Dutch vltijiH, come very near 
our form : while Old Sw. flikan, O. Qcrm, flgcbare, Dut. Mjer, one who flatters or fawns, 
are essentially the same as our word. Molb., in v. FUgr*, collates O. U.fladr, dissimulation, 
wheedling, adulation, deceit, and its correlative ^odiron; Dan. D.Jiags otjlagr, 

Flatter-oap. See Flatch. 

Flatun, V. n. To flame, blaze, shine out. 

* \t flaunted out hau*f-way across t' rooad ;' of a certain mysterious blaze of light. 

* As wexe and a weke 
Were twjmed togideres. 
And thanne a ^iflaumynge 
Forth out of bothe.' P. Plougbm. p. 360. 

ilaumy, adj. Tawdry ; * vulgarly fine in dress.' FFX. Gi. 

Sw.D. Jlammi(jg)f or flamnM{g): som ahkar pr&lande dragt; of a woman fond of 
showy or gaudy dress, — another noteworthy instance of a Northern word preserved in the 
Clevel. as well as in a Scand. dialect. 

Flaiin, sb. A custard baked in paste; * egg-pies' (Cotgrave). 

* Ft. flans; Qerm.flader; Dut, vUude. Of unknown etymology. Cotgr. sajrs — Flans, 
flaums, custards, egg-pies.* Rich. — * The origin of the word seems to be the sound made 

by the fall of something soft, represented by the syllable ^arf or blad; Sw. ktMaddt; Protr. 
Dan. ko^cU; G. kubfladen, a cow dung.' Wcdgw. — Unsavoury, if true. But A.S. 
flene orflyne, what is made soft, batter. Is, of course, the origin of our word. See Pr, Pm, 
Flawne, and note. 

Flaup, sb. Idle, meaningless talk, flippancy. 

O. N. flapr^ vana verba, inconsiderantia ; fleipr, apinz, futilia verba ; fletpra, eflfiitire : 
Hald. Comp. Sw. D.flepatfldpa, to talk and tattle sillily, to talk stuff; N.fleipe, id. 

Flauping, flaupish, flaupy, adj. i. Given to light or meaningless 
words; thence, insincere, fawning. 2. Given to levity of conduct or 
demeanour, or to tawdrily showy dress or adornment. 

The Sw. D. ^d].flepugyflepi{g\ give our form, but vary in sense. The nonns fleptfleper, 
fldper^flap, &c., current in different districts, give approximate senses, if not exactly coin- 
cident ; but, of course, our adj. is due to our sb. Flaup. 

Flawter, flowter, v. a. To flurry or make to flutter ; to put into a 
state of trepidation ; to alarm or frighten. 

O. N. flyta, accelerare, festinare ; Sw. D. flita sej, to make haste, to be in a flurry or 
bustle ; N. flyta, to quicken or urge to haste ; fliUa^ v. n., to be in haste or in a hurry. 
Both the O. N. and the Sw. D. words seem to take the active and neuter sense alike, and it 
would seem that our word, if not still, yet at an eariier time, has done the same. In Fork 
Castle Depositions, p. 154, I find — * And then the thing that did cry like a hen, did fiawier 


with the wingr against the bordf of the floor;' wYatrt^fiawUr leems to imply the signs of 
trepidation or haste made by a winged creature, rather than the haste or trepidation itstlf. 
Spthjiotigbur in LetcU Gl, ; flouter by Carr ; flowter by Brockett. 

* His maister an' him 's had a few words, an' he 's %^^y fiougbUrtd* Lads Oi, 

Flay, fley, v. a. To frighten or terrify, to deter. 

Morris, in the Gl. to Pr, ofConse., refers this to O. N./l<gja, to put to flight, to terrify, 
giyen by Egikson, and rightly. Jam. merely suggests that O. N./x/a is used in the same 
sense as flay^ but it is scarcely likely that a word in such general use in the Northumbrian 
dialects from the thirteenth century downwards should be without some distinct original. 
Comp. Sw. D. fld, to drive forth precipitately. 

Flay-boggle, sb. i. A hobgoblin, an apparition. 2. Also a scare- 
crow. See Flay-cruke and Boggle. 

ilay-orow, flay-oruke, sb. i. A scarecrow; any dressed-up object 
set up in the fields to frighten the crows. 2. A grotesquely-dressed 

Flaysome, adj. Inspiring fear or apprehension ; qualified to frighten 
or terrify. 

• •• A yzrty flaysomt thing ;" terrifying to look at.' Wb, GL 

Flecked, adj. Pied, spotted, streaked. 

O. "S.^eeka^ to spot or stain, flecltTy a spot, flechottTy spotted, pied ; Germ, flnhyfitchtn^ 
a spot, stain, ^rh.fleeheny to stain; Dut. vUckiy plaeke; Dzn.D, flagent, Jtagrti, not of 
the same uniform colour, spotted, blotched ; S. Q. fleck, sb., fleeka, vb. 

Flee, sb. A fly : the turnip-fly {Halitca nemorum\ particularly. 

The name is sometimes written ^«a, which might seem to be due to the active flea-like 
skips made by the insect when disturbed. But I tliink it is more the Pr. of the word, than 
any intended difference in orthography. 

Flee-by-sky, sb. A flighty person ; always applied to a female. 
BrocL says * a silly, flirting, absurdly-dressed, giggling girl.' 

• A fio'MX.tTsome flee-be-skie* Wb. GL 

Fleece, sb. Bodily condition, or fatness: applied to persons who 
are or have been * fat-fleshed,' and signif)dng such flesh or fatness as 
may be easily stripped off"; e. g. by sickness, privation, or * training.' 

* ** He carries a tsltc fleece ;" he is very fat.' Wb, GL 

• " He has shaken a bonny fleece this last bout ;•* he has lost much flesh this last ill- 
ness.' Ih, 

Fleeing-aither, fleeing-eather or ether, sb. The dragon-fly. See 

Jam. says * we find fleonde naeddrey i. e. a flying adder, given as synonymous with atUr 
copped However this may be, the name now implies the dragon-fly throughout a very wide 
area in the North. Hall, quotes it with the word NfxrA subjoined, as also Adder AffJU^ from 

B b 2 


Tarioos dialects. Brockett gives it for Durham and Northumberland, while Jam. gives 
FUting'Oddir for Roxburghshire, A&tr and Atbtr-UU for Clydesdale, and ilAfr-co^ or 
Natter-cap for Fifeshire. Brockett's short comment on the name is this : ' die Tulgar are 
afraid of being stung by it/ which is equally true in Clevel. (as is implied in both the names 
given above), and I doubt not elsewhere. Whether the idea now is not perpetuated by the 
name, as, in the first instance, the name must have followed the idea, is a matter of doabt. 
It is curious, however, to observe the different forms the original word (A.S. <Mtr, ator; 
O. Sw. ettTf titer; O. N. eitr; O. D. cr«r; Dan. edder; Germ, eiter, venom) has assumed 
in the name of this insect, indusive of the S. English form, adder. A Sw. D. name for this 
insect is troU-snall, snail being the name for a lizard (Clevel Aak, Bsk, or Haak), so that 
iroU-maU seems to embody both the ideas involved in our two names, esthmr uid 
The Sw. name, sldmda, contains a very similar idea to that implied in adder-bolt. 

^aak, fleeing-esk, sb. The dragon-fly : (genus LibeUula). 

Fleeing-nedder. See Fleeing-aither, and comp. ' Tanging-nadder/ 

Flesh, flesh-meat, sb. Butcher's meat generally, in opposition to 
bacon or pork. 

* Ah deean't think at Ah've tasted ^^si^ going iv tolf weeks.* 
' Nobbut bacon an' taties ; me flesb-meat* 

Flesh-fly, sb. The common blue-bottle fly. 

Pr. Pm. • Flesebe Flyt, Musco* 

Flet, sb. Live coals, embers yet glowing, sparks of fire. Wh. GL 
adds * Flaught,' as another form. 

These can scarcely be only variations in form. The idea in Flaught is of fire or flame 
in motion ; in Flet, of fire as simply visible or evidently alive. The word viUtte in te 
first text of Lay. iii. 33, replaced by Jure in the second, establishes Flet as an old word 
(Sir F. Madden makes it floor; A.S. flet^ fixed residence, hall, floor), with the sense itiU 
preserved in Clevel. 

Flick, sb. A flitch ; of bacon, namely. 

O. 'Dzn.flyhke^ et stort kiadstyike; f. ex. en svineside: a large piece of flesh; e.g. the 
side of a pig. * 40 fliicke flesk : 40 flitches of bacon ; mentioned in an account of a wed- 
ding-feast ; flycke aff sivyn, sueeidia* Moor's Suffolk Words also has fliei^ explained as 
• the flake or flank of a hog :* A. S. flicee or fliee. Prov. Dan. flidskey to shear off with a 
great knife, is, by Molb. and Outzen, adduced as cognate. Comp. Dan. flcekke^ to split into 
flakes or slices ; Sw. D. fl'akka av, to cut off flakes, or thin chips from wood ; with which 
E. Engl, fleacb or fleecbt a sawn plank, may be compared. 

Flicker, v. n. To shew or look more or less derisively, as a person's 
countenance does who rather makes believe than really tries to suppress 
his laughter. See Flire. 

Mr. Wedgwood says, ^flicker^ to flutter as a bird, or flame ; to fleer, or laugh wantonly 
or scornfully. From a representation of the flapping or tittering sound.' 

The sense and usage of the word, combined with the existence of the Sw. D. words Jiik- 
kar^ to deride, to make a fool of; flikker^flekker^ ridicule, derision, mockery; O. Sw.fiker, 
adulation, more or less insincere, of course, together with Rietz*s reference of these words 


to Jlika, — fee Flat6h, with the Dan. D. and Genn. analogues to Sw. D.fltka — ^lead me to 
adopt a rather different view. Fligger is another form ; see Wedgw. in y. FUer, 
* Kefiektr^d and fljred lahk a giraing cat.' 

, V. n. To fly. 

' An lamech droge is arwe ncr 
And let eiflegen of f e streng.' Oen. and Ex, 1. 478. 

A,S, fledgan^flidgan; ti,S,Jlegen; Yn%.flega; Dnt.vliegtn; Gam. fliegent Sec, 

ig, sb. A young bird sufficiently feathered to be on the point of 

Dzn, J!yg, ready to fly ; of the young of birds, Molb., exactly corresponds with our word 
in form and sense, and resembles it in sound. Comp. Sw. D. Jlyg, Jlygd, Jlygg^n, id., and 
also fi6z-for. Rietz quotes also A. S. fiycgt^ which, however, I do not find in Bosw. 
O. '^.ftpgr^ able or ready to fly, seems to be the original word. 

* ** Are thev fligs or gorps?" feathered nestlings or mere gorpins naked from the 
egg.' Wb.GL 

Fligged, adj. Fledged, feathered, ready to fly. 

Wb. Gl. gives Jlig^ v. n., to fly ; but Or. GL, Jligg, to fledge, with the example, 
* ** He 's fii^d and flown ;" said of a person who has absconded.' An example from 
Le^di GL'u* A nest of sparrows iUXflig^d an' flown.' The word is a p. p., coincident with 
fledged, Comp. Fll«, and Pr, Pm. * Flygge as bryddys. VoiatilU: 

Flipe, sb. The brim of a hat. 

Dzn.flip, the tip, comer or extremity of a thing; e.g. handkerchief, garment, collar; 
Sw. D. fliibb, id. Comp. O. N. flipiy a horse's under-lip ; N. S. flupe, id. The word is 
nearly related to E. flap, flabby ^ &c. 

• Touch yoMxflipe: Wb. Gl, 

Flipe, V. a. To remove or take off*, with a kind of brisk action, as 
dust from one's shoes, or a fly from the wall. 

Closely connected with Flipe, Ic.. flip, flap; Dm. flab, mouth, lip; Sw. D.^oM, flap, 
loose-hanging comer or end, and expressive of the action of such a loose-hanging end or 
flap. Comp. Sw. D.flika a/, to undress oneself very quickly : to slip one's clothes off, from 
flik, a shirt, or other loose-fitting garment. Mr. Wedgw. takes flick, flip to be * forms repre- 
senting the sound made by a jerk with a whip, the comer of a towel, or the like. Fliek, a 
smart, stinging slap: Forby; a slight, sudden blow: Hall. Hence Dzn.flig,flip, the im|^e- 
ment with which a blow of the foregoing description is given, the comer of a handkerchief, 
apron. Sec* 

Flire, flyre, v. n. To manifest the feeling or spirit of mocking or 
scornful ridicule, without actually laughing out. 

Brockett's definition is, ' to have a countenance expressive of laughter, without laughing 
out.* Comp. E. fleer. * We should have no hesitation,* says Wedgw., * in considering it 
as a contraction of fligger or flicker, to laugh scomfuUy or wantonly, were it not for parallel 
forms with an n instead of an r: Sw. flina, to shew the teeth, sneer; Prov. Dzsx.fline, to 
wry the mouth, smile, sneer; "None flina, as well zsflira, to titter.' Still there seems to be 
a difference in sense between the forms in n and those in r. Thus, Dan. D. fling is ' to 


smile, or else to Uueh loudly and long, and with twistingi of the hct ;* as is the case ako 
with Sw. D. flin, fluia and fiira : while JUrt is ' to smile (vmdsU), or faragfa slily, as when 
one is inclined to ridicule or make a jest of anodier.' Mdb. also quotes from One, 

* E. Gothl. ^tra, indicat risum petulantem ;' and N.^ftro comes under the same remaik, and 
thus all these words exactly correspond to our Hire. See Vliok«r. 

EUrtdgigs, sb. A giddy or flighty damsel 

FUflk, sb. A slight blow or tap, as a fillip with the finger. 

Comp. Jliei, Jlip, JiUip, ' FUtkf to flick with a whip, to skip or bounce. HaL /Kel, 
Juk^fliehtJlUk, all represent the sound of a cut with a switch or the like ; then rapid move- 
ment to and fro.' Wedgw. Cf. Sw. D. fluka, to bustle about, a derivatiTe fnmJUoiOt to 
flow, to fleet 

Flit, V. a. I. To remove one's goods, household furniture, and gear 
generally, in the process of removing from one tenement or residence 
to another. 2. To aid a person in such removal, by convejdng or help- 
ing to convey his goods, &c. 3. To remove, as tenants or occupants 
of a house or farm, &c., do. 

0. N. Jlytia, vehere ; S. G. fiytta^ flyt^j^t transportare ab uno loco in alterum ; neotr. 
posituni notat migrare. Ihre ; 'Dzn.flytU^ a. and n. ; Sw. Jlytta, a. and n. I look upon this 
vb. as essentially an active verb ; as, consistently with its O. N. derivation, it should be. GfL 
Pr. Pm. * Flyttin ; amoveo, transferc* It seems almost always to imply the removal of 
something; e.g. of the out-going tenant's moveable property. Thus, a tramp, who is 
constantly on the move personally, is never said to flit from one place to another ; nor a 

* navvy,* who goes from one railway, &c., to another in search of work. If, however, the 
employer were to remove the navvies from one part of the work to another, he wouki be 
spoken of as flitting them. True, the farmer or other tenant, who goes from one £sim 
or residence to another, is spoken of as flitting, as * throng wi' flitting' {Wh, G?.); but 
there is something beyond personal removing always implied, as there is in — 

* But, or thay (the children of Israel) ^y/f oght far us fro. 
We shall them bond twyse as fast.' Townei. Myst. p. 6a. 

As to such instances as — 

* God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly htflyt his dcs 

And set hym even hym by,* Ih. 30, 

where the sb. (ies ( = Lat. gradus, and thence grade, rank) is clearly the obj. case after the 
Ycrhflyt; and 

*■ For )>e fute (of the cross) l>ay made a pit, 
Ffor no man suld it |>cjnn^«/;' Harl. MS, fol. 8a, — 

there can be no room for doubt. 

1. * Aye, ThomsLS flitted his stock and graithing, an' his family an* a*, a week syne.' 

3. * " Whose goods are those ?" (to a man driving a waggon-load of furniture, &c.). 
•• Wheea, they *s Miles Dale's. We 's flitting him fra* t' Deeal Heead t* Stongho*.** ' 

3. * " Weel, ye* re flitting then ?" The reply came from Hob out of the chum : — " Ay, 
we*s flwtting.**' Phillips* Vorhsbire, p. 3 11. The author notices the * play 00 the 
vowel ;' and Egilss. remarks that the Western Icelanders sound the verb ftuttja. Pro- 
fessor Phillips does not, however, give the rejoinder as I have heard it : — ' Weel, an thou's 
ganning teea, Ah '11 just awa' back agen.* 


Flit, flitting, sb. i. A removal from one place of residence 'to 
another. 2. A flight, a runaway or clandestine departure. 

I. * Faather says ^ flitting *s to be Saturday first, an' he wad like to ha'e yoor draught.' 
a. ' Didst hear stunt Willy 'd maad a moonlight^ iv it? He's sloped for teear.' 

Flit-fold, sb. A moveable sheep-fold, capable of use wherever it may 
be wanted. 

Flite, flyte, v. n. To scold, or engage in a quarrel of words. 

A. S. flitan, to strive, contend, dispute, quarrel. Pr, Pm, ' Flyttn, or chydin. Con- 

* Stjrnst of |>y strot and i^nt to Jlyte 

& sech hys blyy>e fill swefte and swy]>e.' 

E, Eng, AUit, Pount, A. 35 a. 

* Thar thou nowther^y/* ne chyde, 

If thou tend righte thou gettes thi mede.' Townel. My$i, p. 14. 

Flite, fliter, sb. A scold, a scolding or abusive person. ] 
Flithers, sb. The common limpets. 

I look upon this as simply the Clevel. pronunciation, with tb hard (%), of ^i//#r— comp. 
Dowther for daughter, dither for didder, dother for dodder, &c. — and Jliittr to be radi- 
cally the same word as Dzn. flitter, Qtrm. flitter, spangles, small scales of metal; and I am 
inclined to connect these words with O.N.flisja, to slice off, take flat pieces off; "S.flisa; 
DuLflise, to split pieces off; Sw. D.flisa, to shave or slice thin pieces or scales off. Rietz 
gives fliitja, to cut chips off with a hatchet, and also as a sb., the chips so cut off; ahd 
refers the word to O. "S.flysja orflisja, just quoted, * by a transition of the s into /,' (bvarvid 
* ^fiffgatt tiU t'). On this ground, Flithers {=^flitters) implies objects that can be sepa- 
rated, m the form or fashion, so to speak, of spangles or scales, from the places or matters 
on which they are found ; which is simply true of the limpet. 

Flither-girls, sb. The women, usually the daughters and other 
female connections of the fishermen, who collect the Flithers to ser\'e 
as bait; often walking considerable distances for the purpose, and 
bringing back their spoils in baskets poised on their heads : while alike 
by their distinct peculiarities of physique^ and their costume, they seem 
to be marked out as a class apart — perhaps even, as almost a race 

Flitter-moiise, sb. The bat or rere-mouse: (genus Vesper ttlto). See 

Sw.flUdar-mus ; Germ, fleder-maus. 

A name derived from the motion of the creature's wings and its mouse-like body. Comp. 
O. N. flagur-mus, Dan. flager-muus ; flagre, to flutter. Both these names, as well as 
mttcnr-mouBe, are as nearly synonymous as possible with rere-mouse, which comes from 
A. S. breran, to agitate, move rapidly, and mus, a mouse. 

Flobbed, flobby, adj. Puffed up, turgid, i. As the body is in cases 


of dropsy ; 2. In manner or bearing ; with conceit, namely, or self-appro- 

Probably a co-derirative with, or altered (lom^ flahtfiMjt and its sense also derived from 
the usoal sense of that word. It is noticeable that Sw. D. flabbigtr has a seooodarj mean- 
ing very like our second sense; yiz. * given to boastful or tmseemly talking;' and Dan.D. 
fibtr comes under nearly the same demiition. 

She was not fat, \>\i\fl6bh*d up ;" of a dropsical person.' Wb, Ol. 

t *« 

Elo88-dooken, flous-docken, sb. The plant fox-glove {D^iUaUs 
purpurea). Also iV>x-docken. 

Irish Celt. lusM-mbor, literally great herb ; the name of the fox-glove or fairy-finger. 
tioHs of the Irish Celts, P< 9^. The Welsh equivalent of Iwts is Uys; and just as UewMym 
in Shakspere becomes FluitUn ; Uydd, Floyd, in £. attempts to enunciate Welsh U, so Uiu 
or llyt becomes flous» The word presents a curious instance, one of many such, of die 
retention and composition of a name long after its true meaning has been lost sight of. 

Ploss-seaye, sb. The plant cotton-grass : (genus Eriapkorum). 
FIoiiriBh, sb. The blossom on fruit-trees. 

Cf. O. tl.fluTy flowers, blossoms, blooms ; fluradr, abounding in flowers or bloom. 
Comp. the use of the word as a vb. : — 

' then Phoebus full faire : flourished out his beames 
with Leames fiill light.' Percy's Fol, MS, i, p. 227. 

Flowter, adj. Excited, nervous; shewing signs of mental disturb- 

Brock., Leeds Gl., and Cr, OL, all give flowtered in nearly the same sense ; and the 
latter also gives flouter as a noun, with the sense of * a fright.' See Flawter or Tlowter. 
Also comp. Sw. D. flbjta, to move about without any definite purpose ; flbjta, a light, vain, 
frivolous, coquettish, or unsteady female ; together with its corresponding adj., ftojttd; 
Swiss fldute, a coquettish girl, if not really worse. 

Flowterment, sb. Loud and eager talking, such as would be heard 
from a person in a state of excitement. 

Flowtersome, adj. Excitable, flighty, frolicsome or skittish. 

Fluffed, fluffed-up, adj. Flighty, conceited, tumid in manner. 

Either from fluff or flue, fine or downy feathers, down, downy or coherent particles of 
worn woollen material or the like ; or, more directly, from O. 'S.fliuga, to fly, or some of its 
Scandinavian congeners. The sequence is not difficult in the former case ; viz. from down 
OT fluff to an object covered with either — a young bird, to wit — which looks pufly or puffed-' 
up: thence, by metonymy, to tumid in manner, and thence to conceited. But just as 
flighty, both in sense and form, is derived from A. S. fleogan, so flu£Ey or fluffed, alike 
in sense and in form, may spring from the other source indicated. The Dan. equivalent to 
O. N. fljuga is flyve, where the / of our word is fully represented. Comp. Dan. pioiu from 
O. N. plog, and Clevel. pleuff; while Sw. D. furnish Jfut/v (pret.^dwv, sup.^wvi), and^atv, 
(flduv,flugt); besMes transitionary form^ illustrated by the imperf. of O. Sw. fliuga ; vis. 
flogb (jpLflugbu). Thus fluffy would be a Northumbr. equivalent to E. flighty. 


Elufly, adj. Covered with down, or downy feathers. 

Tiom fluf = flue. Wedgw. quotes Welsh lluwcb, motes, flying dust, or the like, and 
adds a little further on, * fundamentally the same with A. S. jUogctn^ PI. D. flegen^ to fly, 
whence flog, flokf whatever is light and flies in the air. Lancashire /look, waste cotton. 
Probably Welsh plu, pluf^ feathers, down ; Bav. flden, to float, or move 10 and fro in the 
air; dieflaen,fl&tven,flaiunn, chaff that flies away in winnowing com, flue, or light dust 
that settles on clothes, may be a parallel formation.' 

Fluked, fluky, adj. Maggot-eaten, eaten into holes by maggots or 

Flukes, sb. Properly the creature — animalcule or larva— found espe- 
cially in the liver of diseased sheep. Applied also to the large maggots, 
or gentles, found in dead animals, the larvae of the Flesh-flies. Other- 
wise spelt. Flocks, Fleuks. 

* The liver of rotten sheep always contains the well-known animal the fluke, so named 
from its striking resemblance to a flounder.' Book o/tbe Farm, ii. 387. A. S. flik, flooe, a 
flat-fish, plaice, sole. 

Flumpy, adj. Short and fat ; squat. 

Probably coincident with lumpy, clumpy. Comp. N. lump, a block, a thick piece, with 
Dan. Hump, a lump; O. N. klumpr, klumbr; Sw. klump. 

Flu8hy-flBM)ed, adj. Rubicimd, carrying a high colour. 

' A person looks flushed, or flushed in the face when he has a flow of blood to the face.* 
Wedgw. Dan. D. fluse, to flow or stream forth in volume and force ; blodet fluser ud af 
taaret: the blood streams or flushes forth from the wound. Wedgw. also alleges Dut. 
fluyten; H.flusi, abundantly, and^MS, liberal, open-handed. 

Fluster, flusterment, sb. i. A state of excitement and consequent 
heat 2. A determination of heat to the skin, in whatever form, red- 
ness, spots, perspiration. Sec. 3. A puffing, high-flown advertisement. 

Rich, looks upon this word as 'a corruption of flush;* and Wedgw. as 'closely allied 
with bluster.* 

Flying-eagle, sb. A paper kite, the boys' toy so called. 

Comp. Dan. papirs-drage, Sw. pappers-drake. 

Foal-foot, sb. The plant colt's- foot (Tussilago farfard). 

Sw. D. fSla/otter ; Din. folle/od ; these words being supplemented, as it would appear, 
by the further names hdstbof, hestebov, respectively. Cf. E. colfs-foot. 

Fed, sb. A bundle of straw tied up after thrashing for foddering 
purposes only. 

This is, no doubt, Halliwell'sy^^. The sound is that of our ho'd for bold, fo'd ioT fold, 
where the sound of the vowel as in the £. words is nearly preserved, though shortened 

C C 


Fog, sb. The aftergrowth in meadows when the hay has been cut 
and removed. 

WcUh/u^. SeeFeg. 

Foist, foisty, adj. i. Smelling of damp or mouldiness; musty. 
2. Damp and mouldy. 

* To foisi,fnsi,Jizzlt, are all original] j to break wind in a noisdess manner; .... Gcnn. 

ySs/, a foist ; Dut veest^ vijst, flatus ventris. The origin is plainly an imitation of the noise. 

O. N./fso, to blow, alto to break wind. Foitty, ftuty having a dose, disagreeable smeQ.' 

Wedgw. Add Sw.D./rs; fi.S./uU; Bav./«s/; the verbs being, Sw. D.faa,fcttsa,JdJta: 

N. S./ysttHtfifsdn; Lat. vissire; Gr. ^wrw, 

Fold-gairth, sb. (pr. fbd-garth). The farm-yard ; the enclosure pro- 
perly so called : otherwise, Fold-yarcL 

Folk, sb. People, persons : a word in perpetual use, and very con- 
stantly as qualified by some prefix ; e. g. House-folk, the people of the 
house ; Foot-folk, the people walking, or on foot, Ac. 

O. N. folh ; Dan. and Sw. folk ; A. S. fole ; Germ, volk, &c. With SI. poli, ^9tlk, a troop, 
comp. O. N.^/ib'. The Scand. word is met with in multitudes of instances entirdy *«*- 
logous to the compounds noticed above : — Sw. fotfciky Dan, fod-fblh^ infantry ; Sw. gum- 
/o/*=the Antiquary's * woman-kind ;* Dan. quinde/oli; ^egte/oUt, married peopk; btti/bU, 
cavalry, &c. 

* Folk says.* 

* Maist/o/*;' or. * maist o' folk: 

* Folks is fit to say so and so ;' are already beginning to ' talk,' and well di^XMed to * talk* 

* A deal o' folk hasn't getten their hay yet.* 

Fond, adj. Simple, in the sense of half-silly ; foolish, weak, doating. 

O. N. fdni, S. G. fdne, Sw. fine, Sw. D. fane, a half-witted person, a fool. Wedgw. 
quotes Gael. /aom, vain, foolish, idle; Lat. vanus, Comp. Sw. D. fanXa^ to play the fool, 
with its variations, jjanta^ fjantas^ and O. N. fdna^ Germ. D. fanzeln. In Sw. D. fiuUt^ 
fjante, fjanter^ j^dnt ; Dan. fofUe, a fool, or simpleton ; and Sw. D. J^antg, Ji^^'^g* JS^^^Ud^ 
fjontedy fiyntedy Dan. fjantet^ — we have very close approaches to our fond* which, it may 
be, is really a participle. Wedgw. quotes 

* thou shalt begin Xo forme 
And dote in love,' 

from Chaucer ; and fonnyd is met with in Wickliffe's Bible : while 

* Herk, syrs, ye/oit,' Toumel. Myst. p. 94 ; 
and * Soyn shalle vrefon hym,' lb. p. T99, 

give us the vb., both as a. and n. See Befounded. 

Fond-cruke, sb. A crotchet, foolish whim, piece of absurdity. 

Fond-hoit, sb. An exceedingly foolish person, a fool twice over 
See Hoit. 

Fondness, sb. Folly, foolish or silly conduct or behaviour. 


Fond-plough, sb. Part of the procession which used to accompany 
the Sword-Dance performers. See Floiigh-stots. 

Fond-talk, sb. Spoken absurdities, foolish discourse. 

Fondy, sb. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot. 

Comp. Sw. D. J^antig, J^antedf Jfantg^ ^untig^ foolish, fond ; and Sw. D. /ante, JjctnU^ 
fjoHi, Dzn. fanUt — all wi& the exact sense of our word. Note also — 

• Maria, Thus longe, where have ye lent ? 
Josepbi, Certes, walkyd aboute, lyke a^bn. 
That wrangwysley hase taken apon ; 

I wyst never what I ment/ Townd. Mysi, p. 80. 

Foot-ale, footing, sb. An entertainment, or its equivalent in money, 
given by a person — workman or other — to his companions on entering 
upon a new place or employment, &c. 

Foot-falling, sb. Parturition, childbirth; the act, rather than the 
season, simply. 

Comp. * Footing-tinu, the time when a lying-in woman gets up. Norf. ' Hall. Sw. D. 
has the same combination in the fonn of an zd}.—J6tfallen or fbt/alisett, applied to a per- 
son who is lame and scarce able to move, or almost deprived of the use of his feet by some 
other agency, as that of drunkenness. There is a close analogy, and our term wants some 
such analogy to explain it. 

Footings, sb. The first layer of rough or unsquared stones laid in 
the foundation of a wall, on which is placed the first coiu^e of the actual 

Footy, faty, adj. Damp; with a bad smell such as follows from 
being long damp. 

XHxi.Jugtig; Sw, Juktig; k.S.fubt; U.S. /uebt,fuebtig; Qerm. fntcbt, damp, decay- 
ing i fi*S^S ^nfi* ^ damp or footy smell. Molb. Comp. Sw. D. fuht^ fdk^ O. N. fiigtf /uki, 
a onell, a stench ; O. Germ, fubtjan^ to give out a damp or bad smell. 

Foose, fbze, v. a. To clip the projecting ends of wool on the fleece 
of a sheep so as to make it even all over. 

The etymology of this word is probably the same as of feazi^ to unravel, untwist, render 
fitzzy or fozy. See Brock. Comp. Germ, fasen^ faum, to fiizz, feaze, unravel ; and 
fas^ ftts^ a fringe. The idea is sufficiently obvious. The orthography, however, is rather 
doubtful. Wb. Gl. gives it as fooaz ; and in the Clevel. Version of the Song of Solomon 
occurs the expression, * Yows at '$ vreeUJooazedJ Wedgw., however, gives a totally dif- 
ferent form and fundamental sense ; viz. * Force^ to clip or shear. Forcyn, or dyppyn, 
tondeo. Pr. Pm. To force wool, to cut off the upper or most hairy part of it. B. Fr. 
forcer de la kune, to pick or tease wool;' which, however, is a thoroughly different 

Forboden, p. p. of Forbid. 

* And in )>is commandement tsforbodene vs alkyne mysbeleues and all mawmetryes, &c/ 
Rtl. Pieces, p. 5. 

C C 2 


Fore-anent, fore-anenst, prep. Over against, opposite to, in finont 
of. See Anenst. 

Porby, prep, and adv. Besides, over-and-above, moreover. 

Dan. forbi (jncp. and adv.) ; Sw. /orbi (prq>.) ; Germ, vorbei, past, besides, orer«id- 

* ^e fynt fyue >at I finde >at [>e frek vsed 
Wat3 fraunchysc, & felajschjrp/Sr^' al hyng.* 

Oaw. and Gr. Km, 651. 
' Forbi a' that, Ah 've aniiher thing agen 'im.' 

Fore-elders, sb. Ancestors or forefathers. 

Dan. foraidr*^ Sw. foraidrar^ parents. Molbech's definition is — ' Only in die pL : die 
father and mother of a child when both are spoken of coinddently :' thus, * him bar ntoMt 
htgge tine forctldrt ;' she has lost both her parents. O. N. fordldnxr has the same fimiti- 
tion of sense ; but fortlldri takes besides the sense * forefathers ' or * ancestors ;* while 
Ihre alleges that majores is the proper signification of S. G. fordldrar, observing that the 
distinction is clearly made by Sturleson. In O. Dan. also the meaning is dearly * anceston* 
or * forefathers ;' thus, — * arffuegodz oc I'dssore^ som band baffde enten carffuU epdur fadtt 
tiler modir, brodtr^ tiler eptber nogen bansforaldre :* heritage and moveables whidi be has 
derived from either father or mother, brother or any one his fore-elder ; where the same 
distinction that Ihre adverts to is obviously made. Another instance quoted by Motb. 
{Dantk Gl.) gives foraldtrtt gtmingber in the full sense which ' ancestral deeds' woukl 

* They Ve coomed o* quality /)ri^/rffrs.* Wb. Gl. 

* Ah dean't want to be wiser an mah/bort^ldtrs. What did for they, 11 dee for me.* 

Fore-end, sb. The commencing part; that which comes near the 
beginning of a season or epoch. 

Cf. Dan. /ortndt, the foremost part of a thing; antith. to bagtndt, Molb. See 

* Tht /ore end of the year ; spring.' Wb. Gl. 

* He framed wcel, a' t* /oor-tnd o t' tahm.' 

Foreign, To gan. To go to foreign parts, to emigrate. 

Forkin-robin, sb. The common earwig {Forficula auricularts). See 

Forks, sb. The centres in the timber-work of the roof of a shed, 
house, or other building ; commonly, * a pair of forks.' 

* The Fr. fourcbes^ forcbe\ forces were applied to different kinds of forked structures, as 
a gallows, a pair of shears. For the same reason we call sbears the tall gallows used for 
masting ships.' Wcdgw. in v. Force. 

Forwoden, adj. In a wasted or desolate condition, whether by the 
presence and ravages of vermin, or by the consequences of simple 

O. Dan. forode, to waste, ravage, bring to ruin, or lay desolate : — ban vil vori land 
forade: he will our land lay waste; O. N./oreyda. The simple word is O.N. eida, tyda^ 


Sw. bda^ Dan. ^de, to wute, consume, spend. A. S. forwyrd^ destruction, is derived from 
forwtor^an, to become nothing, to perish, to die ; an utterly different word in root and 

* ** They axe lost an* forwodtn Y muck ;** dirty and disorderly in the extreme.' Wb, Ol. 

* ¥z\T\y forwodtn wi* rats.* 76. 

iV>88, force, sb. A waterfall or cascade. 

O. N. forst Joss; Sw. fors ; Dan. fos; N. Joss; Sw. D. fois. The word exists with us 
in many local names, as well as in local language ; e. g. Thomasson*s /ms, Falling-^bss, &c. 
See Spout. 

Foul-flngered, adj. Of thievish propensities, and given to indulge 

Foulmart, sb. (pr. fou'mmart or fiunmart). The pole-cat {Mustela 

* Properly the beech-marten, but commonly applied to the polecat. Fr. Jomnt, the 
f<Hne, wood-marten, or beech-marten ; foine, the foine, or polecat. Cot. From foini, fame 
(Lzt, fagina), beechmast. Wall./oiM, beech ; /ow^, the beech-martoi. The 'E.fimmart 
is a compound of Ft. Jbuine and marte, or marten, but the meaning of the former element 
being lost in £., the instinctive striving af^er meaning converted it into fulmerd, fuUmart, 
when applied to the strong-smelling polecat, as if the name were taken from the fatd 
smell of the animal.* Wedgw. Mr. Bell refers to the names foumart, fulmart^ fulimtrt, 
* as contractions of foul marten, a name given it (the polecat) in contradistinction to the 
swett marten* The existence of the name sweet marten, no less than the distinction for- 
merly made between * beasts of su/eet flight* and * beasts of stinking flight, in which second 
class are placed the fuUmart, the fltcbat or flteh, &c.* (Strutt, quoted by Jam.), and inde- 
pendently of the old orthography, leads one to think that possibly the blunder of con- 
founding the polecat with the beech-marten may not in reality have been made. Certainly 
a confusion of names exists. See Man. Vocab. p. 28a, and note to Pr. Pm., Fulmare, 

Fout, fowt, sb. A fool, a stupid lout. 

O. N. fauti, fatuus homo ; fautalegr, fatuus, insulsus. 

Pout, fowt, sb. A petted or over-indulged child; a mamma's 

The Lat. definition of Pr. Pm. Cocknay — ^which * appears to imply simply a child spoiled 
by too much indulgence ' (Note) — is earifotus, eucunellus, fotus ; and the Lat. word twice 
employed in the definition surely gives the origin of Fout. 

Fouty, adj. i. Poor, mean, unseemly. 2. Hence (as applied speci- 
fically to an article of dress) misfitting, ill-made, awkward to wear or 
look at. 

Sw. futtig, mean, paltry, of no moment or weight, miserable, in quality or properties, 
namely. Prov. ioims^ fotted, fdte, fdtt. 

Fox-docken, sb. The plant fox-glove {Dtgtialts purpurea). See 

Fra, firav, prep. From. 

O. N./rrf; Dan./ra; A. S., O. Germ., and M.G.fra; }ui\. fra, frd ; N. and Sell.^; 
O. Dan.^oa; S. G.^d,- Sw. D.^a. * A with a stroke over it, as a, is sounded like av 


or au: e. g. frd (from) read fraVt tap (pith, strength) taup.* Rask's led. Or, by Dascnt, 
p. 6. And still, before a vowel, it is usually sounded y^tnr; before a coo^/rau ot/ira, 

• " What *s o' clock ? " " Fra yan tiv hau'f efter." ' 

• Ah thowght Ah suddn*t ha getten \/rav 'im.* 

* Schelde me^a he fyre of belle/ Rd, Pitas, p. 76. 

Pra*-by, firebby, adv. Beyond, above, in comparison with. 

O. 'DzTi. frembi^ in Jutl. ^om^f : * a prep./ says Molb., * sometimes heard in lieu offorbi:* 
and in such senses as to ride, or drive, or sail past or beyond one ; to pass one by, in the 
way of neglect ; and so forth. Wb, GL writes it /rebby or /romby, the latter form involving 
a mistake. 

• This is good frebby that/ Wb, Gl, 

Frack, adj. Forward, bold; the boldness having rather a spice of 
insolence in it. 

O. fi.freeir, energetic ; camp, frakinnt strenuus, fortis. See also S. Q.frttk, I. tumidus, 

insolens ; 2. alacer, strenuus ; Sw. D. frak^ frakk, vigorous, active, strong, bold ; N. Jrak, 

frctk^ doughty, energetic; O. Dan.yVoi^, bold, valiant, active; Dan.y^<eit; Dan. D. y^iaiics, 

f^^Sy fi'^S ' Swiss frecb, fresh, sound, vigorous ; O. Germ, fr'eb ; M. Germ, vreeb ; Soot 

frtOtt freek. 

Frag, V. a. To stow closely so as to fill ; to cram, or fill to fulness. 

C(. E. freigbtt /raugbt ; Gtim.fraebt; Din. /ragt; Sw,/rakt. May not Jraugbi point 
to a lost vb., except our word should be a surviving form ? I meet with it only in Wb. GL 
Mnlb. seems to regard fragt^ freight, as of Germ, origin, or, at least, introduction. Rietz, 
however, gives /rakta sig, to be well off, well provided, in need of nothing ; and Jrakia{d\ 
well provided, having well eaten, gotten enough, as Prov. Sw. ; and frag corresponds dosdy 
in usage. See Wedgw. under Freigbi, for derivation. 

• A iMW'/rag^d house.' Wb. Gl. 
Ah 's getten ma' kite ytttX fragged ;** have enjoyed a full meal ; got a belly-fiilL* lb. 

* ** 

Framation, sb. Facility or power of contriving ; skill or readi- 
ness of management ; handiness in planning and commencing any 
work, &c. 

• Wheea, he 's nae framation wiv *im ;' of a clergyman who certainly had not the knadc 
of conciliating his parishioners. 

* There wur nae framation 'bout t' job ;' of a manifest lack of arrangement for duly 
entertaining the customary large gathering of friends and neighbours at a BuriaL 

Frame, v. n. To set to work uj)on or begin anything, in the way 
of work or occupation ; to apply oneself in the way of essay or attempt ; 
to try one's * 'prentice-hand.' 

' To frame. To contrive, to effect. ** And he said Sibboleth, for he could not frame to 
pronounce it right." Judges xii. 6. A. S. fremman^ to form, make, effect. O. N. fremia, 
to bring to pass, from framm, Dzn. frem, forth, forwards.' Wedgw. To this may be added 
Sw. D. frdmd, to execute, accomplish, discharge ; of an errand, mission, intent ; O. Stw. 


fr€tmja^ promovere; Dzn. /remme^ to forward, put in the way of being done, be the cause 
of a deed or action going forward ; A. %, frinuan^ fremman ; O. Oerm. vremjan. 

• " Well, how 's that colt o* yours likely to turn out ?" " Wheea ! *X frames weel/* * 

* inoh )>e mai suggen : Enough he may say 
pe so9 wule uremnun* That sooth will frame. 

^y- "• 543- 
The new servant ^framts well,* when appearing likely to fill her place well ; the appren- 
tice to a trade *frmne$ well,' or * ill/ as the case may be, and so on. 

Fratch, v. n. To squabble angrily, quarrel, chide with another. 

Pr. Pm. * Fraecbyn, as neu cartys.' * FrtaU^frwun* Man, Voeab. C. aia. * It seems 
to be derived from A. S. frtofS^n^ frieare,' Note to Pr, Pm. 

Framige, v. n. To indulge a frolicsome turn ; to be ' up to any lark/ 

Or. Gl. gives *fi^ttmgt^ to fling, to wince ;' and also the noun in our sense, * a frolic* 
Hall, quotes frangy^ as a Line, word, meaning * irritable, passionate, ill-tempered, fretful.' 
Comp. Isl. frenjtdtgr^ procax ; impudent, indecent, audacious or insolent. See Wedgw. 
Franzyt Frangy. 

Fraiinge, sb. A frolic or freak ; the being engaged in ' a lark.' 

Free, v. a. To take off grazing-stock from the meadow-land in the 
spring, so as to give the grass liberty or freedom to grow against the 
coming hay-time. 

Freeholder, sb. A yeoman; an owner of landed property, and 
farming it himself: a term antithetical to 'tenant,' and equivalent to 
' statesman' in the western part of the county. 

Frem, fremmed, adj. Strange, unknown, unfamiliar. framandi; O.Svf. framendit fr^tnudt, fromedtt fromande; S, framend; Sw. 
frammande; Dza. fr^mnud or fremnut ; Sv,D, frammad, frammed/frdmmad {^t latter 
word applied precisely as our Eng. * little stranger* is) ; O. Germ. framaditframidi,fremede, 
fremid ; A. S. fremd, fr<smd^ fremed ; Dut . fremmit^ vremmed. 

* The one was a near neighbour, the other nobbut xfr^m body.* Wb. Gl, 

Fresh, sb. i. The additional or new water in a stream which has 
become swollen after rain in the district it drains. 2. The swelling of 
the stream itself; a flood. 

Fresh, adj. i. In good health, in good condition and spirits; ready 
for exertion or work ; eager, in that sense : applied to both man and 
animal. 2. In good condition, in the butcher's sense, fat, or approach- 
ing the state of fatness. 

I. * He 's a desper'ifresb man, ov 'is age.' 

• T* au'd meear *s *s fresh as iwer : she *s good for a vast o' wark yet.' 

3. * Thae beeas's zhooX fresh; they dune weel sen they wur shifted intiv Langlands 


Freeh-wold, sb. (pr. fresh-wo'd or -wood). A threshold, of wood or 
stone; the flat stone that covers the ground in the Door-stead, of a 
cowhouse, stable, or other like building. 

Corrupted from tbresbumld: cf. Junii, thirsty, Hall. ; a-/ursi, P, PI. pp. 176, 283; and, 
for the converse change, tbro, from, Wakefield G/. ; tbrougb^ in Hall. A. S. ^se-oid, 
ftene-vfald, ^feorte- or ^yrsc-wold. Sec. Comp. rode-woid. Gen. and Ex. p. 8, and arcb ew o id , 
lb. pp. 1 7, 18. Both Mr. Wedgw. and Mr. Morris look upon the latter element in the word 
as A. S. weald, wold ; PI. D. wold, wood ; and the former remarks, with respect to the first 
syllable, * how much the ideas of threshing and treading are mixed up together ; and indeed 
the primitive mode of threshing was treading out by cattle. Bav. dreseben, to tramp.' 

Fridge, v. a. To rub up or chafe; as when the skin is abraded by 
friction, or excoriated. 

Comp. Lat. /rieo, the sense passing from rubbing or chafing to its effects. Rich, quotes 
from Skinner, * Xo fridge ot frig about, from A. S.friean to dance,' adding that * it is from 
It. fregare, Lat fricare, to rub.' His examples are — * The little motes or atoms that fridge 
and play in the beams of the sun ;' and, * The meer fridging up and down of the parts of 
an extended substance changing their place and distance.' Cudworth. Our vb., however, is 
always active : — * Fridge, to fray, to wear away by rubbing,' Carr ; ^fridge, to rub, to fray/ 
HaU. ; *fridged, chafed, excoriated as the skin is.' Wb. Gl, 

Cf. * The bore his tayle wrigges, 

His rump also hefrigges 
Against the hye benche.' 

Skelton, quoted by O. Cockayne, Ste. Marberete, p. 8a. 

Note also frig = fiituo. See Froggan. 

Frightened, adj. Apprehensive, fearful of a possible contingency. 

• Ah *sfreeten*d it 's gannan t' thoonner.' 

• " Have you enough ? " •* Ah 's freeerid there 11 be a want. 

»• » 

>, V. a. To toast (rather than roast) bacon or meat before the 
fire, or over the coals. 

Under the word Fricassee, Mr. Wedgw. says, * Tr.fricasser, to fry. Lzt. frigere,frmmm, 
from the hissing sound.' Sw. D. have /rossa, to cook in butter, and thence, to hiss, as meat, 
when it is being so cooked, does ; and^^s, the hissing noise made by the meat : with whidi 
latter word Rietz collates O. 'S.friBs, a hissing or rustling sound. 

• " Cou'd ye eat owght. Willie?" " Ay, Ah thinks Ah cou'd dee wiv a bit o* frizxUd 
mutton." • 

Frog-fty, sb. Toad-spawn. 

* Fry. Properly the spawn of fish. Fr. fray, spawn of fish or frogs. Goth, frah, seed ;, seed, egg.' Wedgw. 

Frontstead, sb. The site on which a house stands, or has formerly 

Frost-hag, frost-harr, sb. See Hag, and Harr. 


Frowsy, adj. i. Of a sour or forbidding countenance; ill-tempered 
looking. 2. Ill-tempered, cross, peevish. 

Sw. .^; 0,li. freyja; Dzn. /ha; Sw.D. Jroa; O.Gctm, frdwa, frmiva; M Oenn. 
vroMWf, vroti; N. Yn%.fnuw; Dut. vrouwt &c. Hall, says o{ /row that it is * still in use 
in the N. of Engl, for a dirty woman, a slattern, a lusty woman ;' and the idea of a forbidding- 
looking one follows easily, and thence our adj. and its meaning. It may be observed that 
Jrut^fiu^froWy like qvinde, kotu^ originally implied a title of honourable distinction. Comp. 
Eng. quean. Our Clevel. Wean preserves more of the original sense of qvind$ or hornet 
inasmuch as it means a wife, or a female generally, without derogatory implication. 

Fruggan, sb. A curved iron scraper or rake to stir ashes in an oven 
with, or on the hearth. 

Wedgw. says, * As frip and friek are found in the sense of light movement to and fro, 
JhA and fhtg seem to represent movement of a heavier nature. The last-named root, 
firug, in the sense of to rub, to wriggle to and fro, has many relatives in Eng. Jriggle, 
vfriggle^ &c. :* to which add our Clevel. fHdge, = to chafe, to rub; Pr. Eng.^^, = futuo, 
probably identical with frigge, to wriggle : Hall. * But it appears most distinctly in 
\t.Jrugaret to wriggle up and down, rub, burnish ; and with inversion of the r, infuregaret 
to fumble, grope for, to sweep an oven ; furegone^ a groper, also an oven-sweeper. 
Fr./ourgOH. E. Jruggarif Jruggin, an oven-fork, by which fuel is put into an oven, and 
stirred when it is in it. Cot.* It may be added that Hall, quotes the form furgon also, as 
an arch, form, from Tundale. The ioxm% frogon, frogun occur in /«v. Fineb. Priory. 

Fudge, fudgy, sb. A short, stout person ; one of squat or stumpy 

Comp. Fadge, 2. Also ^./bdgel./udgie. Jam. 

Fudgeon, adj. Squat, short and stout. 

Folly adv. Used intensitively, as in the expressions full sair, very 
sorely; ftill soon, very soon, much sooner than usual, &c. 

Comp. */tdl delitable,* Prieke o/Consc.; */ul synfiil.' Ib„ &c. 

FoUook, V. a. and n. i. To project, in shooting a marble, with the 
impetus of the hand as well as of the thumb— a trick which is not con- 
sidered * fair.' 2. To give way under a pull, so as to come home with 
suddenness and force. 

The form /tdk is given by Hall., and it seems not unlikely that the word is due to the 
same radical form zt flick. Leeds Gl. states that our word has come to designate any unfair 
action, and gives as an example, * Thah 's noan bown to fulloek it through me ;* impose on 
or overreach me. 

Fulth, sb. Repletion, satiety, utter fulness. 

* Tak' an* eat yetfulA on 't.* Wb. Gl. 

Comp. Drith from vb. dree, tilth from till, health from heal, and the like. 

Fun*, Pr. of p. p. of Find. 

* It's on*y ntw/un* out.* 



Pupp, sb. (pr. furrh). A furrow. 

A.S.Jur,/urb: Dan./vrv; Sw. fara; Sw,D, far; O.N. tnd O.Sw.>br; O.Gcfin.>M, 

Purtherly, adj. (pr. fo'therly). Forward, early; of the season, pro- 
duce, &c. 

A. S.fot6, forth, further, directly, forward ; foa^tr^ fvT^tr^ farther, more forward. The 
simple addition of ly forms our adj. 

FuBome, fasuxn, adj. Handsome, of a good appearance, neat. See 
Viewly, Viewaome. 

Fustilugs, sb. A fat, gross person, properly a female ; any person 
of unpleasant or forbidding aspect. 

Hall, says, * A big-boned person ; a fat gross woman. Exmoor, '* A JwuUng, or rank- 
smelling woman." Howell.' FustUarian, he adds, is used by Shakspere as * a cant tenn of 
contempt ; a fusty stinking fellow.' Probably our word is of like origin. 

Fuzz-ball, sb. The fungus, of a round or nearly spherical form, 
which, when mature, emits its spores in a cloud-like dust on pressure 
{Lycoperdon pratenscy bovisla, &c.) 


Gab, sb. To speak vainly, idly, falsely. 

Dan. D. gahe : a word used to express over-free or chattering talk, says Molb., * and he 
who indulges in such propensity is called a gaber^ or gabflab* He also collates our present 
word, as well as Brockett's * Gab, gabbing, idle talk, prating.' Closely allied with O. Daa 
gabbe, to mock, make a jest of; O. N. gabba, O. Sw. and Sw. D. gabba (and gabh^ sb.); 
A. S. gabban. 

* T*bomas. In allc youre skylles more & les for misfownding faylle ye. 
Might I se Jesus gost and fleshe gropyng shuld not gab me. 
Novenus Apostolus. Lefc Thomas, flyte no more but trow and tume thi red. 
Or els say us when and whore Crist gabbyd in any sted.' 

ToumeL Myst. pp. a88, 289. 

Under the word gabble^ Wedgw. quotes, — 

* " Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud 
Among the builders : each to other calls. 
Not understood ; till hoarse and all in rage 
As mocked they storm." — Milton :* 

and well remarks that the passage ' shows the natural transition from the notion of talking 
without meaning to that of mockery, with which the idea of delusion and lying is closely 


Gktbber, v. n. To talk idly, to repeat long tales without much point 
or sense, 

Comp. Dut. gabberen, to joke, to trifle ; Fr. gaber : Pr. Pm, • Gabbar or lyare/ Sec 
note, 1*6. 

Gktbriel-ratchet, sb. (pr. Gaabrl-ratchet). A name for a yelping 
sound heard at night, more or less resembling the cry of hounds or 
yelping of dogs, probably due to flocks of wild geese {Anser segetum) 
which chance to be flying by night, and taken as an omen or warning 
of approaching death to the hearer or some one connected with him. 
Odinsjagt of S. Sweden. 

* Gabriclle rache, hie camalion* Catb, Angl, Pr. Pm. * Ratcbe^ hownde.* The name, 
then, is one of great antiquity. Comp. Dan. helrdkherf a sound heard in the air, very like 
the bajring of hounds ; and, when heanl. taken to presage death and wasting. Thiele, Over* 
iroiskt Mening. p. 1641. Dan. D. rakhe is a hound-whelp large enough to yelp or bay, 
from O. N. rachi^ a hound of a large-footed species. Ihre gives racba, a bitch, collating 
M. Lat. racba^ A. S. raectf Sc. racbe, N. Fr. raccbez, and noticing the prefixed b which 
appears in O. £. bracbet or braebete. Dispensing with the said 6, our Clcvel form appears, 
met with also in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 1603, other forms being racbe^^ racbcbe^, bracbes^ 
hraebe^. As to the origin of GabritUi, GabrieU or GabritU see below. For long I surmised 
that it must be the name of a person, and as such take rank with the hosts of other names 
attached to the Wild Huntsman legend, but involved in more obscurity than the most of them. 
See Grinun, D. jlf ., Art. Wutendes Heer, for these names, Scand., Germ., Engl., and French. 
It should be observed that there is another notion in Clevel. connected with the term 
Gabriel-ratchet. This couples with the name the figure of a mysterious bird, with large 
glowing eyes, hooked beak, and an awful shriek, which appears to, accompanies, or is heard 
by the death-doomed. With this comp. O. Dan. bel-rakke, a bird with a large head, staring 
eyes, crooked beak, sharp claws, which in days of yore was believed to appear only as a 
harbinger of some great mortality (imod $tor d^d)^ but then to fly abroad by night and 
shriek aloud (JDansk Gloss.) Other forms of the name are Gabriel-raicbes, retcbes, or 
retebet^ and Gabriel-bounds {bounds being simply £. foi racbes^ rakker, &c.). Mr. Hen- 
derson, Folklore o/tbe N. Counties, states that the Leeds Gabble-retcbet is held to be ' the 
soub of unbaptised infants, which are doomed restlessly to flit around their parents' abode ;' 
adding that, * in Scotland, such unfortunates are supposed to wander in woods and solitudes, 
lamenting their hard fate ;' and that in Devonsh. a notion prevails that ' the souls of 
unbaptised babies wander in the air till the Judgment Day.' This is another bond of con- 
nection with the Wild Huntsman legends. See Grimm, D.Af. p. 87a. And yet another 
appears in the tradition yet current in Clerel., that the Gabriel-ratchet originates in the 
ill deed of a gentleman who once lived in the district, and who was so inordinately fond of 
the pleasures of the chase, and so jealous about the hounds who had ministered to them, 
that, on his deathbed, he gave orders they should all be killed and buried with him, that no 
one else should benefit by them as he himself would be no longer able. See Grimm, 
p. 873. For the element gabriel, the entry in Pr. Pm. under • Lycbe, dede body,' gives a 
clue for its derivation, and dispels the notion of its being a personal name. The entry in 
question is, * Funus, gabares, C. F. et UG.' — C. F. and UG. being abbreviations used by the 
compiler to indicate two older vocabularies, severally cited as * Mirivalensis in campo florum,' 
and * Uguitio in majori volumine' — * in Gabriel dicit gabaren, vel gabbaren.* Gabaren or 
gabbaren, then, would appear to have been convertible terms with Gabriel, as well as mere 
variatit ns in form of gabares, just before given as identical in meaning with *funus,* and 
'dede body.' Comp. 'Gabbarse, vcl Gabbares, cadavera apud ^gyptios pollinctorum arte, 

D d 2 


dclibuta, arefacta, et a comiptione immunia, mummin* Fa eti c i a H 
Gahrulli-racbe appears to be simply ffabbaresracbe, E. corpse^Kmmd. Comp. Hwiraiit, 
remembering that the prefix Hel is due to Hela, the Scand. goddesa of death, and pbcc 
side by side with it the Dan. liigbvcdp, lugbund, with the analogous folk-lore notioos con- 
nected with them. 

Qad, sb. I. A tapering rod or wand of some length, a. A ta p e rin g 
rod, fitted with a leather thong, to serve as a whip in driving a team, 
oxen especially. 

Sw. and Sw. D. gadd; N. gadd; O. Dan. and Dan.D. gadd — all meaning anything 
pointed, a thorn, a prick, the sting of an insect ; M. G. gazd; O. H. Germ, gart; GacL 
gatb, Mr. Wedgwood's remark is, * The loss of the r in gad and gtMd (which differ only 
in the more or less broad pronunciation of the vowel) conceals the fundamoital identity of 
the word with Germ, gtrtt^ E. ytwd. The primitive meaning is a rod or switch.' Bl. Q. 
gazd^ or whip or scourge, does not imfrfy pointedness, but A. S. gdd^ g^t goad^ a point of 
a weapon, spear, or arrow, a sting, prick, as well as the Scand. etjrmons, seems di yoicd to 
ignore the idea of length in favour of that of acuteness. O. £. gad; as in Pr. Pm, * Gad, or 
gode. Gerusa, ScuHca ; Gad, to mete W3rthe lond. Decempeda, pertiea,* the contiaxy. 

Ghie, V. n. To go. Used especially in the imperative, and often in 
the pret. See Gkted; and also Gkm, which is in much more con- 
tinual use. 

Conip. Sw. g&; Dan. gaa*; Sw. D. ga, ganga, pr. gdr. 

• GrM, icuk I ' * Ga* 'way wi' yc ;* get away with you. 

Gkted, gee<L Forms of the prct of Gkte. 

* My <vo'd I Bud he gaed sharp 1 ' he went, or moved, with great speed. 

Gag, v. a. I . To strain or wrench ; a limb or joint, namely. 2. To 
apply a very powerful bit, such as is used in breaking young horses or 
governing restive ones. See G^g-bit. 

Mr. Wedgwood refers E. gag to the inarticulate sounds * made by one endeavouring to 
speak while suffering from impediments,' either natural or due to external viol«ice. Toc^e 
refers it to A.S. ccBggian, to shut fast, to lock ; thence to block up, or confine, from ^leak- 
ing. Welsh cegiaw, to choke or strangle, from ceg, geg, gag, the mouth, an opening or 
entrance, is, however, the immediate origin of the word. Pr. Pm. gives * Gaggyn, to 
strcyne by the throte. Suffoco.' 1 am very doubtful if our gag, to strain, is at all con- 
nected with this. I am more inclined to think that it is not ; but that it is rather dependent 
on the sense which stands second in the definition. In this sense. Dan. D. kicegel (properly 
IciiBve-oeU says Molb., the strap which is listened below the jaw-bone in a horse's head- 
collar) serves to connect the word with Pr. Pm. ' Kevle, or kevyl, for hors. Mordtde, 
camus,* and with Manip. Vocab. * Kewle^ sb., a brake for a horse's mouth ; vb., os obstruere,* 
Mr. Way, in his note, suggests the connection with O. E. cbavyl (see Chaft, Chap), and 
quotes from Jam., * Kewl, a halter brought under the jaws of an unmanageable horse, and 
passed through his mouth.' Now Levins' sb. ketule, like our Qag-bit, supposes a strain 
upon, or wrench of, the horse's jaw or mouth ; and it is possible the idea in our first mean- 
ing is thence derived : perhaps more than possible. Leeds Gl. and Hall, give hedk (pr. 
kee&k), * a sprain. A horse going up hill with a heavy load is in danger of getting ** a kSak 
in his back." ' This word is no doubt coincident with our gag, and reproduces the Dan. 


initial h. hi the same connection comp. * Keeh^ to make a noise in the throat by reason of 
difficulty of breathing:' Wedgw., kih in Sw. kik-bmste, &c., with £. gag. 
I. * Ah trod iv a lowse steean an* gagged ma feeat sair.' 

Ghag-bit, sb. A bit of a very powerful description, used for breaking 
horses, &c. 

Gai'n, Pr. of Gkum or Gkum. 

Gkun, adj. i. Direct, and, in that sense, short and near. a. Near 
at hand, and so, handy, convenient. 

0. N. gtgfit over against ; O. Sw. gen; Sw. D. gdjn, direct. ' In our mediseval tongue/ 
sajTS Rietz, * we have many compound words due to O. Sw. gen, which do not at this day 
occur in our stand^ird language, nor are met with in the dialects.' In Cleveland we keep 
two or three of these compounds. See Gain-hand, Gkdn-way. 

1. * We *11 gan the gainest way.* 

* This road is a vast gainer than the other.' Wb, GL 

2. * Ay, its gay and gain for t* market.* 

Gkdn-hand, adj. Near, easily reached, convenient. 

The suffix, bandt is not uncommon in Clevel. Comp. Nish-hand, or Near-handy 
and Maist-hand ; as also ' benden sichem/ Oen. and Ex, p. 53 ; ' benden 5or-bi,* * Oor bende* 
lb. p. 96. 

* It ligs fair gain-band;* of farm lands with respect to the farmstead; of a road with 
respect to a house ; of a railroad to a town, &c. 

Gkdnly, adj. Conveniently near ; and so easy of access. See Gktin. 

Comp. O. N. gSgnilegr^ commodus ; Sw. D. or O. Sw. genUgber, genliker, short, direct. 

* A gainly soort ov a spot.* Wb. GL 


Gainly, adv. Conveniently, handily, without having to go far or a 
roundabout way. 

GkuLns, sb. Advantage ; saving in distance or time. 

* He 's getten nae grct gain$ wiv takkin' t* law.' 

* There '11 be maist g(un% that 'n a way iv ony way ;' either time or distance being in 

Comp. Jutl. gadning ''pr. ganning)^ from vb. geta; er bun ikke din ganningbe, da 
hederjeg^ at du flyer mig len bid igjen : if the girl I send be no gains to you, I beg you will 
send me her back again ; N. d'a ikje gagn i da^ or, '/i <U : there is no gains in that. 

Ctain-way, sb. A short or direct route to a house or place. 

Dan. gjen-veit a short cut. Comp. Sw. D. adv. gena-vdgen^ straight, directly. 

* Gan t' gainway t'ruff t' fields, honey.' 

Gkum, gam (often pr. gai'n), sb. Woollen thread, worsted, yam. 

O. N., O. Sw., Sw., Dan., &c. garn; A. S. geam; Germ, gam, &c.. For Pr. comp. 
N. gann. 

* There is gam on the reylle other, my dame.' Toumel. Mysi, p. 37. 

Gkom-wmdles, sb. (pr. gai'n-win'Fs). The instrument used for 


winding woollen yam into balls, consisting of a light rotatiiig wooden 
frame- work. 

Sw. D. gamtfinda, garmnnna, gamvinga ; Dan. gammndt ; Germ. gtWHwimtb . 

Gait, c^te sb. (pr. geeat). i. A street in a town. 2. A road, a 
way gone. 3. Way or manner of action or demeanour. 

0. N. gata, Sw. gaia, Dan. gad*, a street, a path ; Goth, gatvo, A. S. gidi, gdl. Gem. 
gaut, * The original meaning seems a narrow opening ; O. N. gai^ a hole, an openng ; 
g€Ua^ to perforate.' Wedgw. Note also, Sw. D. gatt^ an opening, means of traoHt; alto, 
and thence, mouth of a bay or of a deep gulf; as norra gatut, todra gaUit^ in Fseio 
Sound ; katUgatti H'u.d. gat, an opening or passage. From the gait which gave access to 
the street proper, the name passed over to the btter, unless we look on streets as, in Ihrc's 
words, * apcrturx her quas transitur.' From street, the transition seems to be to road, path, 
way gone ; and thence, * metaphorically, to the way, means, or manner of doing a tiding.' 

1. * Ah seed him gan oop toon*s-gate, lahk yan wud ;' of a country village with one sole 
street in it. It is sufficient simply to advert to the numbers of streets in York, Whitby, 
Leeds, Hull, Lincoln, Boston, &c., distinguished by the name * Gate.' 

2. *** He's ganging a downward geeai;" declining in respect, ability, prospe ri ty, or 
circumstances ; or in morality or good conduct.' Wb, Gl. 

* Let him gan his ain gate* Comp. Sw. ban gick sin egen gaia : he went his own gait. 

3. • What for did you behave in that gait?* Wb, GL 

* Nae, nae ; it canna be deean nae gaUs.* 

Gait, sb. I. Right or privilege of stray and pasturage for cattle, Ac, 
whether free on common land, or purchased, or otherwise acquired by 
8i)ccial arrangement. 2. Pasturage, simply, for a specified time. See 
Cow-gate, Ox- gate. 

Cf. Sw. D. go/fl, gjtifa, gjeta, &c , N. gjoBfa, to watch or tent cattle when grazing, to 
attend cattle to their pasturage ; S. G. gata : ' Gi'dtes a med birda, si quis pecus suum, in 
aliena sylv& pasceiis custodial' (Ihrc) ; O. N gceta, to watch, look after, derived from O. N. 
gd, to give heed or attention to, look after a thing or person. The connection is rather 
with this class of words than with Gait or Gate, a way gone, &c. Of course, in the dajrs 
anterior to the creation of fences, and to the destruction or enclosure of the forests, the 
presence of some one to watch or tent the pasturing stock would be indispensable : hence 
the Sw. D. forms gjetare, tenter ; gjetar-pdjk, tenting-boy ; gjetar-siint, tenting-girl, &c. 

1. * All ither common-recghts, an' gait for a hoonder sheep.' 

2. * Gait for tweea lahtle coos, fur, mebbe, tolf weeks.' 

Qait, V. a. To set up clover in small sheaves, or bundles tied at 
their extremity, to dry into hay, by aid of the free percolation of air 
through the sheaf below the ligature. 

Jamieson's idea is — ' As the sheave is opened towards the bottom, both for drying it and 
making it stand, perhaps from Isl. gat, foramen, gata, perforare ;' and Wedgw., after quoting 
O. N. giita, N. gUtt, an opening among clouds ; gletta, glytta, to peep, to make an open- 
ing ; glytt, glott, an opening, hole, clear place among clouds ; goes on to say — * The oss of 
the / (as in some foregoing examples) would give a root gat, git, signifying what admits 
the light to shine through, open, separated ; exemplified in £. gat-tootbed, in G. gatUr, 


gitUr, a bttice, partition with open interstices, and in O. N., PI. D.. and Dut. gal, a hole.' It 
is curious if there be a connection between the much-vexed * gat-tothid' and our north-country 
word gait, to set up in single sheavts ; but the idea is evidently the same in either word. 

Gaitings, sb. Small sheaves, or bunches tied at their tops, of newly- 
cut clover set up to dry ; single sheaves of com set by themselves instead 
of being stookod. 

Gaitage, c^teage, sb. i. The charge per head for pasturage of 
cattle. 2. The pasturage itself. 

Qallac-handed,c^ulio-lianded,adj. Left-handed, awkward generally. 

Also wriuen gallook-handed, gallio-handed, gauliah-handed, and gauk-handed, 
which may be either a contracted form or dependent upon Qauk or Gawk. Comp. Ft. gauebe 
and our Eng. gawky; also Sw. D. kajtbanded, kjevbdndter, kevbdndt; Dan. keitbandet; 
D. Dial, kavbacmd, kavbaandtt; N. kjeivbendt; but the connection is obscure. Mr. Gamett 
derives gaucbe from gawk, and gawk from awk; Pr. Pm. * Awki, or wronge. Sinister; with 
the prefix ge,* It is possible, however, that O. N. skidlgr, obliquus ; Sw. D. skalg, skjdlg, 
awry, crooked, may be nearly connected with gallao, as well as with the Scand. prefixes 
just noticed. For the omission or addition of s, comp. Germ, or Germ. D. limk, glink, dink, 
left; Sw. klander, O.E. ulander or selaunder,'E, dander; and kjalg, kjalg, with the natural 
tendency of the / to be merged in the following consonant, as in our au'd, bau'd, oau'd, 
oaii*f, Sw. D. kdv, calf, &c., is not far from kjdv, kjev, kav, on the one hand, nor, with 
the / retained, from gaulio, gallao, ultimately gawk, on the other. Comp. the parallel 
forms, O. N. skeijr, N. skjeiv, D. sJlrj<£V, Sw. D. skjeva, skjaiva, left hand, with N. kjetva, 
Dan. D. kei, kau, kav, Sw. D, kaja, kjdva, kjev, kjep, &c. The Sanscr. word is soij^'a, which 
Benfey surmises was originally kb*avja, 

GAlloway, sb. A stiff pony. Any horse imder the size of an ordinary 
draught horse, and especially if generally used with the saddle, is called 
a GAlloway. 

Jam. thinks this word is ' properly Scotch,* and to be usually comiected with the Scotch 
county of the same name : but, he adds, * it may be merely the S. G. and Germ, word 
waUacb, corresponding to E. gelding, from gaUa, O. N. gelda, castrare.* Ihre, however, 
thinks that the name originated from the Wallachians, who, he says, were the first to use 
horses of this kind. On this ground there is no reason why the Galloway should be limited 
in size — * not more than fourteen hands high.' Youatt says * a horse between 13 and 14 
hands in height is called a Galloway, from a beautiful breed of little horses once found in 
S. Scotland, on the shore of the Solway Firth. There is a tradition in that country that the 
breed is of Spanish extraction, some horses having escaped from one of the vessels of the 
Grand Armada that was wrecked on the coast in question.' But even as early as temp. 
Edward I, this district abounded in horses, as he adds, * it supplied that monarch with a 
great number of horses.' Comp. the terms, * an Aldcmey,' * a Shetlander,' &c. 

Gallowses, sb. Men's braces, or ' suspenders.' 

' Braces are in some parts of England called Gallows, as in Germany bdngels, as the 
implement by which the trowsers hang.' Wedgw. 

GAlly-bauk, sb. The iron bar across the chimney a little above the 
fire, from which depend the pot>hooks or Bekkon-orooks. 

Literally gallows-balk ; as it were a composition of the Dan. galge, O. N. galga, and 


Dan. bjalkt, O. N. bjalki. Comp. the Warend word gaU-stdmg, which I beliere has the ciact 
meaning of our word, simply substituting Uang for b<iu*k. A poor fellow afflicted with 
cancer is mentioned {Wdrtnd ocb Wird. 473) as baring hanged himself * pd gaU-ttirngm nd 
gru/uan :' upon the gail-U&ng by the hearth. 

Gkun, 8b. I. Sportiveness, playfulness; of young animals, &c. 2. 
Mockery, ridicule. 

Comp.« for both sense and sound, S. Q. gamnum, i. Ixtitia; 3. irrisio; O.N. gamam 
jocus; Dan. gammon^ I. fim, sport, playfulness: a. mockery, jesting at another; 
N. gaman ; O. Germ gaman ; A. S. gamen. 

I. * Or all t' young things at iwer Ah seed, t' young fox beats owght for gam.* 

* I am so fare and bright. 
Of me commys all this light. 

This gam and all this gle.' Townd MyU, p. 3. 

a. ' They did nowght bud mak* gam* o' me.* 

Comp. O. Dan. tbe jom/rwer giorde aff henne gammen : the maidens then made game of 
her. Molb. Dansk. Gl. 

Gkunashes, sb. Gaiters, or leggings, to be worn over the stockings ; 
properly short ones covering only the instep and part of the leg; but 
often applied to longer leggings that are worn over the modem trowser 
instead of the more ancient hose. 

* From W. gar, the shank, is Lang. garamuebOt a legging, and thence (rather than firom 
It. gamba, the leg) It. gamaseie (for gramaseit, as Sc. gramasbes. Jam.), Fr. gamtiAitf 
E. gamasbes. A further corruption converted gambages into gambadoes* Wedgw. 

Gkunmer, v. n. To love play rather than work ; to idle or trifle. 

0. N. gambrat to trifle, to gossip or prate idly. See also Gkun for the derivatives, to 
which might be added, O.Dan, gammen or gamen, i. pleasure, making oneself glad; 
opposed to sorrow or heaviness : 2. jest, joke, fun ; opposed to earnest or seriousness. 

Gktmmer-stags, gammer-stang, sb. An idle or rude and wanton 

GammiBh, gamsome, adj. i. Playful, frolicsome. 2. Inclined to 
take one's pleasure or amusement, whether * in sport' or otherwise. 

1. * As gamsome as a young fox.' 

3. ' *' He 's rather a bit gammisb;'* with a turn for sport or pleasure, and not too devoted 
to business only.* Wh. Gl. 

Gkm, gang, v. n. i. To go; the form gan being by far the most 
usual. 2. To walk ; in contradistinction to to ride, or to stand up. 

A. S. gan, or gangan; O. N. gdnga, ganga; O. Sw. ganga; Sw. D. ganga; O. Germ. 
gangan ; O. Sax. gangan or gan ; Fris. gan ; Sax. gan. Grimm considers M. Germ, gan 
a contraction o( gangen, O. Germ, gangan. Bopp, founding on Sanscr. ga, looks upon g^oii 
as the primitive form. Rietz. 

I. * Gan tha* ain gate ;' do as you like yourself. 

* Gan yer ways ;* go away, or go on. 

* Gan tiv t' grand ;' to relieve nature, exonerare alveum. 

* Gan awa' yamm ;' go off home. 


' Gan all tc nowght ;' to waste away, of a person wasting with sickness, or of anything 
that loses bulk greatly by keeping or exposure. 
a. * He can nowther gan nor stand.' 
' Are yon gangu^ or riding Y 

* )?us uses yhing men all new gett. 
And )>e world )>ai all awkeward sett, 
Thurgh swylk uncomly pomp and pryde, 

pat J>ai schew whe)>er )>ai gang or ryde/ Pr. of Come, 154O, 

* And seknes tuk him in the way 
And put him in sa hard assay 

That he micht nouther gang na ride.' Barbour, 81. 

* Sometimes he went, sometimes he ran.' Percy's Fol, MS, i. 40. 

Comp. S. Jutl. ban ham gdngend; and N. homa gangande : he came on foot; to come 
afoot. * Tber kaam gangind en miller mand : there came on foot a miller man. Kempe* 

Gang, sb. A way or road; a term not applied to a highroad or 
Turnpike, but with a limitation of meaning conveyed by the prefix, 
making it a definite piece of road, or way. For instance, By-gang, 
Oroes-gang, Down-gang, Out-gang, ni>-gang. Wk. GL 

O, N. gdngr, Dan. gang, the act of going, the way or means of going, the way gone, &c. ; 
D. Dial. g<Knge, a narrow road, or lane, leading to a village or farmstead. The passage or 
entrance from the stable to the chaff-chamber (skareh, only found in old-fashione^ farm- 
steads, however) is called g€Bnget, the gang. 

Gang, ganging, sb. A set; the complete number of anything; 
usually limited to an animal's feet or their belongings. 

Dan. D. gang, a set ; applied to the number of traces requisite for a pair of horses, to 
trace-ropes, and to the seals or Hames, peruining to the collar or Barfam ; not otherwise, 
Molb. says. 

• A gang o' cau'f 's feet,' or • newt's feet.* 

' A ganging o' shoes ;' when a horse is shod all round. 

• ij gangce ct dimidia de felies de fraxino.' Pr. Fincb. lij. 

Ganger, sb. A goer, usually, if not exclusively, applied to a horse. 

S. G. giingare, equus tolutarius, qui tolutini incedit. * In poetry, and in writings of old 
date,' says Molb., Dan. ganger means * a horse, a riding horse, as distinguished from a 
charger or war horse {stridsbengsten) ;' and he adds that it is ' a current saying of a horse 
that steps well, at den er en god ganger, that he is a good ganger.* Comp. example : 

• As good a ganger as ever went upon four legs,* IVb. Gl. ; explained by the Gl., but I 
think mistakeiUy, as simply * a good irotting-horsc.' 

Gangerill, gangrill, gangril, sb. i. A vagrant, whether a beggar 
or a pedlar, &c. 2. A toad. 

From Qang, Qanger — comp. O. N. gaunguma^r, a vagrant or beggar — in reference to 
continued moving forwards or about, to vagrancy, in other words ; and then transferred 
to the toad, from its seemingly idle, listless, va^ mode of locomotion. 

Gangings-on, sb. Proceedings, doings, course or line of conduct. 

E e 


Gkmt, adj. Small, thin, poor or puny. 

Comp. the Essex word — Hall, gives it as Eastcrn-Coimtiei — famtf-gmUtd^ tluD-bodicd 
and thin-bdlied. Pr. Pm. gives * Gawnte, sleodyr, GraeUU* as wdl as * Cfl—f, kae.' Mr. 
Waj suggests, from A. S. geunxnt^ p.p. of gewtuiian (tabescere). 

Gantree, c^imtree» sb. i. A wooden frame with legs, or stand, 
to support barrels. 2. The timber framework which, in lieu of an 
embankment, is employed on some railways to support the permanent 

* From Lat. cantberius, a horse of burden ; then applied (as in modem bngnagea, a hone, 
ass, or gf>at) to a wooden support for various purposes. Cantberhu, a prop for a ▼ine, 
rafter of a roof, trestle, or horn to saw timber on. Littleton. The Germans use iocft; a 
goat, in the last of these senses. In like manner we speak of a ck>thes-£orar; and Fr. 
ebtvaUtt a little horse, is a painter's easel (G. nd^ an ass), the firame which sup p o c ta his 
work.' Wedgw. 

Gktp, sb. An opening at the Bank-top through which a path 
track winding up the steep Bank-side finds its way on to the o] 


O. N. gap, an opening, a chasm ; N. gap ; S. G. and Sw. D. gap, 

* Hunter's Gap ;' * George Gap ;' both in this parish. 

Gape, V. n. (pr. geeap). To bawl, or shout loudly. 

Just as E. gape, from the action it implies, takes the sense, — * to express astomshment 
throu.'h wide open mouth and staring eyes,' so also in the present case there is a derivative 
meaning of the same kind, and not unknown in the Scand. D. Thus. Sw. D. gapa takes 
the meanings to talk big, to talk fast ; and Dan. D. gabe the same. Fr<Mn O. N. and 
O. Sw. gapa, 8cc. See Yowp. 

* He geeaps an' hollers lahk a ploughman on a moor.' Wh. Gl, 

Ghar, V. a. To cause, or make ; to lead to or induce any given 

O. N. gera, gora; S. G. gbra; Dan. gjcre; N. gjera; Sw. D. gara, gent, gar, 8co. It 
should be remarked that an equivalent usage to that of our word is rare in the N. 

* It was fit t* gar a man hang hissel*.' Wb. Gl. 

* It gars me great pain.* lb. 

* For my part I shall garr two oxen and two horses maintaine me all my lifetime.' 
York Cattle Dep. p. 151. 

' Bcrc we hym furthe unto the kyrke. 
To the tombe that I gcrd wyrk, 

Sen fiiUc many a yere.* Townel. Myst. p. 23a. 

Garb, v. a. To bedeck, to array in a gaudy fashion ; almost invari- 
ably implying tasteless or vulgar finery. 


Garfits, sb. Entrails, garbage ; sometimes with a more limited sense, 
as denoting only the edible portions from the inside of a goose or other 

From garbage (corrupted into garhuh\ hy the interchange of h and /. Comp. O. N. 
gamir, ilia ; N. gam^ the head and guts of small fish. 

Garlands, sb. i. Wreaths of ribbons enclosing a white glove, for- 
merly borne at the funerals of young immarried women. See ArvaL 
3. Hoops bedecked with ribbons hung at the mast-head of whale-ships 
returning to port after a successful voyage. 

Garsel, sb. Hedge-sticks ; usually applied to dead sticks and under- 
wood from a hedge and its bank. Brock, says, * small branches cut for 
the purpose of mending the hedge ;' and Wh. Gl. extends the meaning 
to whins or furze set apart for burning. Spelt also, Gkuroil, Gfrarsily 

0€ardsdt arbores, ex quibus sepes constniuntur ; gdrdsd gdrd, hedges constructed of trees 
and boughs of trees. Ihre. Sw. garddtt edder, materials with which a fence is made ; Dan. 
gierdul, materials for making a fence, whether of spray or brushwood, or of wattle work 
(Molb.) ; S. Jutl. gdo-dsel; O. Sw. gari>sla, materials for hedge-making. The Sw. dialects 
gire instances of compounds formed with this word : e. g. giirdsel-sto, the line or mark in a 
field which long remains to shew where an old hedge has once stood ; gards^siok, the 
fragments of hedge-stakes, &c., remaining after the destruction or removal of a hedge-fence. 
These Scand. words, one or other of them, seem to take in all-sized hedging materials, from 
trees, to brush ; which may account for the somewhat varying, or fluctuating, meaning of 
our word. 

Garth, sb. i. An enclosure generally; the specific object of the 
enclosure being specified by a prefix, as Stag-garth, Eirk-garth, &c. 
2. An Intak', or enclosure (on sufferance) by a cottager from the 
common, as a substitute for a garden. 

O. N. gariSr; S. G. gard; Sw. garde; Sw. D. gard; O. Sw. garffit gari>e; O. Dan. 
gartb^ gaar, gaard; Dan. gaard; A. S. geard. Molbech's remark upon gaard^ applicable 
to all the above-given words also, is * Originally — ^but now obsolete — an enclosing (with a 
hedge or fence, namely), a hedge, a place or spot enclosed with a hedge (inbegnet) ; hence 
ahUdgaard, an orchard ; kaalgaardt kale, or vegetable garden (kail-gartbt or yard in Sc.) ; 
kirkegaard, churchyard (our Kirk-garth) ; urtegaard, vegetable-garth ; bmnsegaard, 
fowl-3rard, &c.* The word, in sense 2, often takes the prefix * Potato.' 

Gauby, sb. A heavy, vacant lout, an oaf, a simpleton; one awk- 
wardly silly rather than simply a fool. See Gktuvey, Gauvison, and 

These words are all nearly connected with O. N. and Sw. gapa^ Dan. gabe^ &c. O. N. 
and O. Sw. gapa is equivalent to, to stare with open mouth, to gaze with stupid astonish- 
ment ; which is nearly the meaning also of the Dan. word ; whence the prov. saying, den 
eru abe faaer den anden til at gabe : if one be an ape, he sets another to gape. Comp. 
N. gapt a gaby, an oaf; Sw. D. gapuger, of a heavy stupid lout with gaping mouth and 

E e 2 


»taring eyes, and Dan. D. galtenar^ a Gauby or Gauvey. It inay be adikd that in very 
many instances, esjiccially in prov. Pr., the sound of Dan. h passes into that ofvorf. Thm, 
in lukke et gah^ \o stop a gap, Molb. gives gauv as the prov. form, or sound of ^a6. In like 
manner, Kok gives f^aff z$ the Pr. of gixbbe, gjaff for that of gabbe; go/k f<x gSbm, 
a Gowpen ; bob/ for bob, hope, 8cc. Hence Gauvey and Gauby are, it may be aid, 

Gktufer, sb. A kind of tea-cake or crumpet, of a square or rect- 
angular form, made of batter. 

• And wq/res pypyng hoot out of the gleede.* Millars Tale. 

* These were probably the Fr. gav/res, whence the word wo/Spt, gu and w being 
convertible, as Walter from Gualtier. They are usually sold at fain, and are made of a 
kind of batter (nmred into an iron instrument which shuts up like a pair of snuffers. It V 
then thrust into the fire, and, on withdrawal, the wafer' — or Gauflnr — * is taken out and 
eaten.' Note to IJcH's Cbaucer. 

* Go/er. A species of pancake pressed into a square form by irons.* Limcoinsb, Gi. 

G^auk, gawk, g^uky, sb. An oaf, a stupid, an awkward fool. 

Comp. S. G. gdck, geek, a fool, foolish, stupid; O.N. gich, gikkr; Sw. gaeh; Sw. 0. 
giikkig, foolish, buffoon-like; O. Germ, goucb; M. Gtrm. gocb, giegi ; Germ. D. geekig: 
A.S. geoct rash, foolhardy; Welsh coeg. Mr. Wedgw. would connect prov. E. gawky 
gawky, an awkward person, Fr. gaucbe, with O. E. awke, E. awkward. Sec his remarks 
under Awk. The assumed connection between Gauk or Sc. gowk, and Gourk, a cuckoo, 
receives no confirmation from the words quoted above. 

Gauk-handed, gawk-handed, adj. Left-handed, awkward, clumsy. 
See Gallac-handed. 

Gauky, adj. i. Awkward in mind, foolish, blundering. 2. Awkward 
in body or motion, shambling. See Gauk. 

Gaum, V. a. To understand or comprehend ; to give heed or pay 
attention ; to consider ; to know. 

O. N. gaumr, S. G. g'6m, N. gaum, care, heed, attention. O. N. geyrna, S. G. goma^ 
N. gauma, O. Dan. game, Swiss gaumen, gomen, A. S. gyman, geomian, O. Germ. goU' 
men, Dan. D. gaue — all, to give heed, attention, forethought, or the like. Rietz connects 
Sw. gamma, to take care of, to lay up ; Sw. D. gajmii, giima, gimma, with this wcxd. 
Comp. the thought in the words, — * But his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.' 
Luke ii. 51. 

* " Ah dinnot gaimt ye ;" I do not understand you.' Wb. Gl. 

* It 's te nae use speaking ; he dizn't gaum nae mair an nowght.* 

The form in P. Plougbm., King Horn, Townel. Myst., Rel. Pieces, is yem*, ybenu or 

' He l>at )>ise twa wele '^emes all \>c tene comniandementcs forsothe he fulfilles.' Rd. 
Pieces, p. 7. 

Gaum, sb. Attention, heed, observance. 

* Ah gav' 't nae gaum;* I paid no attenti«)n. 

* Nivver heed : he '11 give you nae gaum ;' he will pay no regard to what you say. 


Comp. O. Dan, * The gamla ftdber gaff ieg ty gom^ for shmi oe gamm tba bolt Ug 
tbem :* to the aged then gave I no gaum^ but held them all for jest and scorn. 

* En gefctigi gaum ai mer ;* but gave me no gaum. Flat, i. 554. 

Gktxunish, adj. Intelligent, acute. 

Gktumless, adj. Stupid, unintelligent, vacant or half silly. 

Gaup, V. n. To stare vacantly, to stare with open mouth, as at any 
novel or surprising sight. 

0. N., O. Sw., Sw., Sw. D., N. gapa^ to stare with open mouth, to gaze with stupid 
astonishment. Comp. N. gapen, of one who gazes and stares at any new thing. . . 

Gaut, sb. A narrow opening, whether in a row of houses, or in the 
soil, sufficing to afford a passage, for men, &c., in the one case, for water 
in the other. Spelt also Gktwt, Gk>te. 

Comp. Sw. D. gSte, a strait or confined passage between two houses, in which sound as 
well as sense is almost exactly coincident with that of our word. Rietz gives the word in 
question as connected with gatt^ gat^ or gad; O. N., N., and Dan. D. gat, an opening, or 
hole through. Comp. Hind, gat^ a pass or defile. There are several Ghauts or Gtotes 
at Whitby ; as Horsemill-^aii/, Fish-^ati/. Wb, Ol, 

Gauve, v. n. To stare vacantly or wonderingly, but with the wonder 
of stupidity not intelligence. See G^ape, Gktuby. 

Gkkuvey, gauvison, sb. A simpleton ; one that is half silly, or with 
less than his proper proportion of wits. See Gauby. 

Gnuving, adj. Awkward in manner, given to stare in a stupid kind 
of way. Probably the pcpl. of Gauve originally, but by usage passed 
into an adj. 

Ga>velock, sb. (pr. geeavlok). A crow-bar, an iron bar of sufficient 
dimensions to be used in moving weighty masses of stone, &c. 

Gamett quotes Welsh gqfiaeb, a fork, as the origin of Gavelook. Besides which we 
have O. N. gaflokt S. G. gafflak (which Ihre refers to W. gaflacb)^ and A. S. gafeluc, 
gaudoe, all meaning a javelin, or missile of that description, the shaft of which could of 
course be used as a bar or lever. It is observable that Qavelook is not applied in the case 
of a large and heavy crow-bar : that is simply a Bar. 

Guy, adj. i. Fair or fine to look at; hence, fine, considerable in 
size or quantity, worthy of consideration or regard. 2. Lively, cheerful, 
brisk ; hence, well in health. 

1, * A gay denty morning,* 

* A gay bit o* land ;' a large piece, a good deal. 

* •• A gay few ;" a good many.' Wb, Gl. 
7. * I am quite gay, thank you.' lb. 


Qayish, adj. Fairly or reasonably good. 

* A gayisb aop.' 

*A gayisb sample;' a fairly good specmien, not open to objection on the wore cl 

Gfrayly, adv. In good health, very well, satisfactorily or prosperously. 

* We 're all gayly^ thank you : how '$ yerser 7* 

* They teem to be getting on pretty g(^ly ;* with a fair degree of proq)erity. 

Gtoar, sb. i. Equipment in general, the special kind being usually 
indicated by a prefix, as Mill-gear, Horse-gear, or -gdarSy Ac.; 
dress or array. 2. Property in general, goods of whatever kind. 
3. Matter in hand, or business. The general idea of what is made 
or being made, seems to run through all the significations of the 

Mr. Wedgwood collates O. N. gerfi, and A. S. gtarwa, habiliments, adding, * whatever it 
required to set a thing in action :* but I am more disposed to adopt the view whicb gives 
what may be called a passive sense to our word, that which has taken, or is taking, some 
making, preparing, or acquiring, previous to use or employment. And it should be ob- 
served that gionoa itself is Englished by Bosworth with the word * preparation,' as wdl as 
* clothing ;* while gedro, geam, gearw, agearwOf gart, ready, prefnred, paratas, only 
comes by that meaning in virtue of the peculiar or proper sense of the p. p. whidi pan U m 
is. Comp. O. D. gUrd, g«rd^ O. N. gSrH^ which has the meaning, I. of business, woik in 
hand, what is going on, precisely like our sense 3 ; and, 2. a sum prepared, and then paid 
for a given purpose ; quoted also, in this latter sense, by Molb. as parallel to A. S. gitara, 
provisio, apparatus, impensa. And this second sense, moreover, has many more points of 
resemblance than of discordance with our first Further, Sw. D. gore, a doing, bnsness, 
that which is being done or carried on, very nearly corresponds with our word in form and 
part of its meaning ; and its secondary meaning, * that which is made by hand, as spinning, 
knitting, &c.,' brings it nearer still. The word, as an O. £. word, early gave rise to a 
derivative verb, and the part, gend^ in the senses, arrayed, dressed, equipp^ disposed, &&, 
is of constant occurrence. 

1. * pe bur ber to hit baft )>at braste all her gere;* of the ship. 

E, Eng, AUii. Poems, C. 1. 148. 

* I tarry fuUe lang fro* my warke, I traw : 

Now my gere wille I fang and thederward draw.' Tcwnel, Myst, p. a6. 

* Miche watj \>e gyld gere >at glent J>cr alofte.' 

Sir Oaw, and Or. Kn, L 569. 

* Alle )>e godlych gere )>at hym gajm schulde |>at tyde.' Ih. 1. 584. 

In both these latter instances the reference is to the various pieces, fittings and vestments 
which went to the full equipment of a knight in complete armour. 

* Wait while Ah gets ma* gear tcgithcr, an* Ah *11 be wi' ye inoo ;* wait until I collect my 
tools, &c. 

2. * Ill-gotten gear* 

* How are they off for gear f * Wb. Ol. 

3. * pen ar )>ay synfiil hemself and sulped (polluted) al togeder, 

Bo>e god and his gere* E. Eng. AUii. Poems, B. 1 5. 


' Noab. The top and the saylle both wille I make. 

The helme and the castelle also wille I take. 

To drife ich a naylle wille I not forsake. 

This gere may never faylle, that dar I undertake.' Tounul, Myst. p. 47. 

* Nae, Ah '11 nat mell : let him wark his ain gear.* 

Gee. The word of command ta horses in a team to turn to the 
right ox from the driver ; substituted for the older word Bee. 

Jam. spells this word je«^ and refers to Sw. g& * as signifying both to budgi, and to htm 
rwmd,* which is certainly true, with the limitation that it is so applied in respect of the 
motion, or going, of matters which move only in the way of turning. Still there is little 
doubt that the origin of gee is in gli and its etymons. The occasional use of a particle 
or word in addition — ^as gee-baok — suggests the possibility that gee may be an elliptical 
mode of expression. See Hauv, Hyte, Bee. 

Geeiiy gieiiy gi'n. Forms of the pret of Give. 

Geld, adj. Barren or not producing young at the usual or expected 
season ; of cows and ewes. See Drape ; which is the word more com- 
monly in use. 

Sw. D. galdur, barren, of a cow the year she bears no calf; otherwise, gaid, gaU, gaila, 
gUd, Of ewes also; gold t. O. N. gtldr: O. Sw. galder; Dzn. gold; as in gold ho; 
Dan. D. gidd; as m giddko; N. gidd; Sw. D. galdiot galUyr, gdlku or gaU'ku, Sec, 
Comp. our Qeld-oow. 

Geld-coWy sb. A cow that does not produce a calf in due time. 

Gen, gtm, v. n. i. To grin; i. e. to part the lips so as to shew the 
teeth, whether in displeasure or anger, or in mirth : hence, to shew signs 
of displeasure or discontent. 2. To snarl, to give vent to discontent, 
to repine. Sometimes Gem, 

Here again the orthography is uncertain. I scarcely think there is but one word simply 
resulting by metath. from grin, but rather that there are, in reality, two words ; the one 
coincident with Sc. girn^ and £. grin, and the other descended from O. N. ginOj hiare, os 
deducere ; gittf rictus, oris diductio. Comp. gin-ltlqfit a spasmodic tension of the mouth, or 
grin, and especially Sw. D. ginnds, to cry, repine ; gjannds, to grin, try to bite, as a horse 
does ; which Rietz connects directly with O. N. gina. Note also O. Germ, gindn^ gmin, 
and A. S. ginan^ with Gr. xa^^i'f to gape, to open, as the mouth in the act of grinning. 
I. * Thou gens lahk a Chesshire cat eating brass wire.' 
a. * He gims all t' flesh off his back the day tiv an end.' Wb. Gl, 

* A genning sort o* body.' lb, 

Gep, V. n. To seek intelligence or knowledge of what is going on 
in a furtive manner ; e. g. by listening or eavesdropping. 

Probably a derivative from E. gape. Any one listening closely or intently is apt enough 
to do so with his lips parted, possibly with a mouth sufhciently wide open. Comp. Sw. D. 
gepa^ to chatter or prate ; gipa, to talk without discretion or thought, to chatter ; both 
frequentatives from gapa. 

* They are always watching and gepping* Wb. Gl. 


G'ene, cfeos, sb. Grass. In the pronunciation of this wotd the r 
is, in effect, dropped, and a faint sound of i — ^not unlike the Jutland 
* help- vowel' — is heard before the short e. 

Comp. A.S. gtitrs^ g*on, grau. 

(Versing, g'essing, sb. Grass land, or rather land in grass; pas- 

Gtort, greeat. Forms of great. 

GtoaXing, sb. A gosling, or immature goose. 

Sw. D. gilding ; O. Sw. gaslinger ; Dan. gasUng, As godmg from gwtm (A. S. g6d^ so 
our word from the diminutives of Scand. gd*^ gas, &c. 

Qtety sb. (pr. gilt, g hard), i. Offspring, what has been b^;otten by 
any one. 2. A breed or variety among creatures that are begotten. See 
Mak\ as applied in nearly the same manner to things without life. 

0. N. gtta^ to beget, to conceive ; A. S. gttan^ gUan ; O. N. getnadr, that whidi is 
gotten, produce or offspring. 

1. * To Abraham I am in dett 

To safe hym and his geite* Towmi, Myst. p. 73. 

* Isaac. Fader I 

Abraham. What, son ? 

Isaac, Think on thi gti : 

What have I done Y lb. p. 39. 

a. • " Ha' ye seen Willy R/s new pigs ?" *' Neca. 'S they ony particlar giiV* ' 

Q«t, V. aux. See examples. 

* We '11 git shoren by nee't ;' shall have finished reaping by night-time. 

* Oct sided up ;* get everything put in order. 

* Get peed, honey ;' to a young child. 

Cf. * En Sigmundr gat skridit upp :' but Sigmundr managed to crawl up (^o/ crept op) 
on the shore, namely.' Flatey, i. 559. 

* £/ Olafr gati unnit Lunduna bryggiur :* if Olaf should succeed in winning (could get 
won) Loudon Bridge. lb. ii. 2 2, a6. 

Q^t, Able to. Able to reacli a given place. 

' Ah wur gannan tc Whitby to-moorn, but Ah know n't an Ah sal be yabble te gH* 

Q^t a-gate, v. n. To begin or make a start with a piece of work of 
any kind. See Agait. 

Q^t away with, v, n. To get forward with a piece of work ; to be 
doing it quickly and well, m 

Gtet one's life, To. To be fatal in effect, induce death. 

' Ah 's dou'tful 't 'U get bis life; of sorrow, calamity, sore sickness, &c. 


Get the length of, v. n. To get as far as, to reach, this or that 
place or distance. 

* It 's as much as he can do to get the length o' t' garden-end/ 

Comp. saa gik bun et par agerlcengder ber og flyttede kmreng : so she went the length of 
a couple of fields and shifted the kye. Oamle Danske Minder, and Ser. p. 139. 

Gtotherer, sb. The person whose business it is to rake the com as 
it is mown into separate lots or bundles for the Binder to bind into 
sheaves. See Bandster. 

Gtotten, p. p. of Get. 

* He, Oodd and man bathe in a personne, was sothefastly of |>at blessyde maydene, Godd 
gttyne of his ffadire be-fore any tyme.' Rel. PUees, p. 4. 

* Wrangwisely to halde >at at es getyne* lb. p, 12, 

Gew-gow, sb. {g hard). A Jew's-harp, or trump. 

O.N. giga; Sw. giga; Sw. D. gdjgd; Dan. gige; Oenn. gag*; a kind of stringed 
musical instrument ; a fiddle. 

' Sir Thomas Brown states that a brass Jew's-harp, richly gilded, was found in an ancient 
Norwegian urn. If so, Sutherland may be indebted to die Norwegians for its favourite, 
almost national instrument.' Notes of Travel in i860, p. 1 51. 

Gib, sb. A hook, such as is artificially formed on a walking-stick, 
or may be due to natural growth. 

Comp. E. gib, to start back or aside ; Dut. gijpen, of sails, to turn suddenly ; E. gibe, to 
turn from one side or course to another, of a boat under sail before the wind when her 
course is altered without tacking, the sails being shifted from one side to the other. Comp. 
also O. Fr. regiber, to wince, start back ; Sw. gipa, to wry or twist the mouth. 

Gib-stick, sb. A stick with a hook at the end, whether natural or 
formed by hand. 

* Noo, lads, it 's owther scheeal or a taste o* mah gib-stiei ower yer shoothers.' An old 
Dales yeoman's account of the way in which his sons had come to be ' sae rigler at 

Gfen (pr. gin or geen), p. p. of Give. 

* A geen bite 
Is soon put out o' sight.' Wb. Gl, 

' Gif, conj. If 

A. S. gif, gyf Ihre's remark on S. G. jef, doubt, hesiution, is ' habent linguss cognatx 
particulam dubitativam «/) si ; A. S. if, gif; Aug. if, quibuscum convenit M. O. jabai, jau, 
et gau* Another common archaic form was y^, 

Giff-gaff, sb. The interchange of familiar or unstudied conversation 
on cursory topics. 

One of the frequent instances of reduplication of consonantal sounds with a change of 
▼oweL Comp. O. N. gift, babbling, tattling, and A. S. gaf-sprcKt a babbling. 



Oiglet, giglot, sb. A giddy, laughing girl. 

* ^'^t 7«^» OigUt. The fundamental idea is lapid, reciprocating, or wfairting actioii, 
whence the O. £. gig, a top. 

** To »ee great Hercules whipping a gig.** Ixm^t Labtmr lAut, 

To jig is to move rapidly to and fro. Fr. gigu*^ gige, a jig, or rapid dance ; gig^t to 
run, leap, jump ; gigues, a light, versatile girl, a giglot or gigi^» Ofgl*^ Fortumg^ tnooo- 
stant fortune. Cymbeline. Swiss gageln, to joggle; gagU, ^ girl that cannot nt stiH* 
Wedgw. Cf. also Sw. D. gikkai, to raise or build up any thing or stru ct u re, so dial it shall 
be likely to topple down if touched ; gikkel, that which is so raised or pat together. Note 
also giga, to put up frail or tottering fence-work. 

Gilder, gildert, sb. A snare or running noose, made of horsehair, 

and used for catching small birds. 

O. N. and O. Sw. gilder, a snare, a gin ; O. D. gUder; as RAven gaaer ti to gangt paa 
eet gilder: the fox doesn't walk twice into the same snare; Sw. D. gillra, to set gilders; 
Sw. giller, a snare, trap, gin. 

* Falsehede or okyr, or o>er gelery.* Rel. Pieces^ p. I J. 

Gilevat, guilevat, sb. (pr. gahlfat). i. The tub or vat in which 
new-made ale or other liquor is set to ferment. 2. The fermenting ale, 
Sec, itself. 

* N. gil, ale in a state of fermentation ; gil-kar, gUsaa, the tub in which the wort fer- 
ments ; Dut. gbijlen, to boil, to effervesce ; g>/, gyl-bier, beer in which the fermentation is 
going on. T* bier staat in 't gijl ; the beer ferments * Wedgw. Add also Welsh gU^ fer- 
mentation. Gam. p. 165. Probably the Sw. D. gel, gal, gil, brisk, excited, &c., with the 
string of etymons given by Rietz, is nearly connected Hall, gives ' Gail, a tub used in 
brewing ; gail-clear, a tub for wort, spelt gailker in Hallamsh. Ql. p. 147 ;* with which 
conip. N. gil-kar; * gail-disb, a vessel used in pouring liquor into a bottle or cask;' and 
also * guile, of liquor, as much as is brewed at once ; guil-fat, a wort-tub ; gyle, wort.* iH- 

^t is the Shropshire form, gUe/attes in Fincb. Pr. Inv. 

Gill, sb. {g soft). A half-pint. 

* Gylle, l)'tylle pot, gilla, vel gillus, vel gillungulus. Pr. Pm. Oillo, vas fictile. Gloss, in 
Due. Vascula vinaria quae mutato nomine gvillones aut fiascones appellantur. — Paul. Dia- 
conus in Due* Wedgw. 

Gill, sb. {g hard). A ravine, a narrow valley or glen, with pre- 
cipitous or rocky banks properly, and usually with a stream running 
along the lx)ttom. 

O. N. gil, montis fauces, chasma profundius, geil ; N. ^7, gjel, gjyl, a deep and length- 
ened glen or fissure in a mountainous district ; Sw. D. gilja, a mountain pass, or glen ; 
M. Gcmi. giel. Conip. Hind, gil, a pass; Pcrs. gileb, id. A word of continual occurrence 
here, and furnishing a name to many different families, though second in number to the 
• Dales.' 

Gilliver, jilliver, sb. A loose or wanton woman : Wh, GL adds 
* in the last stage of her good looks,' which is probably only a local 
restriction of sense, if really existing in any entire district. Cr, GL 


simply gives it ^ an old woman of loose habits/ without reference to 

* looks/ Hall, gives ^ gilliver^ a wanton wench.' 

Carr suggests * comiption fr^sfi gil-flurt* Is it not as likely to be in reference to the 
gillyflower — gillojer, gillofr§ — in its redundant or p<us4e stage ? Or the connection maj be 
with Oiglet, >!//(?) 

Gilt, sb. A female pig of any age under maturity. When herself a 
mother she becomes a * sow.' 

Sw. D. gyllta ; i. a spayed sow \ 2. z young, half-grown sow pig, which has not yet 
borne pigs ; also gylU^ g'ollta^ gylli^^ &c. O. N. ^i/to, gyltr^ gulta, a sow ; Dan. D. gylt, 
a young sow, the first time she goes with young ; A. S. gilte; O. Germ, galza^ g^za^ Sec. 

Oimmal, sb. A narrow passage between two houses. WA, GL 

* Ginner occurs in the Leeds and Cr, GL with the same signification. 

O. N. gima^ an opening, fissure, gap ; Sw D. gima^ gimtnan or gimmen^ the mouth of an 
oven ; giman^ an opening into a hoop-net. But O. N. gimald, with the same signification 
as gtrtutt gives our exact form. For Ginnel, comp. O. N. gina, to gape open, as a cleft, or 
the mouth, does ; gina^ chasma nubium ; A. S. ginan, geofum, to yawn, gape, be wide open. 

Oimmer, sb. A female sheep, from the time of its first being clipped 
to that of its first bearing young ; otherwise, to that of its second shear- 
ing ; usually termed Shearling-gimmer. 

O. N. gimbur^ gimbla, an ewe lamb ; O. Sw. gimmer, ovicula, quse primum enititur ; 
Sw. D. gimber, a young sheep that has not had a lamb ; N. gimbr, gymbr ; Dan. D. gini' 
mer^ id. Molb. quotes our Engl, forms from Brock., and Ihre gravely supposes that Ray 
must have been joking when he suggests * possibly from gammer4amb. Gammer is a con- 
traction of godmother, and is the usual compellation of the common sort of women.' Rietz 
adduces Syr. emer, a lamb, and bids compare Gr. "xiiuiftott xlfiaipa, a she-goat. 

Oimmer-hog, sb. An ewe-lamb, from the time of its being weaned 
up to the time of its first shearing, or Clipping. See Hog. 

Gimmer-lamb, sb. An ewe-lamb : a term applied until the animal 
is weaned. 

O.N. gimbrvrlamb; N. gimbrtlamb; Sw. D. gimmirlam, gommerlam, gommaldm; 
Dan. D. gimmerlam. 

Gin, conj. If, in case, even if, although. 

* Oin is no other than the participle giverit gi'en, gi'n,' Tooke ; — a statement as much open 
to doubt as the similar ones made in the case of gif. It is likely there is the same relation- 
ship between gin and an 1- if, in case, that there is between gif and if. Comp. S. G. and 
Sw. on, if; as, an otn sd von: what if it were so. Note also M. G. on, and O. N. end, 

Ginner, adv. Rather, more willingly. 

The derivation of this word would suggest a different orthography — gimer or gemer — 
but that thence would arise the sound gt^nntr — like Bo'd for 6trJ, Wo'd for word^ &c. 
Comp., however, the Pr. of girl^ — Qe'l ; and gen, to grin, snarl. The word is due to 
O. N. gjam^ gim, willing, ready ; Sw. D. gem ; A. S. geom ; O. Germ, gerniy gem, 
Sw. D. presents also the forms geren, gerun, gjdrun. 

* Ah 'd ginner gan than stay.' Wb. GL 

F f 2 


Otm, V. n. To grin ; to snarl ; to give vent to displeasure or &- 
content. See Gton. 

Give, V. n. To yield on tension, to stretch ; of cloth, leather, ftc. 
To give way, or move a litde, to efforts to shake or dislodge ; of any- 
thing fixed : as, a stopper in a botUe, a nail in a wall, &c 

* New gloves always give a bit.' 

* Ah can't stor it. It weeant givt nae mair an nowght.' 

Give again, v. n. i. To relent, soften in feeling or intent 2. To 

1. * ** Ah thinks he 's ommost g^n again about it ;" relented, relaxed his opinions 00 the 
subject.' Wb. Ol, 

2. * Aye, it gfes again ;* it thaws a little. 

Give back, v. n. To recede or shrink from, an encounter or at- 
tempt, for instance. 

* He *$ not o' t' soort t* gi' back : he 'd dee ginncr.' 

Give in, v. n. i. To tender or make an offer; as, for a contract, or 
a farm, or a given piece of work. 2. To throw up, or rather to give 
notice of intending to quit, a farm or house, &c. 

Give out, v. n. To cease or fail, as a supply of any given article. 

Give over, v. n. To leave off, to discontinue : of continual use 

Glazzen, v. n. To glaze or put glass into windows ; to ply the craft 
of a glazier. 

The adj. glcusin^ A. S. glasen^ is used by B. Jonson ; and in the West of Engl., according 
to Hall. Pr. Pm. gives * Glasyn wythe glasse. Vitro* 

Glazzener, sb. A glazier. 

Glead, gled, sb. The kite (Milvus regalis). 

Glease, v. n. To run rapidly in sport or frolic, as children in piu*suit 
of their companions in any game. 

This word would seem to be nearly related to O. E. glace, to glance as an arrow turned 
aside ; Pr. Pm, * Glacynge^ or wrong glydynge of boltys or arrowis.' 

Comp. * Her fygure fyn, quen I had fonte. 

Such gladande glory con to me glace. 
As lyttcl byfore )>er-to watj wontc' 

E. Eng. Allit. Poems, A. 1. 170. 

Or it may be more directly connected with Sw. D. glim, glysa, glesa, &c., to glance, dart 
through, as a ray or gleam of light docs ; O Germ, glizan ; A. S. glistan. The transition 
in meaning would be simple enough, in order to arrive at that of our word. 


Gleasing, sb. i. A sharp or rapid act of pursuit, a. A suit at law, 
or rather the damages incurred by the loss of it. 3. Loss or damage 
generally. Wh. GL 

1. * ** I have had a good ghasing after him ;" a sharp ran in porsuit.' Wb, 01, 

2, * ** He has had to bide a bonny gUasing ;** sustain heavy charges in a law-suit.' Ih, 

Comp. * Uxor, It were a fowUe blot to be hanged for the case. 
Mak. I have skapyd, Jelott, oft as hard a glase* 

Townd. MyU. p. 106 ; see also p. aoi. 

Qleg, V. n. To cast side-looks, to glance furtively. 

Cf. O. N. gluggr, an opening, a window, the eye ; Sw. D. glugg, glogg, id. ; tiita uwur 
glttgg: look askance, cast side looks; kasia sneda hliekar. It would appear that our vb. 
has been derived directly either from this, or from the vb. gloggva, videre, quoted by Ihre. 
Note N. D. gl9g» The Leeds form is gleg ; a word used of a horse who turns his head 
sufficiently to enable him to see his driver, notwithstanding his blinkers. 

* They go prying and gUgging intil every bod3r*$ neuk.' Wb. Ol, 

Qlent, glint, sb. A glimpse, or mere passing sight or glance. 

Grimm, says Rietz, in v. Olinta, or gldnia, * supposes a lost strong vb., glintOH, glani, 
gluntun, to shine, glance with light, and probably this word which remains with us is the 
word in question.' Sw. D. glinta, giiinia, implies i. to slip, to slide, or fall from slipping 
on smooth ice ; and a. to slip from one, to miscarry, to miss. O. E. glmi bears both the 
meanings, to glance or shine, and to slip or fall : thus, — 

* Miche wat3 )>e gyld gere )>at glent )>er alofte.' 

Sir Oaw. and Gr. Kn, I 569. 

* . . . red ryche gold naylej 

pat al glytered and glent as glem of the sunne.' 76. 604. 

* Pe gyltyf may contryssyoun hente 
& be )>ur3 mercy to grace |>ry3t ; 
Bot he to gyle )>at neuer glente 

At in-oscente is saf and ry3t.' E, Eng, AlUt Poimt, A. 1. 668. 

The editor explains the word in this last passage by * slipped, fell ;' but it would equally 
well bear the meaning, turned aside, which is nearly coincident with that of our CleveL vb. 
glint. Comp. Welsh ysgUntio^ to slide. The sb. glent occurs in Sir Oaw, and Gr, Kn, 
1. 1390: 

* penne ho gef hym god-day, and wyth a gUni la3ed, 
& as ho stod, ho stonyed hym wyth ful stor worde3.' 

* Ah nobbut gat a glint ov 'im.' 

Glep, V. n. To stare vacantly or as in astonishment. See Olop. 

Gliff, glift, sb. I . A short or hasty glance ; a mere passing sight. 
2. A glimpse of something startling or terrifying; thence, a fright or 
startling, or scaring. In Wh, Gl. Glift bears the second meaning, and 
Qliff the first : but there can be no doubt the words are essentially 

Note the usage of O. E. vb. a. and n. glifft ghfi- 

* pe god man glyfie with |>at glani and glopcd for noyse.' 

E, Eng, AlUt. Poem, B. 1. 849 ; 


Oiglet, giglot, sb. A giddy, laughing girl. 

* Gig, Jig, OigUt. The fundamental idea is lapid, reciprocating, or whirUng action, 
whence the O. E. gig, a top. 

•* To see great Hercules whipping a gig** Lav€*t Labour Lost, 

To jig is to move rapidly to and fro. Fr. gigue, gig*, a jig, or rapid dance ; gigwr, to 
run, leap, jump ; gigtiti, a light, versatile girl, a giglot or gigUt. GigUt Fortune, incon- 
stant fortune. Cymbeline. Swiss gageln, to joggle ; gagU, a girl that cannot sit still.' 
Wedgw. Cf. also Sw. D. gikkdl, to raise or build up any thing or structure, so that it shall 
be likely to topple down if touched ; gikkel, that which is so raised or put together. Note 
*^»o S^S^t to put up frail or tottering fence-work. 

Gilder, gildert, sb. A snare or running noose, made of horsehair, 
and used for catching small birds. 

O. N. and O. Sw. gilder, a snare, a gin ; O. D. gilder; as Rdven geuur ei to gange paa 
eet gilder : the fox doesn't walk twice into the same snare ; Sw. D. gillra, to set gilders ; 
Sw. giller, a snare, trap, gin. 

• Falsehede or okyr, or oJ>er gdery* Rel. Pieces, p. I a. 

Gilevat, guilevat, sb. (pr. gahlfat). i. The tub or vat in which 
new-made ale or other liquor is set to ferment. 2. The fermenting ale, 
&c., itself. 

* N. ^{7, ale in a state of fermentation ; gil-kar, gil-saa, the tub in which the wort fer- 
ments ; Dut. gbijlen, to boil, to effervesce ; gyl, gyl-bier, beer in which the fermentation is 
going on. T* bier staat in '/ gijl ; the beer ferments ' Wedgw. Add also Welsh gil, itx- 
mentation. Gam. p. 165. Probably the Sw. D. gel, gal, gil, brisk, excited, &c., with the 
string of etymons given by Rietz, is nearly connected Hall, gives ' GaU, a tub used in 
brewing ; gail-clear, a tub for wort, spelt gailker in Hallamsh. Ql. p. 147 ;* with which 
comp. N. gil'kar ; * gail-disb, a vessel used in pouring liquor into a bottle or cask;' and 
also * guile, of liquor, as much as is brewed at once ; guil-fat, a wort-tub ; gyle, wort.' lU- 

Jit is the Shropshire form, gUefattes in Fincb. Pr. Inv. 

Gill, sb. (g soft). A half-pint. 

* Gylle, lytylle pot, gilla, vel gillus, vel gillungulus. Pr. Pm. Gillo, vas fictile. Gloss, in 
Due. Vascula vinaria quae mutato nomine guillones aut fiascones appellantur. — Paul. Dia- 
conus in Due* Wedgw. 

Gill, sb. (g hard). A ravine, a narrow valley or glen, with pre- 
cipitous or rocky banks properly, and usually with a stream rimning 
along the bottom. 

O. N. gil, montis fauces, chasma profundius, geil; N. gU, gjel, gjyl, a deep and length- 
ened glen or fissure in a mountainous district ; Sw. D. gilja, a mountain pass, or glen ; 
M. Germ. giel. Comp. Hind, gil, a pass ; Pers. gileb, id. A word of continual occurrence 
here, and furnishing a name to many diflferent families, though second in number to the 

* Dales.' 

Gilliver, jilliver, sb. A loose or wanton woman : WL GL adds 

* in the last stage of her good looks,' which is probably only a local 
restriction of sense, if really existing in any entire district. Cr, GL 


simply gives it ' an old woman of loose habits/ without reference to 

* looks.' Hall, g^ves 'gtih'ver, a wanton wench.' 

Can suggests * corruption frqpi giUJlurt* Is it not as likely to be in reference to the 
giUyflcwer — gUloftr, gillq/rt — in its redundant or patsde stage ? Or the connection maj be 

Gilt, sb. A female pig of any age under maturity. When herself a 
mother she becomes a * sow.' 

Sw. D. gyllta: i. a spayed sow; 7. a young, half-grown sow pig, which has not yet 
borne pigs ; also gylle* gollta, gyllter, &c. O. N. gilta^ gyltr^ gulta, a sow ; Dan. D. gylt, 
a young sow, the first time she goes with young ; A. S. gilte; O. Germ, galza^ gelza^ &c. 

Qimmal, sb. A narrow passage between two houses. Wh. GL 

* Ginnel' occurs in the Leeds and Cr. GL with the same signification. 

O. N. gima^ an opening, fissure, gap ; Sw D. gima^ gimman or gimmen^ the mouth of an 
oven ; giman, an opening into a hoop-net. But O. N. gimtddt with the same signification 
as gimot gives our exact form. For Ginnel, conip. O. N. ginCf to gape open, as a cleft, or 
the mouth, does; gina, chasma nubium ; A. S. ^inon, geonoHf to yawn, gape, be wide open. 

Qimmer, sb. A female sheep, from the time of its first being clipped 
to that of its first bearing young ; otherwise, to that of its second shear- 
ing ; usually termed Shearling-giniiner. 

O. N. gimbur^ gimbla, an ewe lamb ; O. Sw. gimmer^ ovicula, quse primum enititur ; 
Sw. D. gimher, a young sheep that has not had a lamb ; N. gimbr^ gymbr ; Dan. D. gini' 
mer, id. Molb. quotes our Engl, forms from Brock., and Ihre gravely supposes that Ray 
must have been joking when he suggests * possibly from gammer4amb. Gammer is a con- 
traction of godmother, and is the usual compellation of the common sort of women.* Rtetz 
adduces Syr. emer^ a lamb, and bids compare Or. xiiM^u^ xiiuupa^ a she-goat. 

Qimmer-hog, sb. An ewe-lamb, from the time of its being weaned 
up to the time of its first shearing, or Clipping. See Hog. 

Gimmer-lamb, sb. An ewe-lamb : a term applied until the animal 
is weaned. 

O. N. gimbrurlamb ; N. gimbrelamb ; Sw. D. gimmtrlam^ gbmmerlamt gommaldm ; 
Dan. D. gimmerlam. 

Gin, conj. If, in case, even if, although. 

• Gin is no other than the participle given, gi'en, gi'n,' Tooke ; — a statement as much open 
to doubt as the similar ones made in the case of gi^ It is likely there is the same relation- 
ship between gin and an » if, in case, that there is between gif and if. Comp. S. G. and 
Sw. on, if; as, an om sd vore: what if it were so. Note also M. G. an, and O. N. end, 

Oinner, adv. Rather, more willingly. 

The derivation of this word would suggest a different orthography — gimer or gemer — 
but that thence would arise the sound go*nner — Uke Bo*d for 6trJ, We'd for wor^, &c. 
Comp., however, the Pr. of girl, — G-e'l; and gen, to grin, snarl. The word is due to 
0. N. gjam, gim, willing, ready ; Sw. D. gem ; A. S. geom ; O. Germ, gemi^ gem. 
Sw. D. presents also the forms geren, gerun, gjdrun. 

* Ah 'd ginner gan than stay.* Wh. Gl. 

F f 2 


Otm, V. n. To grin ; to snarl ; to give vent to displeasure or dis- 
content. See Qen. 

Give, V. n. To yield on tension, to stretch ; of cloth, leather, &c 
To give way, or move a litde, to efforts to shake or dislodge ; of any- 
thing fixed : as, a stopper in a botUe, a nail in a wall, &c. 

* New gloves always gnu a bit/ 

* Ah can't stor it. It weeant ghe nae mair an nowght/ 

Give again, v. n. i. To relent, soften in feeling or intent 2. To 

I. * ** Ah thinks he 's ommost gfn again about it ;'* relented, relaxed his opinions on the 
subject.' Wb. Ql. 

a. * Aye, it gVes again ;' it thaws a little. 

Give back, v. n. To recede or shrink from, an encounter or at- 
tempt, for instance. 

* He *8 not o' t' soort t' gi* back : he 'd dee ginner.' 

Give in, v. n. i. To tender or make an offer; as, for a contract, or 
a farm, or a given piece of work. 2. To throw up, or rather to give 
notice of intending to quit, a farm or house, &c. 

Give out, V. n. To cease or fail, as a supply of any g^ven article. 

Gttve over, v. n. To leave off, to discontinue : of continual use 

Glazzen, v. n. To glaze or put glass into windows ; to ply the craft 
of a glazier. 

The adj. glauun^ A. S. gl<ssen, is used by B. Jonson ; and in the West of Engl., according 
to Hall. Pr. Pm. gives * Glasyn wythc glasse. Vitro* 

Glazzener, sb. A glazier. 

Glead, gled, sb. The kite (Milvus regalts). 

Glease, v. n. To run rapidly in sport or frolic, as children in pursuit 
of their companions in any game. 

This word would seem to be nearly related to O. E. glact, to glance as an arrow turned 
aside ; Pr. Pm. * Glacynge, or wrong glydynge of boltys or arrowis.' 

Comp. * Her fygure fyn, quen I had fontc, 

Such gladande glory con to me glacet 
As lyttcl byforc >cr-to wat3 wonte.' 

E. Eng. Allit. Poems, A. I. 170. 

Or it may be more directly connected with Sw. D. glisa, glysa, glesa, &c,, to glance, dart 
through, as a ray or gleam of light docs ; O Germ, glizau ; A. S. glisian. The transition 
in meaning would be simple enough, in order to arrive at that of our word. 


Qleaaing, sb. i. A sharp or rapid act of pursuit, a. A suit at law, 
or rather the damages incurred by the loss of it. 3. Loss or damage 
generally. Wh, GL 

1. * *' I have had a good gliosing after him ;" a sharp run in pursuit.' Wb. 01. 

2. * *' He has had to bide a bonny gleating ;*' sustain heavy charges in a hw-suit.' lb. 

Comp. * Uxor. It were a fowUe blot to be hanged for the ca«e. 
Mak. I have skapyd, Jelott, oft as hard a glase* 

Touftul. Myst, p. 106 ; see also p. aoi. 

Qleg, V. n. To cast side-looks, to glance furtively. 

Cf. O. N. gluggr, an opening, a window, the eye ; Sw. D. glugg, glogg, id. ; tiita uumr 
glttgg : look askance, cast side looks ; kasta tmda blickar. It would appear that our vb. 
has been derived directly either from this, or from the vb. gloggvOt videre, quoted by Ihre. 
Note N. D. gl9g» The Leeds form is gleg ; a word used of a horse who turns his head 
sufficiently to enable him to see his driver, notwithstanding his blinkers. 

• They go prying and giegging intil every body's neuk.' Wb. Ol. 

Olent, glint, sb. A glimpse, or mere passing sight or glance. 

Grimm, says Rietz, in v. Olinta, or gldnta^ * supposes a lost strong vb., glintan, glani, 
gluntun, to shine, glance with light, and probably this word which remains with us is the 
word in question.' Sw. D. glintat gldntat implies i. to slip, to slide, or fall from slipping 
on smooth ice ; and a. to slip from one, to miscarry, to miss. O. E. glent bears both the 
QKSuaings, to glance or shine, and to slip or fall : thus, — 

* Miche wat3 J)e gyld gere ^at glint >cr alofte.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn, 1. 569. 

* . . . red ryche gold naylej 

pat al glytered and glent as glem of the sunne.' lb. 604. 

* f * gy^^y^ ™*y contryssyoun hente 
& be )>ur3 mercy to grace |>ry3t ; 
Bot he to gyle )>at neuer glente 

At in-oscente is saf and ry3t.' E. Eng. Allit. Poemt, A. 1. 668. 

The editor explains the word in this last passage by * slipped, fell ;' but it would equally 
well bear the meaning, turned aside, which is nearly coincident with that of our Clevd. vb. 
glint. Comp. Welsh ysglentiOt to slide. The sb. glent occurs in Sir Oaw. and Gr. Kn. 
L 1290: 

* penne ho gef hym god-day, and W3rth a glent la3ed, 
6c as ho stod, ho stonyed hym wyth ful stor worde3.' 

* Ah nobbut gat a glint ov 'im.' 

Qlep, V. n. To stare vacantly or as in astonishment. See Glop. 

Gliff, gltft, sb. I . A short or hasty glance ; a mere passing sight. 
2. A glimpse of something startling or terrifying; thence, a fright or 
startling, or scaring. In WA. Gl. Glift bears the second meaning, and 
Gliff the first : but there can be no doubt the words are essentially 

Note the usage of O. E. vb. a. and n. gliff^ glyfi' 

* pe god man glyfie with )>at glani and glopcd for noyse.' 

E. Eng. AlUt. Poems, B. 1. 849 ; 


what the ttntt U, ttared, was astounded. 

* Bot Gawajrn on |>at gyserne ^Ij^ hym bysjde 

As hit com glydande a doon.' Sir Gaw. emid Gr. Km. L 2265. 

* Sir Oawayne glyftet on the gome with a glade wille.' Mont ArA.^ti\, 

SfA€ also the adrerbial fonn, aglyJU. Comp. Dan. glippe^ to miss, to wink, to d^; 
E, gUh, af*d i\ut N. gUppa. Low Germ, glippen, &c. See Wedgw. in ▼. Glib. 

1, * Ah fiobbut gat a glift on 't ;' a mere passing glance. 

J. ' ** Ah gat a sair gUff;** I got a sore scaring, or *' saw something,'' as die plmse 
goes/ W^. ai. 

Glint, V, n. I. To glance, or shine brightly but transiently, a. To 
glancir, or turn on one side after impact. See Glent. 

2, * T' %\u]\-c(*()xn% glinted aff its witigs, lahk rain aif a duck's back.' 

Comp. * Gawayn gray)>cly hit (the blow) byde3, and glent with no membrev 
Bf/t stode stylle as \ft ston, o\>ci a stubbe au)>er, 
|*at ra)>eled is in roche grounde with rotes a hundreth.' 

i9^ Gaw. and Gr. Km. L 2292. 

Qlip, «b. The result of negligence or want of care or vigilance: 
a word occurring in the phrase * to give glip/ in use among boys, and 
meaning to let one escape or pass uncaught in the course of any boyish 

O, N. glfip, glopt incuria, inconsiderantia ; glappaz, imprudenter fiicere ; glapp^ bifaire, 
unlock ; \)%u. glip, gUppe, as, — At gaae glip of noget: to fail, or miss attaining a thing. 
N, \). glipe. Cf, ^/ \e \>urb yemeleaite gluJ/VS ; or ^endes gliffen : if through heedlessncw 
you biuitdcr. Ancr. RiwU, p. 46. 

01i«k, V. n. To glisten or glitter. 

Oiffip. (). N. giy»M, to glitter, sparkle ; Sw. D. glisa, N. glisa, glysa; O. Oenn. gKxwL 
* It glinVd lahk a piece o' glass.' Wh. Gl. 

Gloaming, sb. The transitionary state between light and darkness 
at evening ; twilight. 

A. 8. glomung, glommung. A word very nearly connected with Chaucer's glombe, and 
with gloumbe in E. Eng. Allit. Poems, C. 1. 94: 

* Cure syre syttes, he says, on segc so hy3e 
In his glwande glory, and gloumbes ful lyttel, 
pzj I be nummen in Niniuie and naked dispoyled. 
On rode rwly to-rent, with rybaudes mony ;' 

where the idea is to take serious or considering notice. And here we may comp. Sw. D. 
glomma, gldma, to gaze at one attentively, or with stedfast eyes ; gldmug, one with great 
eyes and gazing with them intently. From intentness or seriousness of observation the idea 
seems to pass to that of frowning or sullen looking on or at : as when Fortune 

* . . . whilomc woll of folkc smile. 
And glombe on hem another while.' Chaucer, 

Mr. Morris observes, Gl. to E, Eng, Allit. Poems, that * it seems to be connected with 
O. N. glampa, to glitter, shine.' Rietz connects the cognate glomma with Sw. D. glo, to 


shine, to glitter ; O. N. gloa^ A. S. glowan, O. Germ, gldjan, E. Dial, glow^ to stare, &c. ; 
aiid, through some cognate form to glomma, we get Dan. D. glum, fear-inspiring, scowling ; 
glummende, nearly answering to our glum, glumpy ; N. S. glummen, to look sullen or 
vengeful ; glum, thick, of the water or the atmosphere ; gloomy, therefore. Mr. Wedgw. 
adds, * Prov. Dan. glomme, Swiss glumsen, to glow in a covert way, as coals beneath the 
ashes; E. gloom; a condition of covered light: gloming or gloaming, the time of day 
when the light shines obscurely from below the horizon ; like a person looking out from 
beneath his brows.' 

Gloore, glore, v. n. To stare with fixed look, to gaze intently. 
Spelt also Gloar, Glower. 

Sw. D. glora, to stare, to gaze intently ; N. glora, to stare. The original meaning of 
O.N. glora is to glare, as with excess of light, to glow as burning coals; in which sense 
N. S. gloren, Dut. gloren, Swiss gloren, glaren occur. 

* He gloored wi* baith cen.' Wb. Ol. 

Glop, V. n. To stare open-mouthed as in astonishment. 

O. N. glapa, to stare, gape ; N. glipe, gl^ype, to gape, stand wide open ; Sw. D. gUpa. 
Rietz considers these words as allied to gliopa, N. glupa, &c., I. to gulp down, to swallow 
with an effort ; 2. to have the mouth open. Mr. Morris collates O. Fris. glupa, to look, to 
peep ; Dan. glippe\ to wink. Compare also O. N. gUpa, caliginem oculis infundere. The 
word also takes the form G-lep. Note — 

* ^e god man glyfte with )>at glam, and gloped for noyse,' 

E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 1. 849 ; 

of Lot, at Sodom, when required to give up his guests, where gloped is explained by, 
* was terrified, frightened, amazed.' Our usage supplies an equally applicable sense ; 
as in, — 

* What are you standing and glopping at?' Wb. Ol. 

In Toumel. Myst. p. 146, where glope occurs as a sb., the sense is that of glad surprise. 
Relieved by the suggestion made to put all the * knave chyldren of two yerys brede, and 
withe in' to death, so as to be sure to include the one dreaded one, Herod exclaims — 

' Now thou says here tylle 
A right nobylle gyn I 
If 1 lyf in land good lyfe, as I hope, 
Thus dar I the warand to make the Pope. 
O ! my hart is rysand now in a glope I ' 

whereas before his expression had been — 

* My guttys wille oute thryng, 
Bot I this lad hyng. 
Withoutt I have avengyng 
I may lyf no langer.' 

Gloppen, V. a. To startle greatly, to terrify. 

See Glep, Glop, from which this is a derivative. 

* Thou wenys to glopyne nie with thy gret wordes.' Hall. 

For agesten, Ancr. Riwle, p. 212, the Titus Version reads glopnen, in the sense of 
terrify :— * f'c aleliche deoucl schal glopnen ham mid his grinmie grennunge.' 


Qlor, sb. Utter or mere fat. 

Hall, gives * Olur, soft coarse fat, not well set. Applied to bacon.' He also gives 
* gloar-fatt immensely fat/ and adduces the expression, * not all glory-fiit' from Fletdier's 
poems. O. N. goUr is the * leaf of a sheep, or accumulation of fat about the kidneys and 
neighbouring parts ; and goUur-skinn^ the pericardium. By metathesis this becomes giur^ 

* ** All of a glor and a jelly ;" trembling with adiposity.' Wh, Ol. 

* " G/or-fat ;" loose fat.' lb. 

Olor-fat, adj. Excessively fat. See Glor. 

Qliun, adj. Sullen-looking, gloomy. See Oloaming. 

* As glum as a thunder-cloud.* Wb. GL 

Glumps, sb. Sulks; the condition of being sullen or gloomily out 
of temper. See Gloaming. 

Glumpy, adj. Sullen, out of spirits and temper. 

Glut, sb. A large and thick wooden wedge, used in splitting blocks 
of wood, &c. 

Pr. Pm. * Gyte, or clote, or vegge (dcte or wegge). Cwuus* • Guts^ wedges. Nor&* 
Hall. Cf. N. D. glytta. Possibly connected with N. gloU^ an opening, a space between, 
a rift ; Sw. D. gluft; and thence with O. Dan. gliU: — den er altid god som glutUnfylder: 
all is good which fills the glut ; the relationship being like that which characterises Dike* 
a ditch, and Dike, a bank. The original connection may be with A. S. eli/tan, diofian, 
Sw. D. kliovot to cleave, split. 

Gnag, nag, v. n. To assail pertinaciously with reproaches or re- 
marks tending to irritate, but all of a petty nature. 

O. N. gnaga, rodere ; nagga^ litigare ; naggt vilis et tzdiosa contentio ; Dan. nagt^ 
to gnaw, to annoy ; Sw. and Sw. D. gnaga ; Sw. D. gruigd, gnaga, gnava, &c. ; A. S. 
gnagan ; O. Germ, nagan ; Dut. knagen. 

* He *s alla's hnaggin* an* hnaggin\ fra moom to neeght.* 

Comp. ' Gubben gnov pa my frh mdra it kvdle :* the old fellow gnagged at me from 
mom till even. 

Gnarl, v. n. To gnaw, as a mouse does. 

Comp. Dan. D. gnaldet gnaldre, to gnaw, or nibble, or rasp with the teeth at the edges 
of a thing ; as, musen bar gnaldret a/osten : the mouse has gnarled (nibbled) at the cheese. 
The word is a frequentative of gnaga, gnava, &c. 

Gnarr, sb. A knot in, or from, a tree. See Knarr, Enorr. 
Gnarr, v. n. To growl, as a dog. 

Sw. knarka or htarra, to grumble, to growl ; Sw. D. gnarha, gnurka, gnarrds, gnarras, 
id. ; N. S. gnarren, to creak, to murmur, to grumble ; gnurren, to grumble, to bellow, to 
growl. Comp. O. N. knurr, murmur ; knurra, to murmur, to growl ; Dan. knurrtn, and 
A. S. gnyrran, to gnash. 


Gnipe, v. a. To crop, or nip off with the teeth, herbage, &c., in 
short lengths. See Knipe, Knep. 

This fonn is giren in Wb. Gl., and by Hall. It is no doubt identical with Enipe. 

Gtoal, gole, v. n. To blow in strong currents or blasts, as the wind 
does when acted on by some peculiarity of local configuration, or of the 
buildings, &c., it meets with in its course. Also spelt Gk>iil, and some- 
times pr. gawl. 

O. N. gola, to blow, as the wind does, in blasts ; Sw. D. gola, or gala, to blow softly or 


Gk>b, sb. The mouth. 

Gael, gob, the mouth ; ' ludicrou^ applied/ Wedgw. The real meaning seems to be 
an opening, especially a wide one ; and the word is probably fundamentally allied with 
gape, O. N. gapa, Dan. gab, 8cc. 

Gk>bble, v. n. To reply insolently to anything said, but with the 
insolence of sullen discontent rather than passion : probably implying 
as much the action of the mouth, as the words employed. 

* To gobble* says Wedgw., * is to eat yoradously, from the noise of liquids pouring down 
the throat. In Ehit. gobden, Fr. degobiller, O. N. gubba, to yomit, the term is applied to 
the rush of liquid upwards instead of downwards.' Similarly, our word — unless it be taken 
as allied to O. N., and Sw. D. gabba, &c., to mock, treat with scorn or insolence — will be 
formed from the peculiar oral action employed and the sounds originating in it. 

Gtobstring, sb. A bridle. 

Gk>'-'cab-ye. An imprecation. 

Ood-'en, godden. A salutation, contracted for * good e*en,' or * good 

• I give you godden* Wb, Gl. 

Ood-shild, interj. (pr. God-sharld). God avert, God forbid. 

God shield, God defend, or God protect, originally. 

* pus sal l>ai ever mar contynuely 

Haf parfite payne l>ar, wi^outen mercy, 

Fra whilk payne and sorow (rod us sbtlde 1 ' Pr, of Conse, 1. 9469. 

* God scbilde hise sowle fro helle bale.' Gen. and Ex. p. 7a. 

* God sbeld the, son, from syn and shame.' Townel. Myst, p. 44. 
In Chaucer the phrase occurs in our neuter sense of God forbid, pp. 66, 103. 

God's-penny, sb. Earnest-money, given to a servant on concluding 
the hiring compact : customarily half-a-crown. 

S.G. Gndspenning; O. Sw. Go^s panningar; O.Dan. Gudspenning, Gudzpenmng, 
earnest-money given on completion of a bargain or contract ; Dan. Dial. Oudspenge ; 
Sw. D. Guss'penning, earnest-money given to a servant on concluding an engagement to 
serve a master for a term; Germ. Gottes-penning ; N. S. Oodisgeld; Fr. denier de Dkn; 


It. denario di Dio ; Denarius Dei, in Du Fresne : also Heiliget Oeistes pfenmnf^, Ihre 
quotes the following curious passage from * Laurent. Petri Dialogus de misu :* * Saaror 
mentet dr oss gijvnt lHawis som en Gudspenning, eller, $om wi nu teije, en /esttpeimimg tSl 
tamjo ocb kerlek :* the sacrament is given us like as it were a God^s-penny — or, as we now 
say, a festing-penny — unto concord and charity. See Fe8tixig-i>6Zi2iy. 

• ** I draw you to recorde, lordes all :" 
With that he cast him godt penny* Percy's Fol. MS, i. 179. 

Goke, sb. The central portion of anything ; as the core of an apple, 
the inmost part of a hay-stack, the yolk of an tgg^ the harder or more 
solid mass in a boil or ulcer which does not come away like the fluid 

pUSy &c. 

Comp grindU-coke, defined by Wedgw. as * a remnant of an old worn-down grindstone ;* 
by Hall, as * a worn-down grindstone.' It is essentially the core — so to speak^-or central 
portion of the original stone, and reduced to its present shape and dimensions by wear. 
This word coke, colk or colke, and our Qoke are simply forms of one and the same word. 
The following passage is, then, instructive : — 

* For alle crthe by skille may likend be 
Til a Tounde appel of a tree, 
("at even in myddes has a co/>f ; 
And swa it may be tille an egge yholke : 
For als a dalk es even Imydward 
pt yholke of )>e egge, when it es hard, 
Ryght swa es helle pitte, als clerkes tclles 

Yrayddes J>e erthe* Pr. of Cons. 6443. 

Colke here, then, it is fully evident, is a central hollow, like the *dalk* in the yolk of the 
hard-boiled egg, or the rcccpiacle of the seeds of the apple. The next step in sense is to 
that which would, or which actually does, fill up the place of such a central hollow. Thus 
the word comes to mean the hard yolk, or the yolk in any condition, of the egg itself, the 
central remnant of the grindstone, the innermost portion of a hay-stack, the Sitfast or 
core of an ulcer which remains when all the matter else is discharged ; and even the entire 
round ovum or pellet of roe from the spawn of a fish : for I think there can be little doubt 
that Kelk is essentially the sime word as colke or colk. Mr. Wedgwood quotes Gael. 
caocb, empty, caocbag, a nut without a kernel. Comp. Dut. kolk, a pit or deep hollow, 
and Sw. D. kolpdjupy of the same meaning, which Rietz thinks may very possibly have 
been in its original form kdlk-djvp. * Roten at the colke* occurs in Toumel, MyU, p. 38 1. 

Gtoldens, goiildens, guldens, sb. The dry, charred stems of the 
ling left after burning the moor. 

The orthography of this word is uncertain. In Cr. Gl. it appears as ling'Collin*s, ex- 
plained as * burnt heath or ling, probably ling-coalings, the ling being burnt as black as 
a coal.' Of the ling, however, nothing whatever is left save the thicker part of the main 
stem, which is black enough for a space next after the fire ; but eventually the charred part 
gives way to the influences of rain and weather, and the colour, from black, becomes brown 
or yellow, or is even bleached to an impure white. Here the initial consonant is certainly 
not c, but g. Cf. Dan. en gold bede, a barren heath ; gold grund, infertile land. 

Gtomerill, sb. A fool, a natural bom. 

Here the word sounds both GaumeriU and Gk>innierel or Qom'rel. Brock, gives 
gonneril and goneill ; Hall, the form gonnerbead ; while Jam. also writes gampbrell. The latter 


refers to Sibbald's derivation of the word from Fr. goimpre, gom/ri, and then to Grose's 
* gammtr, to idle; gwiurill^ a silly fellow ; and ganurstangs, a great, foolish, wanton girle.' 
Possibly, what wiseaert is relatively to wise, that QomerUl or Gkiumerill is to gaum. 

Gk>od, adj. Used to qualify words expressive of quantity or number ; 
as a good few, a good little ; meaning, respectively, a tolerable num- 
ber, neither very scanty nor very numerous, and a quantity that is not 
very large without being at the same time really small. 

* Gim/i, adjectivis adyerbiisque additum, significationem intendit. Sic gudi nog est, 
oppido satis.' Ihre. in v. Gud (Deus) ii. This is curious when set side by side wi^ the 
usage above noted. 

Goodies, sb. Sugar sweetmeats for children; the 'suckers' of the 

Sw. D. guitar, sweetmeats ; Swiss guttli, sugar sweetmeats for children. Comp. Sw. D. 
gddtt^ raisins. 

GkxKilike, adj. Having a good appearance, goodly, well-looking, 

O N. godlikr, bonus, prastans, eximius : Egills. Sw. D. godltk, golik, goodly, excellent. 

* There *s many a goodltke nought :' Wb. Gl., — a variation upon * Nulla fronti fides,' * All 
u not gold that glitters,' * Ntmium ne crede colon,' &c. 

Gk>rp, gorpin, sb. A featherless or unfledged bird, as when just 

A word of uncertain derivation and orthography. Hall, gives gor, Westm., and gorbii, 
Yorks. ; Jam. gives gorbet, gorbling, gorling, gordlin, gorbel, gorb and garb : besides 
gorUn-bair^ the hair on young birds before the feathers come ; and gorlin, bare, unfledged. 
Wb. GL gives gorp^ gorpin ; but neither Leeds GL, Cr. Gl., nor Brock, give the word at 
all. Noticing the word garfwa^ to curry, to dress or prepare leather, Ihre says it is derived 
from Germ, gerben or g'drben. He then adduces Finn, carvari, with the same meaning, 
adding, that in the same tongue * cartuoan means to clear of hair, which conducts us to 
earwa or carwan, which in that tongue means bcur^ fur* Probably Qorp, Gorpin, &c., 
are connected with carwa and its relatives, even if garfwa^ g^ben, g'drben be not : the idea 
being of down ox fur opposed to Jea/bers. 

Gossamer, sb. The soft white downy filaments seen suspended on 
the herbage or floating in the air after a continuance of fine summer-like 
weather in the early autumn. 

The Germ. $ommer-faden, summer-thread ; somrner-floeient summer-locks or flocks, ex- 
pressive of the light filmy form of the substance — cf. scbnee-flock^ a snow-flake ; sommtT' 
webe, summer-web— our Clevel. Muswipe or Musweb, as also Marten faden, unser lieben 
Frauen fdden, Marien-garn, all point to the idea of a fabric, of what is ipun or woven. 
Hence Carr's suggestion that summer-goose, as a North prov. name for gossamer, may indi- 
cate the origin of the word, is not an unreasonable one — summer-goose, that is, summer- 
gauze ; and thence, by an inversion of the component elements, gossamer ; or gossamer, as 
Mr. Wedgw. writes it. with the explanation * properly God-sunmier.' The names Marten 
fddtn, unserer lieber Frauen faden, are derived, he adds, * from the legend that the gossomer 
is the remnant of our Lady's winding-sheet, which fell away in fragments when she was 
taken up into Heaven. It is this Divine origin which is indicated by the first syllable of the 

Gg 2 


E. word.' Comp. the like practical ellipsis of the legoid in the Germ, names der 
fiUgmde somnur. Still, Go$ ■:: God's is not in itself satisfactory, and the form sttmnur-gooae 
makes decidedly against it. Goose, corrupted from geniu, and contracted into ^os, as in 
gosling, is dearly more probable. 

Gk>therly, adj. Kind, of a kindly or warm-hearted disposition, 

Cf. M. G. gadiliggSy a friend ; O. Germ, gatuline, geieling ; M. Germ, getdine, g§d!mg, 
a friend, companion, chosen or kindly associate ; A. S. gitdiding, a companion. But espe- 
cially comp. Fris. gadelik, N. Fris. gadlik, M. Germ. geuHk^ N. Sax. gaadlicb, suitable, 
agreeable. Note also Sw. D. gdding, gadung ; Dan. D. ganning or ganMng; *a word,' 
says Molb. {Dansk D. Lex.), * of frequent use and various applications, almost invariably 
in conjunction with the verb to he, and taken to signify what is serviceable or profitable, 
what is suitable, or according to one's manner of thought, taste, or convenience: as, dei 
er rmn ganning, or det erjust tmn ganning : that is just what I like.* Add N. gade, gdding, 
a fellow, an equal, a mate ; giete ; te gietes ; te gietna's : after one's convenience or liking. 

• A heart-warm, gotberly set.' Wb, Gl. 
In the passage, Townd. Myst. p. 8, 

* Gedlynges I am a fulle grete wat, 
A good yoman my master hat, 
FuUe welle ye alle hym ken ;* — 

the word gedlyng seems wrongly explained by * an idle vagabond.' A. S. gadding supplies 
its real origin, with perfect suitability as to sense ; viz. mates, comrades. Comp. the term 
of address used two or three lines before — * felowes.' 

Gk>upen, gowpen, sb. i. The hollow or containing part of the 
hand. 2. The quantity that can be contained or held in the hollow of 
the hands. Also called Gtowpen-ftill. 

* Gbpn, manus concava, O. N. gaupn. Apud nos, utplurinmm usurpatur pro tanto quan- 
tum simul manu capere possis.' Ihre. Sw. D. gdpn, the hollow hand when the fingers are 
about half closed ; also, a handful, both hands employed. Rietz. Other forms are goppen, 
gokken, gofn, g'opa, gSffen. Also S. Jutl. g'obn (pr. gown or gcifn), the two hands laid 
together and partly closed. Molb. (Z). Dial. Lex.) gives S. Jutl. g9ve or gmwe, the hollow 
hand, and other forms, gau/, gi^hen, giabn, besides these two from Vendsyssel, gitnm, gievn, 

• " Double gowpens ;" as much as the two hands put together will contain.' Wb. Gl. 

* *• They gat gold by gowp*ns ;" soon became rich.' lb. 

With this last comp det er inf godt at grave gull med g'obn : it is not well to dig gold by 
gowpens, quoted by Kok ; and at gribe guld med gievner : to grip ho'd o' gou'd by 

Gk>upen-full, sb. The quantity which can be contained or held in 
the hollow of the two hands placed together. 

Comp S. Jutl. en gobnfull haJtheW : a gowpen-full o* chop, i. e. of chaff; Vendsjrss. 
gieben-fuld. Swab, gaufel, a good handful, &c. 

Gowk, sb. The cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). 

O.N. gauJtr; Sw. g'ok; Sw. D. gaui, gok, g'duk; Dan. gog ; A.S. geae ; M. Germ. 
goucb; Nass. gaucb. 


Gk>wk, sb. A fool ; one who is awkward in mind and body. See 

(Rowland, sb. The corn marigold {Chrysanthemum segetum). Spelt 
also Gk>lland, Gtouland. 

Comp. gulle4>Iommor, the Sw. D. name for the same flower. This is comiected by 
Rietz with guld, gold. Either it, or gul, yellow, furnishes the deriyation of the present 

* *' As yellow as a gowland ;'* jaundiced.' Wh. Gl, 

Grace, sb. Benefit, advantage, good results or fortune. 

A curious use of the word, not yet quite obsolete. Comp. bardi ^ocfs: misfortune. 

* First he wounded me in the face ; 

My eyen were safe, that was my graet' Percy's Fol, MS. i. p. 359, 

* For the devil is oft disguised 

To bring a man to evil graet.' Plowman* t TaU, p. 1R9. 

• " Ye've kcssen yer gre't coat, than ?" *• Aye, Ah hcs ; an* Ah's getten nae graet wiv 
it. nowther." ' Wb. Gl. 

Gradely, adv. See GraitUy. 

Graft, sb. i. The depth reached by one act of digging, a spit. 
2. The portion of soil, peat, &c., turned up by one application of the 
spade. See Spade-graft. 

0. N. grqftr, S. G. grift, Sw. D. grbft^ Dan. grmft; literally, that which is dug, exca- 
vated. See V. a. Qrave. 

1. ' Ah 's duggen a' mah garth tweea grafts deep.' 

2. * Get a graft up fra* t' bottom, an' leuk what 't 's like.* 

Grafting-tool, sb. A long, narrow, concave spade, or digging instru- 
ment, used in draining. 

Grain, sb. A separate, linear portion of a thing, whether still at- 
tached, or detached from the rest ; as the branch of a tree, the tine of 
a fork. 

O. N. grein, Sw. gren, Dan. green, a bough, that which grows separately from the rest 
of the tree. Sw. D. gren is the angle {viwkel) which two shoots or branches of a tree, 
springing from the same point, form with each other; also the crotch otftxrh of the thighs. 
The O. N. vb. is greina, to divide, separate ; not including the idea of to sever ^ necessarily. 
Rietz collates npiyuv, to discriminate, lay separate. 

' And as he rode still on the plaine. 
He saw a lady sitt in a graine.* Percy's Folio AfS. i. 75. 

Graining, sb. The fork, or division of a tree into branches. 

Comp. Sw. D. gren, grajn, the fork, or angle made by two coincident shoots of a tree, 
pr by the thighs ; greinar, the two thighs, with the angle between them. 

Graith, v. a. To furnish, provide or equip : occurring most fre- 
quently in the p. participle ; as, bonnily graithed, ill graithed, both 


applied to dress or clothing ; a well graithed table, a table nicely or 
handsomely set out, Sec. 

O.N. grt^a^ to straighten out, unfold, prqnre, work out, maike ready; N. grnda, 
greia ; Sw. D. grej{d)^ g^vW* greda, grea, id. Comp. the various meanings of the O. E. 
▼b. below. 

* I shall grayib thi gate. 
And fulle welle ordejrn thi state.* Townd, Myst, p. 47. 

* Ful grayhely got} )>is god man (Noah) and dos gode} hestes 
In dryi dred and daunger, )>at durst do non o)>er. 

When hit (the Ark) watj fettled and forged and to )>e fulle gray^ed^ 
|?en con dry3tt3m hem dele dryjly ^yst worde^.* 

E, Eng. Allit. Poems, B. L 34I. 

* When Guenore fill gay gray\>ed in Jm myddes 
Dressed on )>e dere des.' Sir Chw. and Gr, Kn. 1. 74. 

* There godc Oawajm wat3 gray\>tdt Gwenorc bysyde, 
And Agravayn on )>at o)>er syde sittes.' lb. 1. 109. 

* A cheyer by-fore )>e chemn^ .... 

Watj grayed for syr Gawan, gray^y with cloJ>ej.* lb. 1. 876. 

Graith, graithing, sb. i. Equipment of any kind; furniture, cloth- 
ing, &c. 2. In a more general sense, belongings at large. 

See Qraith, vb. Cf. O. N. r«</i, the tackling of a ship ; N. greide^ gr»a, id. ; Sw. D. 
greja^ grejer or gr'djer^ effects, furniture, collection of goods and chattels ; Germ. ^«r«, 
naval tackling ; Dut. gereide, gerei, furniture, chattels, goods, equipment ; Germ, geraib, 
implements, goods, &c., whence Dan. geraady bus-geraad^ household goods and furniture, 
with which comp. Clevel. Tea-graithin^ for tea-equipage at large. In O. £. writers the 
word seems often to stand for despatch, quickness, or readiness in that sense. Thus, 

* The ravyn, durst I lay, wille com agane sone, 
He may happyn to day com agane or none 

With gratb.* Toumel. Myst. p. 3a. 

Graithly, adv. Decendy, in order, mensefully. 

See Qraith. The word in the O. E. writers seems ohen to take the meaning, readily, 
preparedly or speedily, rather than any more like its meaning with us. Thus ; — 

* l^'is gret clerk telles hus in a buke, 

" Behalde," he says, " graytbtly and loke, 

Herbcs and tresc J>at J>ou sees sprjmg. 

And take gude kcpc what |>ae forth bryng." * Pr. of Conse. 1. 644. 

Still, our meaning also is met with : — 

* A cheyer by- fore J>e chemn^, \>er charcole brenned, 
Watj gray)>ed for Syr Gawan, gray\>ely with cloJ>e3.* 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 875 ; 

* And sy)>en )nir3 al )>e sale, as hem best semed 

Bi vche grome at his degrc gray]>ely watj serued.* lb. L 1 005 ; 
that is, decently, fairly, fitly. 


Grane, v. n. To make the sound which accompanies a great effort, 
such as lifting a very heavy weight, or the like : not infrequently sounded 
as gaim. 

Sw. D. grdna^ to emit a dull sound from within : whether of person or thing, as a tub, 
a door ; O. N. gnnja^ to nimble, bellow. See Grtntt HaU. There seems to be a distinction 
between this word and groan, the pq>l. of which, in Pr. of Contc, 1. 798, takes the form 

Grass-widow, sb. A woman of loose character, a prostitute. 

Hall, gives as the definition of this word, ' an unmarried woman who has had a child ;' 
and in Moor's Suffolk Words and Phrases, Graee^vidow is * a woman who had a child 
for her cradle ere she had a husband for her bed ;* and corresponding with this is the N. S. or 
Low Germ, gras-wedewt. Again, Sw. D. grds-dnka, or -enkaf grass-widow, occurs in the 
same sense as with us — ' a low, dissolute, unmarried woman, living by herself.' The 
original meaning of the word seems to have been (see Ihre) ' a woman whose husband is 
away,' either travelling, or living apart The people of Belgium call a woman of this 
description Ixsek-wedewe, from baciin, to feel strong desire. ' Similarly gr^utnka seems to 
come from gradesenka, from gradig, esuriens.' It seems probable then, from the ety- 
mology taken in connection with the Clevel. signification, that our word may rather be 
from the Scand. source than from the German ; only with a translation of the word tnka 
into its English equivalent. Dan. D. gr<Bsenkt is a female whose betrothed lover (Jastnum) 
is dead ; nearly equivalent to which is Germ, strobunttwe, literally stravhwidow. Compare 
* man of straw.' 

Qravo, v. a. (pr. greeav'). To dig, to use a spade, or Spit, for 
either digging or paring purposes. See Spit, Turf-graving, GroyOi 
Groven. ^f" 

O. N. grafa ; O. Sw. gra/a, grava, grafwa ; Sw. gr'dfua ; Sw. D. grdva, grSva ; Dan. 
grave; O. Germ, graban; N. S. graven; A. S. grafan; M. G. graban, — aU meaning to 
engrave, to dig. 

* Ah •$ bin greeavin* t* w'oll dcea i* t' priest's gaarden.' 

* He 's awa' 't peat-moor greeavin* peats.' 

Greasehom, sb. A flatterer or sycophant. 

* The farmers have a cow's horn, filled with grease, slung to their carts, for oiling their 
axletrees.' Wb. Gl. The allusion seems apparent. 

Great, adv. Used augmentatively, as in the expressions, great foul, 
of great or huge size ; great likely, very likely, extremely probable, or 
* to be sure.' See Hall, in v. * Great-like.' 

* A great'iou] ox.' Wb. Gl. 

* A greal-fovl cart-rut.' 

Great-likely (pr. grete-likly). Very likely, almost certainly. 
Gree, v. n. To agree, come to an understanding or concord. 


Greed, sb. i. Greediness or avarice. 2. A greedy, covetous, or 
avaricious person, a miser. 

The word occurs in both meanings in Chaucer. O. N. grddr^ greediness, in both senses ; 
Sw. D. grd(Un ; O. Sw. p'odb, greediness after food ; gr£iu{g), greedy. 
I. * The deril will grip him for his grted,* Wb, GL 
3. * A close-fisted grud* lb. 

Greet, v. n. (pret gret or grat, p. p. gretten). To cry, to weep : 
silently, rather than widi any loud outcry. 

O.N. grata (pret. gr^); O. Sw. graia (pr. gret or grat); Sw. grdta; Sw. D. grata 
(imp. gret or grit), grata (pr. gret), grita (pr. grat) ; Dan. grade; M. G. gritam; A. S. 
gratan (pr. grdt, p. p. graten) ; O. Sax. griotan, 8cc. 

Grenky, adj. Out of sorts, unwell, complaining ; in the latter sense 
especially. See Cranky. 

O.N. hrdnJtr, sick, weakly, out of sorts; O. Sw. kranker; Sw. D. krank; N. krank; 
Dan. krank ; Germ, and Dut. krank. Comp. Sw. D. kranklig, poor, insignificant. 
• Ah feeb grenky a* ower me.* Wb. Gl. 

Ghriff, sb. A deep narrow glen or valley ; a ravine, but on a small or 
gentler scale. 

The idea involved is probably that of a space hollowed out or excavated, in which sense 
—the excavation or hollowing, however, being on a smaller scale, as well as actual or done 
by hand — we have O. Sw. grip, gripe, grift, as well as Sw. grift, a gnive, an excavation in 
the earth, and gropa, to excavate or hollow out. Comp. S. Jutl. grov, Dan. grmft, 
O. N. grdf, 8cc. The word is preserved to us in more than one local name. Skinning- 
grove, on our coast, in a document of the date 1272 is written Skinnegrive; Skinergrdve, 
41 Edw. Ill; and otherwise Skinnergreft, 8cc. Mulgrave, again (often corrupted into 
Mul-grdves) in Domesday stands as Grif, and later forms are Mulgreve, Mongreife, &c 
Falsrrave near Scarborough is another instance of the occurrence of the same word, and 
justified by local configuration as at Mulgrave and Skinninggrove. The local Pr. grovet is 

Grime, sb. Soot, or soot-like matter. 

Sw. D. grima, a spot or speck of soot on the face ; N. grima, a spot or smut, especially 
on the face ; Dan. grime, id. ; O. Sw. grima, a mask for the face ; O. N. grima, id. ; 
A. S. grima, id. ; N. Fris. grime, a mask, or black spot, or smut, on the face ; Dan. D. grim 
or griim, the set black, or hardened soot, on a pot. It seems scarcely possible to doubt the 
close connection between Qiime in its sense, soot, smut, black, and grima, a mask. The 
transition seems to have been from an artificial covering for the face or part of the face, to 
any incidental and removable discoloration, apparent discoloration, or cause of apparent dis- 
coloration of the face or countenance, and whether in man or beast. Thus N. grima, Dan. 
grime is a halter or bridle, that is, a dark band covering part of the horse's head : but they 
also signify a dark coloured patch on a creature's head : whence also Sw. D. grimig, applied 
to cattle with white stripes on a dark head ; albeit Dan. grimet means, ^th a white head 
and dark stripes or blotches. The last step is to the black or smut on the face ; and thence 
to the black or smut itself. 


Grime, v. a. i. To blacken, or daub with sooty matter. 2. To 
blacken metaphorically, to defame or vilify. 

Moth gives O. Dan. grime, to blacken, daub with black ; and Molb. (Dansk Oiots.) 
quotes grimttt blackened, marked with black ; from burning, namely ; as applied to trees 
situate on boundary lines and having burnt or blackened spaces on them to mark them out 
from others : as, oeb ta eopp atb tbm mosu, som tbet grimetb tra€B itaatt oeb sa fra lb€t 
tr<B, &c. Rietz has no doubt that a corresponding word — grima — signifying to make 
black, smutty or dirty, to pollute, has once existed in the Sw. tongue. But I do not know 
any analogous usage of the word to that presented in our second sense. Cf. Blacky to de- 
hiae, slander, vilify. 

Griming, sb. A slight covering with a matter that can be sprinkled 
or scattered evenly and slightly, as snow ; a sprinkling. 

This word is probably due to the (apparently) original conception of the word grimi. 
See Grixne, sb. I scarcely think that it is immediately connected with O. N. brim in its 
mere sense ofpndna, except in so far as that is connected with grima, ros eongdaius; but 
rather with the thought of a disguising, but, at the same time, removable covering. 

Grimy, adj. Slanderous, given to blacken or defame a person. 

• " A grimy tongue ;" a slanderous tongue.' Wb. Ol. 

Grip, v. a. To take hold firmly, to grasp or seize quickly and 

O. N. gripa, to hold tight with the hand ; O. Sw., Sw., and Sw. D. gripa, Dan. gribi, 
to catch hold, grasp, hold tight with the hand ; O. Germ, gri/an, ert/an ; A. S. gripoH, 
In N. gripa, vowel-sound and sense are both exactly as in our grip. 

' He wur jest fallin' off t' cart when Ah gripped him by his claes.' 

* Grip hoM, man.' 

Grip, sb. A trench or furrow hollowed along the surface ; a channel 
or small ditch. 

O. Sw. grip, an excavation made by digging, a grave ; Sw. D. grip, a ditch, channel, hole 
dug ; Sw. grop ; Sw. D. gr6h, a ditch, channel ; Dan. D. groh, grov ; O. N. gr6f, grof; 
O. Qerm. grdba ; A. S. grcBp, grep, a grip, furrow, ditch. Note Pr, Pm. * Growpe, where 
beestys, as nete, stand3m.' See CTow-grip. 

Gripe, sb. (pr. grahp or graip). A dung-fork ; or, more generally, a 
fork which may be applied to digging purposes. 

S. G. grepe, a three-tined fork for stable purposes, &c. ; Sw. gripe, dynggrepe, id. ; Sw. D. 
grebel, ding-grep ; Dan. greb, mmg-greb. 

* A three-grained, or three-grain grabp* 

* I grape de ferro pro fimis.' Fincb, Pr. p. lii. 

Grip-hold, sb. (pr. grip-ho'd). A handle, or any projecting part of 
an object which may be conveniently and firmly grasped. 

Comp. O. N. greip, a handle ; Sw. D. grep, id., dbrr-grep, the handle of a door ; N. grip, 



Grob, V. n. i . To search or examine by the sense of feeling, as 
with the hand in any dark place, or where the assistance of sig^t is not 
available ; a pocket, e. g., or a dark hole, or drawer. 2. To be desoltory 
or unsettled in occupation or haunt. 

A very near connection of £. grope, itself closely connected with a large number of words 
in various languages and dialects, the primary idea in all of which it grasping, taking with 
the hands, whence also, feeling or fumbling with the hands as in preparation to take or 
catch hold of. Comp. Sw. grabba; Bret. Itrahany the open hand ; Sw. D. gratbatag^ krab- 
htUag, a taking with the whole hand ; besides many other like words, all derivativei from 
gripa, Comp. also, — 

* The sext (pain) is swa mykel mjrrknes 
That it may be graped, swa thik it es,' Pr. of Come, L 6566 ; 

where the idea is more than possibly a transitionary one to that of feeling, from diat of 
grasping ; as certainly in * Grope and fde flesh and bone and forme of nun.' T\mmd, Myst. 
p. 383. See also Ancr. RiwU, p. 314. 

Grob, sb. A small-sized, insignificant-looking person; one whose 
appearance is the very reverse of imposing or personable. 

Comp. Wdsh erob, crwb, what is shrunk into a round heap ; a hundi. 
A lahtle grob ;** a diminutive person.' Wb. Gl. 

• t( 

Grobble, v. n. (pr. often, almost as if written groffle or gruffle). 
I. To poke about, as with a stick in a hole, or among a number of 
objects. 2. To feel about among a niunber of things for one in 
particular. 3. To loiter or hang idly about; to be long over one's 
work, or any job in hand. 

* Grifla proprie fodicare notat, sed usurpatur fere de iis, qui, aliquid quxsatnn, res snrsum 
deorsum vcrtunt:' properly signifies to dig into, to stick m—Jbdieare ItUus, 'to give one a 
dig in the side' — but is usually applied to the action of persons who, when looking for an 
object, turn things upside down. Ihre. Comp. Sw. and Sw. D. grabbla, to take hold of a 
thing, but uncertainly, as if not quite able to grasp it. There is an Eng. D. form gnMie. 
The O. Sw. form is twice interesting, as not only being a parallel word, but also as giving 
the /form of it, like the Gevd. Pr. 

Grosey v. n. To save up money, amass substance. 

M. Germ. grSzen, to become great, sustain accessions ; gna/m, to make great, add to. 
Sw. D. grosa, to exalt or magnify above measure, exists, and is considered by Rietz to be 
analogous, at least, to the Oerm. words above quoted. Our word is one whidi does not 
appear in Hall, or the'Northcm Glossaries generally. Wb. GL, however, has it. 

Groser, sb. A saving and thriving person, one who has the gift of 
accumulating money. 

Grossy, adj. Thriving, vegetating rapidly and vigorously, full of 
growth. Perhaps an oral corruption of Growthy. 

Comp. Dut. groese, vigour, growth ; Dan. gr9de, growth of plants. 


Ground-work, sb. The preparatory work in laying the foundation 
of a building, on which the mason-work proper is laid. 

See Pr, JPm, note to GrounuU, where the ground-wirk of Fotheringay Cattle is men- 
tioned, but as itie foundations rather than in the sense given above. 

Grouty, adj. Soiled, dirty-looking, begrimed. 

The complete meaning of this word is doubtless * smeared or coated with sediment/ 
grouts, grounds; and thence — as sediment is usually thick, muddy, dirty — ^the general 
meaning given above. * Dut. grueis, gruytt, dregs ; the grainy or lumpy matter left in 
decoctions or infusions, as the grains in beer, or £e grouts (corruptly grounds) in coffee ; 
.... grouty, dreggy, thick, muddy. Dut. gruyten, to mud, or clean out canals.' Wedgw. 
Comp. also N. grut, dregs ; gruttn, thick, muddy ; Sw. D. grossii, dregs ; grosslig, turbid, 
thick, dreggy : the stock, in these latter words, being grut, grud or gryt, gravel, small 
stones, grits ; the connection between which and the small sedimentary matters whidi con- 
stitute * dregs' is not hard to recognise. See Wedgw. in w. Orits, Grots, Grout, 

Grov, grove, sb. The Pr. of Groove. 
Grove. Pret. of Grave. 

Comp. O. N. grajtt, pret. grSf; Sw. D. grdva, grov; Dan. gravi, grov; M. G. graban, 
grof, &c. 

Groven, growen. P. p. of Grave. 

O.N. jTo/o, p.p,grqfinn. 

Grow-day, sb. (pr. the aw nearly as in how). A day peculiarly 
suited to promote vegetation, mild and warm after showers, or during 
their continuance. See Grow-weather. 

* A desper't fahn grouhday for seear 1 ' 

Growthy, adj. (pr. gr5thy — the o like the o in both, and the sound of 
the /h almost merging into that of ss. See Grossy.) Full of growth, 
luxuriant, growing rapidly and to a large size ; of vegetables, growing 
crops. Sec, 

Grow-weather, sb. Weather such as to promote rapid and vigorous 
vegetation, moist, genial and warm. See Grow-day. 

* Grddrar-vedr, aer tepidus, humidus : varmt og /ugdg wjr, som er beqvemt fir jord- 
vanttme : warm, moist weather, such as is calculated to promote vegetation' (Hald.) ; also 
Dan. D. gntdi-veir, and et grmdeUgt veir ; and the S. Jutl. expression, det er got grmdt i # 
vijr : there *s a vast o* grow i* t' weather. 

* Its tahm we hed a lahtle grow-wtatber* 

Grab, v. n. To be aflfected or injured by grubs ; of growing crops. 

* T' com 's saiT grubbed V mony spots t' year.' 

H h 2 


QrvLOy adj. Grim or morose-looking ; lowering, dark, dismaL Spdt 
Grou in Wh. GL 

Wedgw. gives * Grow^ to be troubled. — B. To grow or gry, to be aguish ; 
fearful, loathsome. — Hall., Dan. gru, horror, terror ; grui, to shudder at ; Germ, 
to have a fear united with shuddering ; Dut grottwtn^ grouwdmit horrere.' 

* So agreued for greme he grytd with-inne, 
Alle )>e blode of his brest blende in his face 

|:*at al he schrank for schome ^at |»e schaQc talked.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr. Km, L 9570. 
Add Sw. grufva sig, O. Sw. grufva siit Sw. D. gruva uj: to be troubled, to shew signs of 
trouble in countenance or manner, to be * down in the mouth,' look dismal, &c. ; O. Germ. 
grilen, ingrusn. Mid. Germ. gr4w€n, id., N. gruvot grue, to be in dread, to be firig;hteDed ; 
Sw. D. grusam or gruvsam, dejected, dismal-looking, frightened or horrified. 

* He looks as grou as thunder.' Wb, GL 

* ** The sky looks black and ^rou;" threatening rain.' lb. 

* ** A grou morning ;" a dull morning.' lb. 
The adv. gryle occurs in Tounul. Myst. p. 137. 

Gruff, V. n. To express discontent or vexation : hence, probably, to 
grunt, to snore, which is the meaning given in Wh, GL 

Identical with O. E. grueb, only with a guttural pronunciation. Comp. Clevel. thmffa* 
through, 81after = slaughter, Fleufr= plough, thof= though, Butt=sougb,8cc. Note also 
Sw. D. groffa or groffd^ to grunt, to utter low sounds of discontent eiUier in the way of 
grunting or crying ; and comp. Sw. D. gruhhla, to mutter, give half-audible expression to 
discontent or vexation. See Grutcbyn^ grucbyn, Murmuro, Pr. Pm, ; and Fr. gmgtr, to 
grieve, repine, mutter ; also groucbier^ groucber, 

* For J>ae trow nathyng bot J>at J>ai se, 

But grocbes when )>ai dredful thyng here.' Pr. of Consc, 1. a^. 

* OJ>cr jif my lege lorde lyst on Ijrue me to bidde, 
0|>er to ryde, oJ>er to renne, to rome in his emde. 
What gray>cd me J>e gryebcbyng bot grame more seche?* 

E. Eng, Allit. Poems, C. 1. 51. 

* Johne, be thou buxom and right bayn. 

And be not grucband in no th3mg.' Toumel. Myst, p. 168. 

In E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 809, 

* Loth la|>ed so longe wyth luflych worde^ 

|?at ^i hym graunted to go, and gru^ no lenger,' 

we have the pret. o( grucb, which approximates to our gruff. Comp. * No man was hard! 
to gruccbe (e|>er to make pryuy noyse, mutire — Vulg.), ajcnus the sones of Israel,' 
Wicliff ; and, * let them wander up and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied,' 
Ps. lix. 1 5 ; the latter quotation retaining the old word in exactly the same sense as our 
gruff, while in the former it has given way to * moved his tongue ;' the Greek word in 
the Sept. being ypv^u in Ex. ii. 7, and iypv^€ in Josh. x. ai : * And none moved his tongue 
(gruchcd) against any of the children of Israel.' 

Grand, v. a. To grind (pret. gnmd or gnmded ; p. p. grunded 
or grunden). 

Gnmd, groond. Pr. of Ground. 

* Gan to grund;* to relieve nature. 

* Tew for t* grand;* to be anxious to put feet to the ground, of an infant. 


Grundage, sb. Ground-rent for leasehold property. Wh. GL 

Grun'stan', gninn'lstan', sb. A grindstone : the first form merely 
that of pronimciation, and possibly die second also; grindleHStone 
being the uncomipted form. 

The form grindeUtanss occurs in two of the MS. copies of Aner, RtwU; grrndsiong 
in the copy printed from, p. 333. 

Grant, V. n. To grumble, to vent one's discontent; to speak dis- 

He that u sick * mei wel ^enchen bute euer on of his secnesse, and gronen uor his eche 
(ache), and grunUn uor his stiche (stitch, pang) more )>en uor his sunnen.' Aner, RiwU, 
p. 3^6. 

Gruntle, v. n. To emit a low sound expressive of indisposition or 
discontent. See the word in Halliwell. 

Guider, sb. A tendon or sinew. See also Leader. 

Guizard, sb. A person strangely or grotesquely dressed, for the 
purposes of disguise or pastime. 

Fr. guise; Welsh guns ; Br. giz, kiz; Germ, weisd, &c. Comp. disguisi, to change 
one's fashion or semblance. 

Gutter, Eaves-, sb. The eaves-trough, or trough affixed below the 
eaves to receive the water from the roof. 

' In X petris plumbi emptis pio i gutter.* Fincb, Pr. Inv, 

Gumption, sb. i. Intelligence, readiness of wit and hand. 2 As- 
sumption, impertinence, petty insolence of speech. 

See Ckkum, from which this is a derivative. 

I. * He was a man o' some gumption;* of intelligence and information. IVb. Gl. 

3. * G'i' us noan o' yer gumption,* lb. 

Habliments, sb. Corruption of habiliments. 

* Noo ye've gcttcn yer habliments on. Ah '11 awa* an* knoll t* bell ;' the clerk to the 
clergyman about to officiate at a funeral, of the surplice, scarf, &c. 

Hack, sb. A pick-axe with one arm, described by Wh. GL as ' half 
a mattock ;' by Brock. * as a strong hoe used in agriculture.' 

Dan. bakket pick-axe, mattock ; Sw. backOf a hoe, a chopping tool used in agriculture. 


Haokle, v. a. i. To dress, to trim or make neat or smart 9. To 

dress or trim the gromid. 

Dan. htgU, to hackle, dreu : flax, namdy ; Sw. haUa, Sw. D. MMi/, id. ; d a ti t ali w i 
from bagt or bake, a hook, in reference to the principle of the hackling or hatrttrfiMt 
instrument. Both the Dan. and Sw. words convey also the meaning of icoMing or icpC 
mandins—as is the case also with E. drtst. This is also true of Ckrd. ib. HaOiUlai^ 
although the vb. itself is hardly prescrred. 

Hackle, heckle, sb. i. Feathers, wool, hair; the natural covering 
of any feathered or hairy creature : specially applied to the long pointed 
feathers of a cock's neck. 2. An artificial covering, clothes or equip- 
ment, with the implication that their quality is good. 

The primary idea in this word seems to be of what will admit of sepantioa into its 
stituent fibres or quasi-fibres, as the flax does under the haekU or baieUl, Hence it 
comes to mean wool, hair, or feathers. The hackles of a cock's neck moreorer are not 
only separable from each other, but also into their own constituent rajrs or fibrei, m a 
different way from the other feathers, the webs of which naturally adhere, though ili^itlyt 
to each other. In reference, however, to our second sense we must notice A. S. batdOt 
bacde, baciU, haelot a habit for a man of war, a cloak, a mantle ; a coat, cassock or oadcr 
garment ; a word probably due to a different source, and perhaps suggesting the propriety 
of distinguishing Haokle with this sense, from the present word. 

2. ' " He has a good baekit on his back ; he does not shame his keeper ;" of one who is 
stout and well-looking.' 

* Under ureondes buckil;* under the cloak, that is, semblance, of a friend. AHcr, RmU, 
p. 88. 

Haffle, V. n. i. To stammer or hesitate in speech. 2. To hesitate 
in reply as if un\i'illing to speak the truth ; to prevaricate. 3. To hesi- 
tate in action or decision, be slow or reluctant in making up one's 

Hall, gives begle, to hesitate, to prevaricate, and Wedgw. connects also Halliweil's hq^, 
to stand higgling ; ba/eren, unsteady, wavering ; and Iniffle, to waver, to blow unsteadily, 
with our word ; also £)ut. baperm, to stammer, hesiute, stick fast, and Sw. bapfia, to 
stammer. To this add Sw. D. bapld, to do what some one else has just done, to try 
to imiute any one in word or deed, but all in a helpless, blundering, hesitating sort of 
way ; bappla, id., and also to stammer, to hesiute in speaking ; babbia, to stammer, to 
stumble. Collate E. bobble. 

I. * •* To baffle and snaffle ;" to stammer and speak through the nose.' Wb, Ol. 

3. * A baffling sort o* body ;' a stammering, prevaricating person. 
3. * Don't b<^e about it, but finish it at once.' Wb. GL 

\y sb. A white fog or mist such as sometimes occurs coinddently 
with frost : whence Frost-hag. 

Perhaps dependent on the same root as O. N. bagall, Sw. bagel, Dan. bagel, bagi; 
N. bagl, A. S. bagol, bagle; O. Germ, and Germ, bagel, hail ; N. bagla, to hail, to faU in 
drops, to trickle ; bigla, to fall in fine drops ; bigl, drizzling rain or snow : the terminatioo 
el or / being added to convey the idea of spherical or globular form, the other circumstincet 
remaining the same. 


sb. Wood, or coppice: often as growing oA wild broken 
ground, or on a broken or rugged bank ; a hanging wood. Cr. Gl, 

Hall, says, * A certain division of wood intended to be cut. In England, when a set of 
workmen undertake to fell a wood, they divide it into equal portions by cutting off a rod« 
called a Hag-staff, three 01 four feet from the ground, to mark the divisions, each of which 
is called a Hag, and is considered the portion of one individual. . . . The word was also 
applied to a small wood or enclosure. The Park at Auckland Castle was formerly called 
the Hag.' Wh, Gl. gives * Hag, a coppice ; supposed, says Mr. Marshall, to be the wood- 
land set apart by the lord of the soil as fuel for his tenants.' In either case the reference is 
to the act of cutting, or chopping, as almost appears on the surface in the sentence quoted 
by Jam. from Dumb. Stat. Account : — * The oak woods are of such extent as to admit of 
being divided into 20 separate bags, one of which may be cut every year.' Comp. Sw. 
hygge, felling of trees ; and O. N. bbggva, Sw. bugga, Sw. D. bagga, bogga, Dan. bugge, 
to hew. Note also Germ, bag, a wood, forest, thicket, grove, the connections of which, 
however, are with E. baw, bedge. Sec. It is more than possible that there are two words 
confused together in our Hag, one corresponding to Sw. byggt, and one to Germ, bag. 

Hag, sb. Wild and broken ground, such as may be met with in 
boggy, and therefore uncultivated, lands. More generally, a broken or 
rugged bank. 

Jam. defines bag as ' Moss-ground that has formerly been broken np ; a pit, or break in 
a moss ;' and refers the word directly to bbggva, bugga, to hew ; Sw. D. bagga. The idea 
of hewing, chopping, certainly passes on easily to the abrupt edges or nocks induced by the 
action, and thence naturaUy to such a broken smface as is intended by the word Haff. 

Hag-berry, sb. The fruit of the bird cherry {Prunus padtts). Some- 
times applied to the shrub itself. See Egg-berry, another form of the 
word ; and * Heck-berry,' Halliwell. 

Sw. bagg, the bird cherry, the shrub ; Dan. bag or b€tgg, id. The fruit is called 
bagge-bar or bagtbar ; af bvis soft laves vUn : from the juice of which a sort of wine 
is made. 

Hag-olog, sb. A chopping-block ; any largish mass of wood used 
to chop other wood on. 

Sw. D. bagga, to chop, hack, hew. Comp. Germ. baeh<lotz ; Sw. D. bugg-ttubbe ; 
Sw. buggkul£, buggblock, buggbock, buggstock. See Clog. 

Haggle, V. n. To hail. 

O. N. i>af$ baglar, it hails ; Sw. bagla, Dan. baglt, A. S. bagman, bagoian, to hail. 
' It baith boggled an' snew.' 

* It baggies sair.' Wb. Gl. Comp. Dan. dit baglede starkt i merges : it hailed severely 
in the morning. 

Haggle, V. a. i. To cut unevenly, or so as to leave jagged edges. 
2. To tease or worry, to banter. 

Probably a derivative — as joggle from jog, &c. — from bag, to hack, chop ; a mode of 
cutting not conducive to regularity or evenness of edges, &c. ; whence) the second meaning 
follows. Rietz gives Sw. D. bugg-ol, mocking or bantering words, in which the analogy 
is complete as to sense, the 0/ being simply a prov. corruption of ord, a word. 


Hagsnar, hagsnare, sb. The stub lefl in the ground from which 
coppice-wood has been cut ; a projecting stump or knot of a tree. 

I take thif definition, with flight Terbal alteration from Wb, Gl. If it had been ex- 
plained as the designated stubs coUectively — that is, if it were applied to a locality where 
coppice-wood had been lately cnt down — the derivation and precise meaning would have 
been apparent. Sw. snar or snir is a coppice or wood where the underwood and ticcs 
grow dose enough to make transit difficult ; N. snaar, stutr, id. The prefix bag would 
simply imply the act of cutting or chopping, in this particular case, lately past or dooe. 

Hagworm, sb. The common viper, or adder (Pelius berus). 

O.N. boggarmr^ Sw. Imggorm^ Dan. bvgorm, the Tiper; coluber btnts, Molb. and 
Dalin. Wb. Gl. describes the Ha gworm as * the common snake of the woods ;' Hafl. as 
* a snake ;* O. G/. as * a snake, or blind worm, haunting the bag or hedge. A. S. bmg, 
sepes ;' Brock., as ' the conmion snake. Coluber natrix ;* — mistakenly in ereiy case, as I 
believe. The Clevel. usage of the word is simply in the sense of riper. The cooimon 
snake (C. natrix. Bell's Natrix torquata) is called the Oraaa-anake, and the slow-wonn or 
blind-worm {Anguii fragilis), is also specially distinguished. The word 
striking-snake — is descriptively accurate. 

Hair-breedSy sb. Small gradations, slow degress. See 

* •* She *s dying by basr-breeds ;" by very slow degrees.' IVb, GL 

Hait, hayt, hyte. The old word of command to the horses in a 
team or the plough to turn towards the driver, or to the left: now 
replaced by Harve or Hauve. Also spelt ' height' in HalliweU. 

* The Northumbrian Heck,* says Mr. Gould, Scenes, &c., cflcel, p. 185, * is the Icdandk 
boegr, pr. baikir* For halt, hyte, however, Sw. D. bit, bdjt, a word exactly equivalent in 
sound, use, and sense, suggests another origin. Comp. Dan. bid, hither, this way. 

* Sir, lang time be bad cast an eye 
At winsome maistriss Property, 

But she would neither byte nor rbee.' Joecy-Ser. Disc, p. 29. 

* This carter smoot, and cryde as he wer wood, 
Hayt, brok ; bayt, Scot ; what spare ye for the stoones ? ' 

Frer^s Tale, ii. p. 98. 

• Harrcr, Morelle, io furthe, byte. 

And let the ploghe stand.' Toumel. Myst. p. 9. 

Halliweirs explanation of * neither height nor ree ; i. e. neither go nor drive, said of a 
wilful person/ is erroneous : it simply means will not obey instructions, even so fiu: as to 
turn either to the right hand or the left. 

Hake, sb. A greedy or pertinacious asker or beggar; a grasping, 
avaricious person. 

Ihre gives bake, nebulo, deceptor, and remarks that Spegelius in his Gloss. Suio Cfodlf^ and 
Sercnius in Dictionar. Angl., quote en gammal bake, an old hake, as a term of derision or 
revilement, and that Eng. an old bag is similarly applied ; but that according to its deriva- 
tion and original application there certainly was nothing of contempt or repulsion involved 
in the latter word. He then mentions the term skalbake, as applied to men possessed of 
great powers of body and employing them to the oppression or injury of others ; O. N. bakr. 


a powerfiil, coarse fellow ; baki, a sea-king ; Sw. D. baii, an energetic, resolute man. In 
these words, as it would seem, we have the origin of our and S. O. Aal»: the ideas of per- 
tinacity, greediness, regardlessness of moral or other restraints, are each of them inFolved 
or implied in their various meanings. Possibly, the original thought may have been con- 
nected with bakt, a hook. 

), V. a. (sometimes pr. heeak). To persecute with enquiries or 
petitions, and so to tease or pester or worry. 

This vb. and the next may possibly be coincident, though their connection is obsoire. 
This may be a derivative from sb. Hake. In the example the connection would seem to 
be with bake, a hook. 

< He bakn my very heart out.' Wb, Ol, 

V. n. I. To loiter, to go about idly, to lounge: thence to 
hang about pryingly, to sneak, or aim at getting at information, &c., in 
an underhand way. 

Comp. Sw. D. hakta^ to stay, to delay. 

* " To go baking about ;'* prjring, seeking indirectly for news.' Wb, Ol, 

Hale, V. a. To pour or empty out, as water from a vessel by in- 
clining it to one side, or otherwise. 

S. O. balla, balla, i. to incline, tilt ; as a vessel : a. to pour out, as liquid from a tilted 
vessel ; thus, bdlla wain pd ndgoi: to pour water upon anything ; O. N. balla; Dan. bM§ 
or bigldtt to incline, to pour out, or take out by dipping, or let run out slowly by inclining 
the containing vessel ; to fill another vessel by pouring from an inclined containing vessel ; 
as, at btlde valden afosten : to pour the whey from the cheese ; ai bride olii i lampen : oil 
into the lamp ; at belde een over med vand : water over any one. The word has an exten- 
sive application through the shades of meaning connected with indination or leaning : as, 
stifen er waa beld, glasser staaer saa beldt: the ladder, the glass, is on the brink of a fall ; 
belde, a steep place down which one can easily slip or fall ; and so on, inclusive of Clevd. 
Heldy inclination, proclivity. 

Hales, sb. The handles or ends of the plough-stilts : usually in the 
compound form Plough-hales. 

* H€d, paxillus, clavus, in primis ligneus.' Ihre. J7<e/, tyrbal, t^grbal, a peg, tether 
peg. Molb. Dial. Lex, ; O. N. b<dl, a crook or hooked peg ; Sw. D. hiU, bd, a wooden 
peg ; N. bid, a tether peg ; Celt, boel, pin, peg. Comp. Sw. D. band-bd, the equivalent of 
our Hale. 

Half-baked, adj. Deficient in intellect, silly, slow or stupid. 

Comp. the Dan. idiom ny^gt, new-baked, as applied to any mushroom quality or 
dignity: as, ny-hagt excellence; en ny-bagt riddersmand, a new-baked nobleman, 8cc. 

Half-marrow, sb. One who, in connection with work, is looked 
upon as but half a ' man ;' an apprentice not yet out of his time ; one of 
two whose joint work is looked upon as a unit, the two being both boys 
or under age. See Marrow. 

Comp. Dan. D. balf-nettemand or balv-netsmand, a man who borrows another man's nets 

I 1 


and givec htm half the proceeds of the fishing in acknowledgment ; O. Sw. 

Sw. D. baJnabonde, one who works another man's fann on the conditioo of takmg hilf die 


Half-nonght (pr. haaf-nowght). Half-nothing; anything — price or 
consideration — too absurdly small or inadequate to be wordi men- 

Hall, writes this balf-ncwt, and explains it by * half-price.* It is simply htdf nothing, 

* " What did yon give for it T " Oh I jest about bafhrnowghtr * 

* Ah 'd ding tha' au'd heead aff fur baaf-nowgbt^ Ah wad T spoken by a man initited to 
the Fcry verge of violence. , 

Half-rooked, adj. Silly. Wh, GL gives as the meaning, ' ill-tramed, 
only half-nursed;' but the idea is that of deficiency of wit, rather than of 

Half-there (used adjectively rather than adverbiaHy). Deficient, 
half-silly, simple-witted. 

* Pair silly gomerill 1 He 's nobbut hauf-tbert* 

Hallooked, adj. Teased, worried, bullied. 

Hald. gives baUokg ; from ballrt bowed, inclined, and oin, a yoke ; as ' sabjngirtas, sob 
jugum missus ;' with the example, oft be/kit sa er balloka verdr : the oppressed one often 
revenges himself ; whence, probably, our word. 

Hallockixig, adj. Idling or wandering about desultorily. 

* Hallacking, generally coupled with stoit : " A gurt hallacking stoit.'* To go baOaA' 
ing ahout^ wandering up and down giddily without a direct aim/ Leedt Ol, Hall, gives 
* Hallacking, idling, feasting ; making merry. Hallachs, an idle fellow. North ;' and Jam. 
gives * Hallokie, or ballacb*d, i. crazy or half-witted : 2. giddy, foolish, harebrained; often 
implying the idea of light behaviour.' Cf. the latter word with our hallooked; and 
Halli well's bollocks with Jamieson's baloc, a light, thoughtless girl, which he connects with 
A. S. bcelgOt levis, inconstans, as a possible origin. In the Eastern Counties buUmg ng- 
niiies not only heavy, lumbering, as in the expression * a great hulking chap,' but also 
loitering lazily or heavily, as in the expression * hulking about ;' and thus it may be co> 
ordinate with hallaoking. 

Haines, sb. (pr. heeams). The appendages of iron or wood fitting 
over the collar of a draught-horse, or BarfEun, and to which the traces 
are attached. The * seles' of the South. 

* Atteles, the baumes of a draught horse's collar.* Cotgr. * Esteles, bonus.* Gl. on G. d^ 
Bihelesw, Mr. Wedgwood says, * the origin of the word borne is seen in the WaU. bSme, 
a splint, or thin piece of wood, corresponding to Germ, scbiene, a splint, band to keep things 
dose.' He also quotes Fl. boenit a horse-collar; and Jam. gives the form koe-hammtt 
bairns or a collar for a cow, from Kilian. While * banoborougb, a coarse horse-collar, made 
of reed or straw. Devon.' given by Hall., remains to shew relationship to Wiw, scbtent, &c., 
one is disappointed at finding so few traces of the form Hame except in our own older 
tongue and its dialects. I believe we find a connection of the word in Prov. Sw. bammd, 
splinter-bar, swingle-tree, which is connected by Rietz with bammla, to head down, to 


pollard, or poll ; O. N. bamla, a small pole or stake ; Dan. bammei, N. bammd, qdinter- 
bar. Probably also, bambe {Dansk, OL), described by Molb. as ' an unnsoal and to himself 
unfamiliar word, which seems to signify either cross-pieces qf wood, or curved or crooked 
(hooked) pieces, employed on quays or ships' bulwarks,' may be nearly related. In the 

' We are so bamyd, 
For-taxed and ramyd. 
We are made hand-tamyd 

Withe these gentlery men ;' Towntl JHysi. p. 98, 

the word hamyd is probably a Tb. derived from the sb. bame or bam (bem in a passage 
quoted by Jam.), and implying forced to submit and labour for others* profit, as the draught- 
horse is. See Barfam. 

Hammer, v. n. To stammer, hesitate in speaking. 

The two words bammer and stammer are frequently joined together ia use ; and the idea 
is simply that of repetition, as with the blows requisite for driving anjrthing home with 
a hammer. It should not be quite overlooked, however, that S. G. and Sw. bappia is to 
stanmier ; and that bampa and bappa, to happen, to chance, are coincident, as also tibat Ihre 
recognises the connection between E. bamper, to entangle, and Sw. bappia: while from 
banker to biomner is a very easy transition, in our dialect especially. 

Hamp, sb. An article of clothing, which may have been worn next 
the skin, or, at times, over the under-clothing. 

Dan. D. bempe, a farmer's jacket, or smock, toga mstica ; O. Sw. bambert bampntr^ 
bampH, vestis, indumentum (Ihre) ; thence, Jdosters bamber or bampner, monastic habit ; 
kUedb I elosters bampn alkar ahihtm^ clad in the cloister bamp or habit ; fictdar bampn, 
a suit of feathers ; O. N. bamr; N. and Dan bam ; A. S. bama^ boma, bom; N. Fris. bam; 
M. G. bamOf bam, &c., generally an envelope, involucre, covering ; more specifically, the 
eeeutuUfUB or afterbirth, that in which the fcetus had been enveloped. Comp. also witii 
our word Germ, bemd, shirt ; siegbemd, victory-vest ; gluehs-bemd, luck-garment ; goldne 
bemd, Beow.; fridbemede; all mentioned in Grimm, D, M. pp. 105a, 1053. ^ believe the 
word which occurs in Sir Oaw, and Cfr, Knigbt, p. 157, 

* Heme wel haled, hose of ^\ same grene,' 

is a very close connection of G. bemd, A. S. bama, 8cc, I have met with the word Hamp 
in two versions of the well-known Brownie rhyme, current here ; the one given first asso- 
ciated with Hart Hall, in Glaisdale : — 

' Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin' bamp. 
He 11 come nae mair nowther to berry nor stamp.' 

The second is from a tradition connected with a locality in the county of Durham, and is 
defective : — 

* A bamp and a hood 1 
Then Hobbie again 11 dee nae mair good.' 

Hampered, adj. Beset with difficulties. But, besides this meaning 
which is common in all parts of England, the word bears another 
which is peculiar, — beset or overrun; with vermin, namely, as rats, or 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon this word as connected with ' Dut. baperen, to stammer, hesi* 
ute, falter, stick fast; bapervterk, bungling bad work; bapertHg, stammering, bogj^ing, 

I i 2 


hindnace, obtude. The nasal Pr. gives Sc. hamp, to stammer, also to halt in waUdiig, to 
read with difficulty ; and E. bamptr (in a factitiTe sense), to cause to stidc, to imp icde, 
entangle.' In E. Emg. AlUt, Poems, B. 1. 1384, spealdng of the plondering of the Temple 
at Jerusalem, and enumerating all the fair and costly things taken, it is said that all tiuse. 

* W3rth alle Kc rmmentes of ^t hoos he bampfrtd togeder :' 

may not this word, springing from a totally different origin, furnish the origin of our word? 
Transfer the idea of things i>acked together in close contact, from inanimate objects to 
liring ones, and we have just the thought implied in our Hamper. Rich, suggests a coo- 
nection, through a metaphor, with hmnele or bambU, to lame the hams ; and thus deriTCi 
its general signification. 

* ** They 're a sair bampfrtd fismily ;" borne down with expenses, or by the rcsahi of 
improvidence or misfortune.' Wb. Gl. 

* We 're sairly bamptnd wi rattons.' lb, 

Haxn-shaokle, v. a. To restrain or impede the motion of an animal 
by fastening its head to one of its legs. 

* They have bam-tbaekltd and knee-haltered me till there is scarce a thing I can do ;' 
spoken by a steward suspected of malpractices, and consequently acting under stringent 
restraints, in reply to some application from one of the tenants. See /Vw* Maid ofPtrAf 
ii. 321. 

Hand, bear at. To lay to one's charge, or hold one guilty of a 
thing ; thence to owe a grudge to, to bear one in mind as having done 
an injury, possibly with the wish or intent to return it 

To here on band is used by Chaucer in the sense of to charge with, to accuse, albeit on 
mistaken grounds or with intentional falsehood. 

* I bare bim on bond he had enchanted me ; 

My dame taughte me that subtiltee.' Prol. Wife o/Baib's TaU. 

* And wenches wold I beren tbem on bonde 

Whan that for seek thay might unnethes stonde.' lb, 

* This false knight, that hath this tresoun wrought, 
Beretb bir on band that sche hath don this thing.' 

Mem o/Litwn Tale. 
In Toumel. Myst. the word /alsly is joined : — 

* Nather in dede ne in saw can I fynd withe no wrang 
Whcrfor ye shuld hym draw, or here falsly on band 

Withe ille.' (p. 205.) 

Cf. En ef\>er herr YcU til banda at \ni \>ikizst afnokkurum manna [ntr/a lids : but if it 
should occur to you to think you have need of a few men's help. Flat. i. 115. 

Hand-olouty sb. A towel. See Clout. 

Comp. Dan. D. baandilasder, banklar, bandkVr; Sw. D. bankier, bankle, hand-clothes, 
i. c. gloves ('without fingers,' Kok) ; bandhliide, a white pocket handkerchief; while 
O. N. bandklcedi, N. bandkla, Sw. D. bandklatbi or batidklcedbi, mean, like oar word, 
simply a towel. Line, band'clotb, however, is a handkerchief. Hall. 


Handhold, sb. i. That which may be gripped or taken firm hold 
of by the hand, a handle or the like ; as a projecting part, of adequate 
size, of anything. 2. The grasp taken, or act of gripping. 

0. N. handarbaUd; D. bandbold; Sw. D. bandbatt, bannbiU. 

1. • " Can't yc stor it ? " " Neea, Ah can't git nac bandbold it it" ' 
a. ' Ah couldn't ho'd mah bandbo'dt ctrahve as I moud.' 

Handle, v. a. To deal with, or treat 

* And sent him away shamefully bandUd' Mark xii. 4. * Handla,* says Ihre, * manu 
tractare, Alem. bantolon, A. S. bandlian, Angl. bandU : idque Tel physice, quo sensn bSndla 
saepe occurrit in Scriptis Isl., tcI moraliter, uti dum dicimns bandHa wdi med in^ bene cum 
quopiam agere* cujus contrarinm est mUsbandla.' So Dan. bandit; — as ai bandU tint 
kinder ilde : to misuse one's clothes. Sw. bandla is used with prep, mtd ot pd. The 
CleTeL usage is that of the Bible, or as in the Dan. example, carried oat wi& greater 

* He 's been desper'tly sair bannUd wV t' feTer.' 

* A chap 's Uhk t' be parlously bannUd gif he gits intiT t' haands o' tfaae low-wen 

Hand-running (used adverbially). In succession, one after another. 

* I did it seTen times band^running* • 

* He stopped away three weeks band-running and niTTer went til his work at all.' 
Comp. bandpai, fluent ; bandsmooibt quite flat ; band-tvbilt, a moment, a short while. 


' I may not syt at my note 

A band long while.' Towml, Myst. p. 109. 

Handsel, hansel, sb. i. The first money received by a seller, any 
day, or at commencement of business. 2. The first use of anything, 
from a shop to a new implement, of whatever kind. 

O. N. bandsalt an engagement, promise, or undertaking sanctioned by contact of hands ; 
S. G. bandsbly mercimonii divenditi primitise : first takings for goods sold retail ; Sw. D. band' 
sol, earnest money ; Dan. bandsel, the first money taken by a seller in the morning ; hence, 
at give etn bandtel : to turn over the first money to one (Molb.) ; A. S. bandsdmt a putting 
into another's possession. ' The formation of the word,' says Wedgw. {band^ and A. S. sy£ 
Ian, teUan ; O. N. sella, to give, bestow, deliver), * has been commonly misunderstood as if it 
signified delivery of possession, giving a thing into the hand of another. The real import 
is a striking of hands in token of conclusion.' See Wedgw. in v., and cf. the following 
extract : — Ok eiga \teir ai Yessu bandsal ok hinda ]>eir sua fast sina maldaga : and at this 
(meeting) they give bandsel, and so bind fiut their contract. Flat, i. 109. 

Cf. • Of up-holders an hep* erly by )>e morwe 

3iue >e gloton with good wille* good ale to bonsel.* 

P. Plougbm. {E, E, r. S,) p. 61. 

Handsel, v. a. i. To make use of anything for the first time, from 
a new house to a pocket-knife, &c. 

O. N. bandselia ; A. S. band-syUan, to deliver up. 


Haadstafl^ sb. The handle or shaft of the flail. The other parts 
are named the Swipple, that with which the com is struck ; and the 
Cap, the revolving leather fitting at the upper end of the Hanii-gtelT to 
which the Swipple is attached. 

Comp. Sw. D. batutval, Uiutpal, bammol, bamldi, bammtl. Sec. ; Dan. D. bimdmoi^ 
bannd, Sw. piffelsiq/i gives oar own tennuution. 

• •■ w » I • ••»■ I 

Haad-tom, sb. A single act of doing, of one's business, 
work ; almost equivalent to the phrase * stroke of work.' 

* Ah 'f niwer deean a baHd-io*m sen Marti'mas ;' spoken by a person inaq»dtmtad bj 

Handy, adj. i. Dexterous, ingenious, clever with one's handa 
Thence, 2. Suitable, well adapted, convenient 

S.O. batuUg, agilis; O.N. btntugr; Sw. haitdig; Sw. D. htrnSg^ handtUg^ hammdig, 
biumug, saitable, easy to use with tiie hand: derer or dezterons; Swiss hmuBigt haaii: 
Dan. bitndigt bebandig; Sw. D. hdnduger, dexterous, expert, in a handicraft, namdy. 

I. * A desper't btmdy chap wiy a speead :' or a gun ; or a horse. Ace 

a. * T* spot 's nat that bad : it *s handy enough.' 

* T' new cho'ch ligs fair an* bandy for t' town.' 

Hangedly, adv. Reluctantly, despondingly, or in a downcast way. 

* He left home this time very hangidly* Wb. Gl, 

Hanging-mind, sb. (pr. hinging mind). An inclination or desire for 
this or that line of action or particular doing. 

The Sw. idiom bdnga efUr nagon approaches the sense of our phrase as weD as the cor- 
responding Dan. one. Molb., however, quotes the word bang, inclination for, or aiming at» 
a thing, as a word only lately introduced from the Oerm., and not, so £ir, mudi nsed>-r> 
Vi arve upaatvivlelig an evnt, maaskee endog et bange til at synde: beyond doubt we 
inherit a capability, possibly even a propensity, for sinning. Rietz gives' bang, b&tg, eager, 
desirous, and collates O. N. bang, desire, as well as Germ. btmg. 

* Ay, he *s had a bmging-mind tiv it, iwer syne his brither gaed furrin'.' 

Hank, sb. i. A rope loop, or latchet, for securing a gate, move- 
able stack-bar, &c. 2. A skein or knot of thread, yam, string, &c. 

O. N. baunk, banki, funiculus ; S. G. bank, annulus vimineus, quo constringmitnr fostea, 
sepem continentes ; Sw. D. bcmk, that with which anything is hung, ligula, habena orbico- 
lata ; Sw. bank, string, band for tying. We have in these words the exact meanings given 
to our word above. 

Hank, v. a. i. To fasten or 'hang' a horse: as, by passing his 
bridle, or halter, over a gate, a hook, or what not 2. To hold a horse 
in tight, to check him by drawing bridle. 

From Hank, sb. Comp. O. N. banka, to bind or fasten with a rope. 


I. * And when they had hankt their horses, they stood all on a bare spott of groand/ 
York Castlt Dep. p. 103. 

* And hankt him (the colt) to a stobb/ Ih. p. 197. 

a. ' Ha-a-aw, Landlord 1 Hanck your naig a while ; 
For I hae ridden full lang twa mile 
Out of my gate, to overtake ye,* Joco^er, Disc, p. 9. 

Comp. the use of the vb. in the following extract : — ' Dedely synnes gastely slaa ilke 
maoes and womanes saule )>at es baunkedt in alle or in any of thayme.' ReL Pieces, p. 1 1. 

Hank, To be in a. To be in a state of perplexity, or trouble. 

Hank, To have one in. To have, or have placed, a person in such 
circumstances that he is in a state of perplexity, trouble, or anxiety ; or 
that he is imable to extricate himself. 

Comp. O. N. ' Hann a baunk uppi bakid d }^ : he has a hank upon the back of you ; 
obligatione te habet ; du er ham forbimden */ Hald. 

Hank, To have things in a. To have one's circiunstances of action, 
or connection with another, much involved or perplexed. 

Hankie, v. a. i. To entangle, or cause to twist up together, as silk, 
thread, &c. Hence, 2. To entangle in some pursuit or proceeding ; to 
inveigle or entice. 

A frequentatiye from vb. hank. 

a. * They bankUd him on intiy t' matter.' 

Hantle, sb. A considerable quantity or number ; a great deal. 

* Spelt also bankel, which Jam. rightly conjectures to be correct. Hanele, a great 
many. Hall. Not from handful or handtal, but from the notion of holding together. Germ. 
henkel weinbeeren, a branch of vine with a number of bunches on it N. baank^ cluster of 
things hanging together.' Wedgw. Add Sw. D. bdngla, banka, to be sweet on one, and so 
stick dose to her ;. bdngla, to be pertinacious in attendance on any one; banker, a suitor, 
hanger-on in courting. 

Hap, V. a. To cover, by placing or heaping clothes, &c., upon the 
person, straw and earth over potatoes, earth over the dead, and the 

A word of tolerably frequent occurrence in the Early Northern writers. We meet with 
it twice or oftener in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn., and as often in E, Eng. AUit. Poems, 

Mr. Morris' Gl. note is * Happyn or whappyn* yn clo|>ys.' * Lappyn' or whappyn' yn 
dohys {happyn togcdyr, S. ; wrap together in clothes. P.) Involvo.* Pr, Pm, Wedgw. 
supposes it * a corruption of whap from wlappe* 

* " Are you well happed f" defended from the cold by clothing.' Wb. Gl. 

* All 's white and happed up.' Ih. 

* All 's dune, now : thou mun bap him oop.' To a sexton after the grave-service was 

* Lord what these wederes are cold and I am ylle bappyd' 

Townel, Myst. p. 98. 


ECap, sb. Chance, fortune, luck. 

O. N. bapp^ tuccets. luck; N. beppa^ luck, of whaterer chancter; O. S. kafi^ cfaaooe; 
luck ; Sw. D. bapPt fortunate occurrence, good luck. 

* 1::^ turaes sho obout oft hir whele, 
pe whilk \ttr dcrket noght elles calles 
Bot bappe or chaunce hit sodanlt falles.' Pr, tfOomtc. L laSa. 

In E, Eng, AUit. Poems, wherever the word occurs, it seems to denote good locfc; or 
prosperity, or hapfnness. 

In Clevel. the word is usually qualified, as in ill hap (comp. O. N. and Sw. D. dbapp% 
atrance hap ; but we also uy by what hap, or the like. Cf. ' good bt^^* Percy's M, 
MS, i. 361 ; and * o|>er bappes mony mo.' lb, 430. 

ECap, V. n. To befal, chance, happen. 

* Hap what may ;' or, ' bap what bap may.' 

* It bappid on a day.' Kmgbt* Tali, p. lo. 
Comp. N. beppit to chance, to befal. 

Happen, v. n., and often used actively, in the sense of, To meet with, 
to incur. A very frequent usage of the word is in the sense. Possibly, 
perhaps ; being either impersonal, or elliptical for ' suppose it happen,' 
or a similar form. 

S. G. bappa sig, bampa tig ; Sw. D. bahba sig^ bappat, bappa se, bapa sf/, bohba ag, to 
fall out unexpectedly, to chance or befal ; bappa, to happen, to fall out ; teMo, id. 

* " Do you think it will rain ?" " Happen it may." ' 

* Ah '11 think on, bappen Ah gans.' 
In the active sense : — 

' Puir gell ! she *s bapp*n*d a misfort'n ;' had, or going to have, an illegitimate child. 

* Ah seen a hare liggin, an' Ah bapfrCd (t*) misfort'n te knap 't o' t' heead.' 

Cf. * An vncoth land he bappened in.' Percy's FoL, MS. i. 367. 

Happing, sb. i. A covering of any kind, whether in the form of 
clothing for the body, or what is laid over matters which require pro- 
tection. 2. A coarse kind of coverlet. See Bed-happing. 

Haps, sb. Overclothes; rugs, shawls, great coats, &c. ; anjrtfaing 
which may be used as a defence against the cold, by happing, or 
enveloping the person in it. 

« " Have you plenty o' bapt T " Aye, Ah 's tweea shawls an' mah thick cloak, forbj 
t roog. 

Harass, v. a. (pr. harrish). To weary; distress through the inter- 
vention of annoying or vexatious calls or circumstances. 

* Ah 's barrUbed ncarlings te deead by 's ragally gannin's on.' 

Harass, sb. Distress, worr)% trouble. 

* It 's been a sair barrisb tiv* 'im.' 

Harbour, sb. Shelter, lodging, a home. 

O. N. berbergi, a place of reception and rest, an inn, also a chamber ; O. S. barbargbi. 


htrhirgit a guest-chamber, a store-room ; Sw. harhergt, id., with the fiiUer meaning attached 
to the expression * mine inn ;' A. S. hereherga^ a station where an army rested on its march, 
a harbour ; O. Germ, beriherga, beripergOt a halting-place, an ixm ; M. Oerm. berbergt, 
Sw. D. barbfrge, bdrban, babbar, a store-chamber, a guest-chamber ; Dan. D. berbergi itk 
Jutland the men's chamber or sleeping-apartment ; generally a room off the stable : also a 
lesser room or chamber, within or beyond the chief apartment ; O. Dan. berberg, a chamber, 
apartment ; Dan. berberg^ an inn, or place for repose and entertainment ; lodgings, or a 
temporary home in any house. A good old word, and in O. English one of frequent occur- 
rence : in Chaucer repeatedly. 

* For I hungerd and yhe me fedde, 

I thrested and at drynke yhe me bedde ; 

Of berber grate nede I had, 

Yhe hcrbcred me with hert glad.* Pr. ofConsc. 1. 6151. 

* I bc-seche J>e, lorde, 
& Mary, )>at is myldest moder so dere. 
Of sum berber, )>et hejly I my3t here masse.' 

Sir Gam. and Gr. Kn. 1. 753. 

* Gode syr, quoth Gawayn, woldej J>ou go my emde 

To \>t he) lorde of )>is hous, berber to crave.' lb, 811. 

' ** Cleaied out of heck and barbour;** reduced to the want of both food and shelter.* 

* A gret family, like to eat him (the father) out of heck and barbour* 

Hard, adj. Sour ; of beer or ale. 

Sw. D. bdrd, bdl, bed ; as, drikkai a bdrdi : the drink (ale) is sour. 

Hard, adj. Difficult, not easily influenced. See examples. 

* Hard te to'n ;* not easily induced to deviate from a course or plan. 

* Hard te finnd ;' difficult to be met with. 

Harden, v. a. To encourage, infuse spirit. 

* He bardened him on tiv it ;' of a person reluctant or afraid to act, but encouraged by 
another to the venture. 

' Poor lahtle chap I he ommost brak' out when tahm cam' te gan i' aimest ; but he bar- 
duud hissel' oop an niwer grat nae mair an nowght ;' of a child going away to school, 
and resolute not to cry. 

Harden-faced, adj. Lowering, stormy-looking, threatening in appear- 
ance ; of the weather, or the sky. 

Comp. O. N. barcUndi, dear times, hard weather, anything that renders life or man's lot 
heavy or trying ; S. G. and O. N. bardna, to grow hard, severe or sour. 

* The sky looks a barden-faced look.' Wb. OL 

Harding, sb. A coarse linen fabric used for making wrappers, &c. 

Hards, coarse flax, the refuse of flax or hemp. Greiies de lin, the bards or tow of flax. 
Cotgr. : Hall. Also barden, hemp. Yorks. Dial. 1697 : Hall. A. S. beordan, beordas, hards, 
the refuse of tow. The derivation obvious : O. N. bbr, borr; N. borr; Dan. bar; Sw. D. 
bcr; O. Germ, bant, baro; M. Germ., Austr., Bav., bar; Kam. Mir, flax. Comp. D. bbr- 
tave, the fibre of flax. See Hamp, for a curious old rhyme containing the word. Hard 
baitet in £. Eng, Allii. Poems, B. 1 209, and K. Alex, p. loa, is referred to this same word 
by Mr. Morris. 



Hardlings, adv. Hardly, scarcely. 

We haTe several adverbt with the tenninatioo -Ungi. as nattrllnflifl moflUinci; andve 
can scarcely help comparing them with the Scandinavian forms in hmgt^ as kt^gUBigh 
anlttngt (S. Jutl.), backwards. And I think it may be obscnred, that while in thoe 
latter forms motion in the direction of length seems to be implied, a similar idea is alwajfs 
involved in Qevd. words with the termination •lingi ; an idea of motioii, pio g icn ion or 

Hard of hearing, adj. More or less afflicted with deafness. 

Hard-set, adj. Almost overtasked, tried to the veige of pown* or 
endurance, scarcely able or capable. 

• Hard-ui wiv a family.' Wb, Gl. 

• The wall seems bard-set to stand.' lb. 

• " He *8 ower bard-set wi' work ;" overtasked.' lb, 

Cf. Pr, Pm, * Hardetett (or obstynat) 3m wyckydnesse, >at neucr wylle diawi^e.' 

Harled, adj. Mottled. 

Hall, gives barie, hair or wool, Nortb,; as also bari, to entangle. Huriyd, in the line— 

* His hede is like a stowke, burlyd as hogges/ T\mnul. Mytt, p. 313 ; 

the Editor's glossarial note on which is, * Hwr^, staring, rude, unkemd, bristlie, horrid, like 
a wild boares head. Cotgr.,' is doubtless nearly allied to barle, hair or wool ; and possibly 
berle^ in the passage subjoined, may indicate the manner of connection in- the ideas of the 
two words : — 

* pt mane of l>at mayn hors much to hit (his rider's ' much herd,' and copioas 
hair) lyke, 
Wei cresped 8c cemmed wyth knottes fill mony, 
Folden in wyth fildore aboutc )>c fayre grene. 
Ay a berie of l>e here an o)>er of golde :* Sir Oaw. and Gr. Kn. 187 ; 

unless, indeed, berU be taken to be allied to burl^ wbtrl, and to mean simply a twist. But 
taking it in connection with the ideas of bushiness and cresping, and comparing it widi 
the example under Harle in Cr. Gl. — * Sho 's a fearful hask barled an ;' that is, the cow has 
harsh, staring, tufted hair, — the view above indicated is at least a probable one. From the 
idea of staring, or tufted hair, there might be a transition to that of mottled, as such hair 
on a creature's hide always has, at least apparently, a different hue from that on the sleeker 
parts of the body. 

Ham, sb. Coarse linen, of rough texture and not closely woven. 
Probably an oral abbreviation of Harden or Harding. 

Harr, sb. A strong fog, or wet mist, almost verging on a drizzle. 
At times occuring in frosty weather. See Frost-hag, Frost-harr. 
Written * Hare,' ' Harl,' by Brockett. 

Comp. Isl. art pulvis minutissimus, atomus in radiis solaribus. The Harr is simfdy the 
assemblage of a vast host of minute particles, and the word may easily have been taken to 
denote the mist by transition from one idea to the other. 

Harrow, To trail a light. To have but few of the burdens and 
crosses of life upon one ; to be tolerably free from cares and anxieties. 

' " He trails a light barrow : his hat covers his family ;" of an unmarried nun without 
the cares and respoiuibilities of a Bimily/ Wb. Gl. 


Harv, hauve. The word of command to a horse, or horses, to turn 
to the left, or towards the driver, who always has the team or Draught 
on his right hand as he walks by its side. Replaces the older word 
Halt, Haight, Heit, or Hyte. 

Hask, adj. Coarse or rough or harsh to the senses of taste or 
touch: the coarseness or harshness of too great dryness, as well as 
austerity or roughness of taste, being included. 

Pr.Pm, * Harski, or basie. SHptuus, poriHcus.' Jam. gives bani, bars, basky; and 
other forms are basb and barrisb. S. G. bixrsk, austems, tetncus ; Sw. bank, rank, rancid ; 
Dan. bcank ; Germ barscb, hard, rough, austere. 

' Hask bread :* — the comparison sometimes being * As bask as chopped hay.* Wb, Ol. 

Haugoed, adj. Tainted, beginning to be offensive, as meat or game 
which has been too long kept. WA. GL 

Fr. baut-gout. 

Haunt, sb. A custom, habit, or practice. See Haunted. 

* Of clothe-makyng she hadde such a bauni 

She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunt.' Prol, to Cant, Tain. 

Hanntedy To be, v. p. To grow used to, or become accustomed. 

The y. a. is of frequent occurrence in O. E. 

* Fr. banttr, to frequent, haunt, literally to follow a certain course.' OI. to E. Eng, AlUi. 

* pay ar happen also )»at baunte mekenesse.' 76. CX 1. l6. 

* For swilk degises and suilk maners 
Ak yhong men now bauntes and lers, 
And ilk day is comonly sen. 

By for \ni tyme ne has noght ben.' Pr. of Cotue, 1. 1534. 

* To use and to baunte chiualrie.* MerL p. 326. 

* )?e )>irde es ydellchipp h^t ouer mekylle es bauntede,* Halt Mnd. p. 33. 

* " He got bauntid to it by degrees ;" gradually habituated to it.' Wb, Gl, 

Hanse, sb. The throat, or neck. 

O. N. bdls; O. Sw., Dan., A. S., Germ., M. G., Dut. bals, the neck. 

ECauve, v. n. To stare or gape with stupid wonderment. 

Most likely a mere aspirated offshoot of awf. See Auvish, half-witted; and comp. 
oaf, a simpleton, a blockhead, — * formerly more correctly written auf, oupb. When an 
infant was found to be an idiot, it was supposed to be an imp left by the fairies in the room 
of the pr<^r child carried away to their own country. 

" These when a child haps to be got. 
Which after proves an idiot, 
When folks perceive it thriveth not. 

The fault therein to smother. 
Some silly, doating, brainless calf — 
Say that the fairies left this aulf 

And took away the other." ' Wedgw. 

K k 2 


• Mam dtnkt sieb danmUr (bapmirUteb, tdlpMiroiteb, otpttrunA, oOtrdrvtkb, &V.) 
4MMM Unkhd)€m tm/Sltigm mimebm, dem die elhe §twas OHgHban babm, wa» mmst amb 
ihs$ XLBUCH beissi : tlvna tmbt$ :' by the words specified is meant An Awkward, addk- 
headed simpleton, supposed to hare been bewitched by the elves, otherwise ezprosed by 
thfUh, auviah. 

' " What are you bauving at T* staring stupidly and amazedly at T Wb. OL 

Haavey-gsareyy sb. A rude or stupid lout, an awkward donmt 
slow-witted and slow-handed. 

ECauvishy hauving, adj. Sim|^e-witted, half-stupid. 

Haver, sb. (pr. hawer). Oats. 

O.N. bqfr (pi. bqfrar), baflri; N. bavrt^ bagre, barre; O. Sw. bagri {bqfra in aoc. 
sing.); Sw. D. bagrd, bagro; Sw. bafre; Dan. bavre; O. Germ. babOro, bAer, babr9: 
Oom. bafir, baber; O. Ssul bavoro; Dut. bavir; Wall, bajdr. 

Haver-meal, sb. Oatmeal. 

Haw-buok, sb. An ignorant country clown, an uninformed lout 

Hay-baukSy sb. Loose sticks or poles, of oak commonly, laid side 
by side, with spaces between, above the stalls or standings in the cow- 
er ox-house (Ows-'ns), on which is laid the hay for the present use of 
the beasts below. 

Hays, sb. Enclosure fences, often doing duty as boundaries, in 
which sense the word exists in several local names. 

O. N. bagi; O. Sw. bagb; N. bagje, baga; Sw. D. bag^ bage, baga, bave; Dan. bavt; 
M. Germ, bae^ bege; A. S. bag; Germ. b(^; M. Fris. bag, bage. But our word is pro- 
bably more directly due to the Norman form, baia, or bai<B. * When the Danish and 
Saxo-Norman monarchs organised hunts on a large scale, the system of netting was found 
inefficient, and a combination of materials, in which nets were subservient to hazels and 
underwood, was formed, whereby a larger number of beasts of a dangerous character conld 
be entrapped. These hedges, which the Saxons were probably taught by the Normans to 
construct, received the Norman appellation of Haia' A. Stuc, HonUt p. 365. See Du Can|;e 
in V. Hmot Spelman's Gloss. 

Hazely V. a. (pr. hezzle). To beat, chastise, especially with a stick. 

Ihre gives the word basda^ which signifies to mark out, or enclose a space for a duel, with 
hazel rods, and quotes, — * En er menn kvomu in \>ann std^^ er vollrin var basU^r^ ^d vorm 
^ar settar up besU stengr edit til utmerhja \>ar er sd stafSr var^ er orrostan skyldi vera :* when 
the men came to that place where the lists were bazelled, there were set up there hazel rods 
in order to mark out where the combat was to be. This is another deriv. use of the Tb. 
hazel ; and possibly even, obvious as the derivation of our word seems, there may be in it 
a reference to the good hard blows which would be interchanged in the Veil badc^r. 

Hazeling, sb. (pr. hezzling). A beating, a caning. 

Hazledy adj. (pr. hazzeld). Speckled red and white, or rather with 
the hairs of these colours intermixed, so that it is hard to say in some 


cases which predominates. According to the preponderance of red or 
white the beast is dark-hazled or light-hasled. Otherwise, roan 
or roaaed. 

Hazy, sb. i. A contention, quarrel or scolding-match. 2. The 
abusive language made use of on such occasions. 

Hail, gives bctstt to breathe short, Line, ; with which comp. Sw. bessja, to breathe libo- 
riomij, to pant From scolding to panting is not a difficult or unwont^ step. 

Head, sb. i. The upper part of a Dale where it just begins to form 
among the hills. 2. The higher portion of the reclaimed part of a pro- 
jecting spur of the moorland heights where it begins to verge on the 
unreclaimed part, or moor. 

0. N. hofud: O. Sw. hovo\>^ bwu^^ bovod, bofd, Ihre gives bufumd, I. Qpod in qua> 
conque re primarium est : a. Promontorium. Sw. bufimd; Dan. boved. Sec. Sw. D. gives 
for^^Wy the commencement of a Force or Fobs ; an application of the word exactly 
analogous to that in our Dale-head. Also bovde^ the commencement of a fence where 
it starts out from connection or union with another, wherein the idea is very much the 

1. • Danby-**a^/;• * Fryufhbead;* * Glaisdale-^Au// &c. 

a. * Ainthorpe-^eoJ;' * Wedlands-^&Mu/.' The latter name, in a deed bearing date 1246, 
is written Wbaytelands bevid. 

Head-gear, sb. i. Head-dress and what appertains to it. 2. The 
inner equipment of the head, good sense, ready wit, information, &c. 

a. * He 's a knowfu' chap, yon. Ah wad lahk weel t' ha' *s stock o' beadgear* 

Head-rigg, sb. The headland of an arable field, or that part at 
either end on which the horses in the plough are turned, and which is 
not touched by the plough until all the rest of the field is turned over. 
See Bigg. 

Head-stall, sb. The halter, or head-gear, of a horse, by which it is 
secured in its stall, or led out to water, &c. ; made of hemp. The 
Collar, on the other hand, is made of leather. 

The btter component of the word is from O. N. stallr, a basis, pedestal ; Sw. ttall ; 
O.G. stall; Germ, itelle; A. S. stealt a stall, room, place, &c. Comp. Germ, kemstal, the 
place which holds kernels, the core, and Eng. D. fingersiaU^ which is analogous to our 

Head-tire, sb. Head-dress generally, with its belongings and deco- 
rations. See Tire. 

Heap, sb. i. A quarter of a peck in measure, 2. Measure, in the 
sense of the quantity measured, generally; yet only in the mode of 
saying given in the example. 

Brock, mentions beap^ a wicker basket. It would seem most likely that the name 
originated in a special quantity or measure ; whether a quarter of a peck, or more, or less, 


one can only guess. Dan. bob^ houg, the correlative of our Hei^, in the same manner 
takes the sense of a certain or definite quantity, only not in respect of that which is meted 
out with a measure : it is ' a collection of six sheaves or 3 kjerves set up together on the 
ridge.' See Stook, Trsve. So also S. G. bop, portio agri separata ; Oerm. bub^, men- 
sura agri. 

* ** They gi* short beiaps ;" an expression for bad measure of all sorts.' Wb. GV. 

Heared (pr. heerd). Fret, of Hear. 

Heart-bmsten, adj. (pr. heart-brussen). Heart-broken, overwhelmed 
with grief or concern. 

Heart-eased, adj. Having experienced great relief under distress or 

Hearten, v. a. To encourage, inspire with hope or confidence. 

Heartening, sb. Encouragement, the confidence imparted by hope 
or strong expectation. 

* " The doctor gave him good bearttning ;" great hopes of recovery.' Wb, Ot. 

* ** Bad bearttfung ;" poor prospect of amendment held out.' 76. 

* ** No beariening at all ;*' no hopes whatever.' lb. 

Heart-grown, adj. i. Very fond of or strongly attached to a per- 
son or thing. 2. With the expectation or desire strongly set upon 
anything futiu'e. 

Comp. Sw. bjertunge; Sw. D. hjtrU-kom, a term of endearment to one's diild, sweet- 
heart, wife ; Dan. D. bjertelUle, id. 

2. • " They were no ways beart-grown in the matter ;" not over sanguine of suc- 
cess.' Wb. GI. 

Heart-sick, adj. (pr. heart-seeak). Sad at heart, desponding, out of 
heart, wearied with ' hope deferred.' 

Heart-warm, adj. Of a kindly disposition; feeling, and .ready to 
shew, kindness. 

* Heart^warm, gotherly folk.' See Gotherly. 

Heart-whole, adj. (pr. heart-w'oll). i. Right-hearted, true, honest. 
2. Not hurt by Cupid's shafts ; not in love. 

I. * A decent, beart-wbole kind of a man.' Wb, GI, 

Heave, v. a. i. To poiu- com from the scuttle, or other bam utensil, 
so as to expose it to a current of wind, by way of partially winnow- 
ing it. 

Heave and throw. To retch and end by vomiting. 

Heave the hand. To give alms, to bestow charity : usually applied 
in an ironical sense, to a person, that is, who only gives in dribblets. 

* *' Ay, ay," it is said, " he has beaved bis band: he is a generous John." ' Wb, GI. 


Heave-up, v. n. To retch, to suffer the first symptoms of approach- 
ing vomiting. 

Hebble, sb. The wooden hand-rail of a plank-bridge. 

Hall, explains this word by ' a narrow, short plank bridge/ with a reference to Hallamsb, 
Gi. p. 113. In Clevel. the word bears the meaning given above. It is possibly a corrup- 
tion of a Scand. word formed from O. N. band and voir, a staff, pole. Comp. Dan. D. 
bdndvolt passing first into bandel or bannel, and then into bate!. Molb. D, Lex. Suppose 
the V changed in prov. Pr. into its cognate b, and bebble results as easily as b<uel. 

Heck, sb. i. A half-door or hatch-door. When a door is made to 
open in two parts, the upper half which fastens with a latch, is the 
Heck. The lower part fastens with a bolt or bolts, and is sometimes 
called Half-heok. 2. The inner door between the entry and the 
House-place or kitchen. 

A. S. bcBca, a hatch. This word and the word Heck, a rack, are, there is little doubt, 
offshoots of the same root, if not actually the same word. But I have thought it better, 
inasmuch as local usage unites ideas with them which are not very plainly connected, and as 
they appear to descend to us from two different sources, to give them as separate words, 
with each its specific origin. 

I. * Good wyff, open the bek. Seys thou not what I bryng? 

Uxor. I may thole the dray the snek. A, com in, my swetyng.' 

Toumel. My it. p. 106. 
a. ' Steck t' bech, bairn ;' latch or fasten the inner door. 

Heck, sb. A rack, to hold fodder for horse or cattle. See Stand- 
heck, Water-heck. 

O. N. bagi; O. Sw. bag; A. S. b<Bg, bege or bigge; Dan. bctk or b€ekke. The original 
meaning in most of these words is a fence or hedge made with boughs and sprays cut ^om 
trees, to serve as a retaining boundary to pasture-grounds. Then the words bage, bagi, 
came to mean the pasture-ground itself. The transition of idea from these two meanings 
to our word Heok, and the exactly synonymous Dan. bah or bakke, the wooden fence or 
enclosure which keeps in the provender of the cattle, is natural and easy. Hall, speaks 
of beck-door being * an inner door not closely panneled but only partly so, and the rest 
latticed.' If this were so generally, or had ever been so, it would tend to connect that 
word very closely with the word now under notice. 

* " Cleared out of beck and harbour ;" reduced to want of both food and shelter.' Wb. Gl. 

* To eat one out of beck and harbour ;' of a poor man's family with good appetites. 

' Thare provand, sir, forthi, I lay behynd thare ars. 
And tyes them fast by the nekes. 
With many stanys in thare bekes.* Toumel. Myst. p. 9. 

Heckling, sb. The receiving of a reprimand, a scolding. See 

Hedge-dike, sb. A fence consisting of a bank with a hedge on it. 

Hedge-dike-side, sb. The bank of the Hedge-dike which lies 
towards the water-channel side. 


Heeat. A mode of pronouncing Hot. From this, by a scmiewhat 
stronger aspiration of the A, the sound of ee being simply sharp or 
distinct, and not at all prolonged, the Pr. yat follows, as in yat yuno 
(for ufu or Hgn), hot oven. 

Heed, v. a. To be anxious or concerned, to mind (in that sense). 
Chiefly occurring in the expression never heed = don't concern your- 
self, never mind. 

Heeae, v. n. To breathe badly, making a wheezing or hoarse sound 
in doing so. See Hooae. 

Comp. Sw. D. bduja or basfot to breathe badly or with diiSctilty ; bisa, to wheeze, 
to whiz; N. bata, to pant, be short-winded; Ms, hoarse; Sw. bet^ id.; O.Sw, beser; 
O. N. bdt; A. S. biu; Geim. beisirt Sec. Cf. E. wbteze. For a converse mode of dealing 
with the initial w sound, compare Clevel. wheeze = ooze, w*oU = whole, "Wliota =^ oats. 
Sec. Comp. also Sw. D. bwdsot to breathe with difficulty ; as also, gvasa, and O. N. bvasa. 

Heeae, sb. A catarrhal disease incident to pigs, in which they 
breathe hard or wheeze much, cough, &c. 

Comp. O. N. bast ; Sw. D. besa, hoarseness. 

Heesy, adj. Audibly labouring tmder the effects of cold, hoarse; 
or, with animals, wheezing, breathing badly. Otherwise, Heasy. 

Heft, sb. I. A handle, as of a knife, &c. 2. A pretext or excuse: 
thence, pretence, dissimulation, deceit. See Whiteheft. 

A. S. baji, a haf^, handle ; Germ, beft, id. ; S. Jutl. beji^ id., also a knife-handle ; Dan. 
bafit, be/ie^ hilt of a sword, handle. Sw. and Sw. D. bdjki is to catch hold, hold fast, 
couple together ; O. Sw. bapta, bafta, to hold fast, to retain, whence bapta^ b€tpH^ bajt*, 
btefii^ a prison ; O. Oerm. btfijan^ to bind, to make fast ; O. N. befd^ a taking, the act of 
taking or holding captive, captivity. In all these words the idea of bolding — the vocables 
themselves being frequentatives of ba/va or bafwa^ to have — is fundamental ; whence the 
easy transition to our first meaning ; and thence, just as in E. bcmdU, to the second. 

Heft, v. a. I. To put a handle to, or fit with a handle. 2. In the 
passive, to be fitted with or become accustomed to. 3. To be, or get 
into trouble, difficulty, * a fix ;' perhaps as the consequence of a bad 
bargain. See Heft, sb. 

2. * She 's (a man's wife) nobbut a bad 'n. Ah doo'ts he 'U find hissel' sair beJUd 
wiv her.* 

With this comp. the instances given by Ihre, — b€Bfia for skidd, ere alieno teneri ; and, 
med sjukdom hebafiad, btfted wi' 'n ailment ; and, * b€ bafde ^d sd^lict <§nne strangru 
)>eo/rnan gebctftne, st wets genemned Barabbas:* he had then truly a strong (notorious, 
notable) thief imprisoned who was called Barabbas. 


Heigh-go-mad. An expression indicating indulgence in riotous or 
mad frolic on occasion of any festivity or merry-maUng, Wh, GL ; or a 
state of great excitement, from anger or other cause. 

• They went beyond all bounds ; they played the very bey-go-mad* Wb. Gl, 
HalL defines it rather as an adj. : * in great spirits ; highly enraged.' 

Cf. ' he made me dance, despite my head, 

among the thomes the bey-toiei;* 

corrected by Percy to bty-go^at, Loou and Hum, Songs, p. ao. 

Heigh-how, v. n. To yawn, as when weary. 

Heiiiy hine, adv. Hence, away: often used imperatively; be ofifl 

O.N. bSdan; Sw. bddan; Sw. D. bantu; Dan. beden; Dan. D. bennt; A. S. beonan; 
Alem. bina ; Dut. btn, benen ; hence. Comp. the use of the Dan. D. benne, which takes 
the force of a vb. and is inflected as one. Thus ; drengen bar btnn^i med sax ; the lad has 
made off — literally off-ed — with the scissors. 

' Welle is me that I shalle dre 
Tylle I have sene hym with mjm ee. 
And no longer bynt,* Townel. Myst, p. 156. 

The word very often occurs in the form betben : thus, — 

' Naked we come hider, and bare 
And pure, swa sal we betben fare.' Pr, o/Conse, 1. 508. 

• Fra beibin: lb, 1. 6007. 

' On wy[>er half water com doun )>e schore, 
No gladder gome be\>en in to Grece 
pen I, quen ho on brymme wore.' 

E, Eng, AUU. Poem$t A. 1. 230. 
away!" Be off.' Wb, Gl. 

« M 

Held, sb. Inclination, proclivity. See Hale. 
Helder, adv. Rather, preferably. 

O. N. belldr, potius ; S. G. baUa, balder, Comp. Sw. Ojist; Sw. D. btUast; O, Sw. <cf. 
last; N. bdlest, btlsl, elUst; all superl., as if from a lost comp. answering to belltbr or 

* Ah wad belder gan an' feght an stay an' be ta'en by t' pollis.' 

Helm, sb. A shed in the fields for the shelter of cattle when turned 
out; a hovel or hut. 

O. N. bfalmr, I. A covering, envelope : a. A helmet : 3. Any vaulted or quasi-vaulted 
over-cover ; as, sdlar bjalmrt the sun's helm, i. e. the heavens or sky ; O. S. bialmir, bial- 
mer, balm, a helmet ; A. S., O. Germ., O. Sax., Fris., Dut., N. Sax. belm, a hehnet ; Dan. 
bjHm, a helmet, a moveable roof on stoups or posts, to keep com, &c. dry ; Sw. D. bjelm, 
an envelope, the seed-husk of oats, a detached shelter or roof under which com or hay may 
be kept dry. In the last two cases a very near approximation to our meaning presents 



Holier, sb. A halter. 

* } btUer' Pr. Fitub. ocxcix. 

Hemmel, sb. A hand-rail, such as is usually fitted on one side or 
both of a planked or wooden bridge. 

Dan. bammtl; Sw. D. bammiit a piece of wood fastened by means of a bolt transTerse!/ 
across the waggon pole, to the ends of which are attached the swingle-trees by which the 
horses drag the waggon (Molb.) ; O. N. bamla^ a pole or small beam ; N. bamnul, id. 

Hempy, adj. Mischievous, of a character likely to bring the pos- 
sessor under the penalties of the law. 

'"A bempy dog;" a youth disposed to practices which may end in the hangman's 
hemp.* Wb, Gl. 

Henbaulcs, sb. A hen-roost 

Comp. Sw. D. btma^ytlke, the uppermost cross-beam which holds together the span of 
the framework of a roof; deriving Uie name from the circumstance that the fowls com- 
monly fly up and roost upon it at night (Rietz) : also banct-baJke ; N. Sax. barubaUten. 

Henbird, sb. The domestic fowl. 

* Where t' partridges rase, Ah heered a cheeping lik' a young benbird;' a cry like that of 
a young chicken : — which it was, in fact, the hen partridge having by some chance sat on 
and hatched the egg of a common fowL 

Henpen, sb. The manure made by fowls, as removed from the 

Hen-scrats, hen-Borattmgs, sb. Small streaky clouds of the cirrus 
form, kno\Mi by other names, as Filly-tails, but deriving this name 
from some resemblance to the marks in dust or light soil left by a 
scratching fowl. 

Heron-sew, hem-sew, sb. The common heron (Ardea dnered). 
Incorrectly written herring-sew or -sue, and that spelling ignorantly 
supported on the utterly mistaken ground that the bird ' pursues the 
herrings,' which as a wader it cannot do. 

* Fr. beroneeau, a young heron, gives E. btronsbaw* Wedgw. 

), sb. A clasp or fastening, especially to doors or windows : the 
button which turns on a central pivot and so clasps or fastens a window, 
&c., is specially indicated. 

A. S. b<BpSt a latch, clasp, bolt or lock of a door ; Sw. baspa or baspt, a latch or hasp ; 
Dan. basp or baspe, a latch or bolt on a door ; O. N. bespa ; S. Jutl. btspe^ id. A further 
meaning in most of these latter words is a reel to wind yam, &c., upon. 

Hezzel, hezz'lin'. Mode of Pr. of Hazel, Hazeling. 


U sb. Offence taken, usually implying petulance rather than 
serious indignation; the feeling of petulant or half-passionate dissatis- 
faction, and its manifestation. See Pet. 

Cr, Ol. gives big^ I. A passion, a violent commotion of the mind: a. A temporary 
hurricane ; meanings which serve to connect the word more directly with Sw. D. higa^ Xo 
covet greatly or intensely, to strive to obtain vehemently; N. bilta; Dan. bige; Dut. 
hijgm ; A. S. bigan^ contendere. Quxre is Dan. D. beg^ a person whom no one can endure, 

• They took the big at it.' Wb, GL 

HJghty, highty-horse, sb. A childish appellation for a horse. 

* Cotgr. explains tstrt en ses goguis, to be frolic, lusty, all a-boit^ in a merry mood. // 
€si a ebival, he is set on cock-horse, he is all O'boigbi* Wedgw. 

High-up, adj. Belonging to the nobility and gentry of the country ; 
of rank or position. See Quality. 

• "Who's your new landlord?" " Wheeah, he's some desput bigb-up chap, a lord, or 
mebbe a duke, or such as that." ' 

Highway-master, sb. The surveyor of highways. 

Hind, sb. An agricultural servant, hired by the year or term, having 
a house rent-free in part remuneration and expected to find other labour 
besides his own — his wife's, or grown-up daughter's, possibly — at cer- 
tain seasons of the year. In some instances, if not all, the Hind has 
some of the responsibility of the Bailiff, but works with his own hands, 
which the Bailiff does not, or at least need not. 

Hing, V. n. To hang. Simply a mode, and an ancient one, of Pr. 
Conversely, a is sometimes found in the place of /, as stang= sting. 

* He says, what es man in shap bot a tre 
Turned up )>at es doun. als men may se. 
Of whilk )>e rotes )>at of it springes, 
Er J>c hares J>at on J>e heved bynges* Pr, of Conse. 1. 67 a. 

Hing-by, sb. A hanger on, a toady or sycophant. 

Hing for rain, To. A phrase applied to the general appearance of 
the clouds and atmosphere when rain is evidently approaching. 

* Ah aimed it wad be wet : it 's bin bingingfor ratm ivvtr sen sunrise.' 

Hinging-mind, sb. An inclination, a strong disposition to do this 
or that. 

Hipe, v. a. i. To push or strike with the horns as cattle do. 2. To 
censiu-e, assail with insinuations or accusations ; to attack in reputation 
or character. 

Both Brock, and Leeds GL make bipe, * to rip or gore with the horns ;' Wb. GL., simply 
to * butt or strike with the horn,' which is probably the more correct explanation of the 

l1 2 


two. Riets giTet bypa, to strike, inflict a blow, and hj^, a heary blow or stroke. S^ 
also, and Dan. bypp* as well, sig^nify to pat the earth up against growing potatoes — * earth 
them up' — or other crops that require such aid or protection. It is curious if the 
Northumbr. dialects have presenred this word (otherwise lostX in its sense of striking, in 
common with the Sw. dialects. Riets quotes no correbtire word besides Dan. hgfpi just 

I. * Som gas tatird als tatird foles. 

Some gase wr3mchand to and fra. 

And some gas bypand als a ka.' Pr, of Cbnsr. L 1537. 

a. ' Tliey are always biping yan at anither.' Wh. 01. 

Hipe, hype, v. n. To make mouths, as in ' grmning througii a 
horse-collar ;' to make ridiculous gestures as well as faces. 

Probably nearly connected with Sw. D. bipa, to gape, to make open mouths in wonder 
or amazement ; biip, to draw one's breath hard in astonishment over anjrthing. See also 
O. N. gHpt absurdity, spoken or acted, which would appear through gdipr, hians, apotiis. 
to connect itself with Sw. D. bipa and our hii>e. 

Hiper, hyper, sb. A mimic, or one qualified to contend in grirnaring 

or making faces, &c. 

• A rare byper.* Wb, OL 

Hippen-ho'd, hipping-hold, sb. A place where gossip is wont to 
be held, a loitering-place, a comer where folks are apt to lounge and 


I connect this with O. N. g^pa, effutire, to chatter, to talk fast and vainly ; gd^, spoken 
vanities, or nonsense, chatter. See Hipe ; also comp. N. bipen^ eager or gr^dy, curiom, 
the Dan. being nys-gjirrig^ literally fuws-craving — a highly appropriate qualificatioa of a 
gossip, or gossiping-place. 

Hippings, sb. Napkins (for infants). 

Jam. gives this word as ' Hippen^ a kind of towel used for wrapping about the lnp$ of an 
infant,' which would be a much more satisfactory explanation if folks in N. Eng. and ScotL 
were more in the habit of using the word bip rather than buhi or bucklt. Still Hall, gives 
* bippany, a wrapper for the hips of an infant. East* 

Hippie, sb. A small hay-cock, or rather a small heap of half-made 
hay, the drj'ing process being not as yet quite completed. 

Sw. D. bypa, a small heap of hay or clover ; and as a vb. the same word means to set 
clover in such heaps. It is a derivative or diminutive from bop, a heap. Grimm suggests 
the former existence of the strong verb biupan, bdup, bupun, congerere, tumere. Riets, 
p. 261. 

Hiring-penny, sb. A piece of money, usually a half-crown, given 
as earnest-money, on concluding a hiring-engagement, by the master to 
his future servant, and which establishes the bargain. See Aries, Fest- 
ing-penny, Gtod's-penny, &c. 

Hirings, sb. A statute fair, at which agricultiu-al servants of both 


sexes are engaged for the term, or the year. A fruitful source of rustic 

Hirple, v. n. i. To shrug or stick up the back as an animal does 
in inclement weather, when standing under a hedge in an open field, in 
the vain hope of finding shelter. 2. To be dull and inactive from the 
effects of severe cold, or illness. Hence the meaning to creep, to go 
slowly as if lame. Written also Hiirple, Herple, Hurkle, Hurtle. 

One can hardly help suspecting a confusion of two words here, one in p and one in k, 
although it is certain that in some cases, as where articulation is imperfect (as in young 
diildren) or defective (as in some adults), /, k^ and p are in a certain sense interchangeable ; 
and a like interchange may arise out of careless or provincial peculiarities of pronunciation. 
Wedgw. refers bttrkU, as well as burcb (to cuddle), to bug or buggle, £. equivalents to Dut. 
buck^ in buck'Scbouderen, to shrug the shoulders, bueken, to crouch, Sw. buka sig, sUta buka, 
Dan. sitte paa bug ; assuming * the introduction of an r (always useful in the expression of 
shivering).' In this connection comp. Sw. D. ibirra, to shiver or shudder, whether with cold 
or sudden fnght, to which the Dan. D. bum corresponds ; bimingf shivering or shuddering, 
and birrug^ which implies tottering, stumbling, as well as bewildered or frightened, and 
io, liable to shiver or shudder. Leeds Gl, gives * burkle, to contract the body and become 
motionless ; burple^ to shrug up the neck and creep along the streets with a shivering sen- 
sation of cold, as an ill-clad person may do on a winter's morning ; as, '* goas burpling 
about fit to give a body t' dithen to luke at him." ' 

Hirsel, hirsle, v. n. (pr. hossle). To move about resdessly, to 

Jam. gives a different explanation of this word. Ruddiman's is ' to move or slide down, 
or forward, with a rustling noise, as of things rolled on ice, or on rough ground.' Sibbald's, 
more approved by Jam., * to move oneself in a sitting or Ijring posture ; to move without 
the common use of the limbs.' * It seems properly,' adds Jam., to denote that motion 
which one makes backwards and forwards on his hams. Thus we say that one binills 
down a bill when, instead of attempting to walk or run down, he moves downward sitting.' 
In Clevel. the word is applied to cattle quite as frequently as to human beings, and expresses 
a general sense of uneasy restlessness. Hall, gives birsel, to move about, to fidget. North, ; 
and burde^ to shrug the shoulders. Cumb. It scarcely seems to me that either Ruddiman't 
A. S. byrstany murmurare, brisdan^ crepere, or Jamieson's * Teut. aerselen^ Belg. aarzelen, 
retrogredi, quasi culum versus ire, from aers, podex,' have any real bearing on the word. 
Definitions are sometimes framed, at least turned, to meet a derivation, a slight suspicion 
of which may arise on reading both those given above. To me the word wears the appear- 
ance of a frequentative, with an analogy to josde (from jousts to push: Wedgw.); and I 
would much more willingly refer it to dialect-corruption of a word like tbrust than to either 
of the sources suggested in Jam. 

Hiss, V. n. To express discontent venomously ; to be cantankerous. 
See Siss. 

* T' au'd chap sissed and gruffed mair an a lahtle at t' parish tak'ing 's pay off;' reducing 
or withdrawing his allowance from the poor-rate. 

His-ser, his-sen, pr. Himself. 

* his haife brother dwelt there, was feirce and fell, 
noe better but a shepard to the Bishoppe bimr'M* 

Percy's Foi, MS. i. 510. 


Hitoh, V. n. To move a short distance in any direction ; to hop. 

* Hiicb, motion by a jerk. Swiss gthotxdt $*yn^ laughing till one shakes ; BaT. ^mUm&m, 
to rock, to hitch oneself along like children on their rumps ; Du. InUaen^ but^dtn^ to shake, 
to jumble ; Fr. boeber^ to shake ; Swiss boUcbtn, to hiccup ; boseben, to knock ; boUtrm^ 
botztn, botzim, to shake, jog, jolt.' Wedgw. 

Hitoh, Jamie ; hitoh, Jamie, Btride and loup. The boyish j^y 
or exercise of ' Hop, step and jump.' 

Hither-go-there (used substantively). A digression, wandering 
from the subject in hand. 

* He's a dree au'd chap to talk wiv ; his discoone 's amaist nobbut bitber'gO'AemJ 

Hoast, sb. A cough. See Heese, HooBe. 

Hdsti, tassis (Hald.) ; at b6iia^ to cough ; Dan. botU; A. S. bweoti; Dat. boitte, a con^ 
Pr. Pm. bosi, borti, 

Hoaving, hoavish, adj. Stupid, silly, clownish. See Hauvin^, 
Awfish, Oaving, &c. 

Hob. The appellation of a spirit, or being of elf-nature, who must 
once have occupied a prominent place in the belief or popular faith of 
the people of the district. 

Probably, like the nisses of popular faith in Denmark, there were many Hobs, each 
with a * local habitation and a' local * name.' Thus there is a Hob Hole at Runswick* a 
Hob Hole near Kempswithen, a Hob's Cave at Mulgrave, Hobt'rush Rook on the Fam- 
dale Moors, and so on. Obtnish Rook, as well as Hob Hole and the Cave at MulgraTe, 
is distinctly said to have been * haunted by the goblin,' who being * a familiar and trouble* 
some visitor to one of the farmers, and causing him much vexation and loss, he resolved 
to quit his house in Famdale and seek some other home. Very early in the morning, as 
he was trudging on his way with all his household goods and gods in a cart, he was accosted 
by a neighbour with ** I see you are flitting." — The reply came from Hob out of the dmm, 
** Ay, we 's flitting." — On which the farmer, concluding that the change would not rid him 
of his visitor, turns his horse's head homewards. The story is in substance the same as 
that told on the Scottish border and in Scandinavia.' Phillips' Yorkshire, p. 210. I give 
also Professor Worsaae's version of the legend as current in Denmark : — * Once when I was 
in North England the conversation turned on the mischievous tricks of the Nisse, and I 
went on to relate our Northern legend of a Bonder who was teased and worried in all kinds 
of ways by a Nisse. At last he could stand it no longer, and he determined to quit hit 
farm and go and take another somewhere else. When he had brought almost all his goods 
away to his new farm, and was driving along with the last load, he chanced to turn round, 
and what should he see as he did so ? Who but the Nisse himself, with his red cap on, sit- 
ting quietly on the top of the load 1 Says the goblin to him quite confidentially, '* Aye, 
we 's flitting" {Nu flytte vt). One of the persons present then stated that in his youth he 
had repeatedly heard the legend, almost word for word, told in Lancashire.' Minder om 
de Dansie, Sec, p. 123. Hob of the Cave at Runswick was famous for curing children of 
the Kink-oough, when thus invoked by those who took them to his abode : 

* Hob>hole Hob ! Mah bairn 's getten t' kin'-cough : 
Tak' 't off! Tak' 't off !' 


Hob at Hart Hall, in Glaisdale, was, as the legend bears, a farm-spirit ' of all work,' thrash- 
ing, winnowing, stamping the bigg, leading, &c. Like the rest of the tribe who ever 
came under mortal eye, he was without clothes — nak't — and having had a Harding- 
Bmook made and placed for him, after a few moments of — it would seem, ill-pleased — 
inspection, he was heard to say, — 

' Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin* hamp, 
He '11 come nae mair nowther to berry nor stamp.' 

I look upon the usual derivation of Hob as mistaken, if not absurd. ' Hoht bob-eluneb, 
a country clown. Hal. A bob , or clown, piedgris. Sherwood. Hob-goblin, a clownish 
goblin, a goblin who does laborious work, where the first syllable is commonly taken as the 
short for Halbert or Robert.* No doubt Hobble^ Hob, is the short for Halbert ; but has it 
actually and popularly been the short for Robert ? It seems much more likely that just as 
Oberon comes through the intermediate form Auberon^ from Alberon (Grimm's D, M, 
p. 421), so Hob^'Ob comes through aub (comp. Clevel. Awf), from alb^tlf. See Hob- 

Hobble, V. n. i. To move with difficulty from having the feet or 
legs entangled or tied, or from lameness. 2. To move as a hare or 
rabbit does, when undisturbed, with desultory hopping movements, and 
almost as if with its hindlegs tied together. 

See Hampered, Hopple, and comp. Sw. D. boppe^ a hare. ' The idea of insufficient, 
impeded action,' says Wedgw., * is commonly expressed by the figure of imperfect or im- 
peded speech We have Sc. babble, babber, to stutter, to speak or act confusedly ; 

to babble a lesson, to say it imperfectly ; Du. bobbelen, to jolt, to rock, to stanmier ; Sc. 
bobble, to cobble shoes, to mend them in a bungling manner ; PI. D. bumpeln^ to limp, to 
bungle ; Sw. bappla, to stammer ; Eng. bopple, to move weakly and unsteadily. Then, in 
a factitive sense, to bobble or bopple a horse, to hamper its movements by tying its legs 
together.* Still, note £. bammel, bamble, Sw. D. bammla, to lame by ham-stringing, or 
some like cruel process ; thence simply to render lame, or able to move only in a hobbling 
kind of manner. 

Hobble, sb. A condition of trouble, perplexity or distress, from 
which extrication may not be very easy or practicable. 
Comp. Hampered, and see vb. Hobble. 

Hobtrush, a word occurring in the designations Hobtrush or Ob- 
trush Rook (a tumulus on the Farndale Moors), and Hobtrush Hob, a 
being once held to frequent a certain cave in the Mulgrave Woods, and 
wont to be addressed, and to reply, as follows : — 

* " Hob-trush Hob ! Where is thou ?" 
" Ah 's tying on mah left-fuit shoe ; 
An' Ah '11 be wiv thee— Noo !'" 

* Hobthrust,* says Brock., ' is a local spirit, famous for whimsical pranks. In some farm- 
houses a cock and bacon are broiled on Fassen's Eve, and if any person neglect to eat 
heartily of this food, Hobthrust is sure to amuse himself at night by cramming him up to the 
mouth with bigg-cbaff. According to Grose he is supposed to haunt woods only : Hob o* /* 
burst.* Certainly, it is not impossible that Hob-thruiBli, as well as Hob-thrust, may be a 
corruption of this assumed Hob o* t* burst — for I suspect cousinship between it and the 
various derivations, glanced at below, which used to be suggested for Howdie — but I scarcely 


Me it likdy. HdL quotes the foUowing :— ^ If he be no bch-An u k nor no Robin Good- 
fellow, I could finde with til my heart to tip a tilljrbiib with him.' TVpd Lmme. Ltmm % 
1640; from which it tppean that two hnndred jean ago the fonn HbbAnuh prevailed 
as it, or Obtnub, ftill does here. Grimm, who teems to have been acquainted with the 
form Hobdmrsi, or Grose's form with the marks of elision omitted, hastrds a tiiin i ise — 
one, howerer, which might have been advanced more decidedly had he known the fonns 
HobArusb, Hobtnab, Obtnisb — that it may be connected with O. N. ^kts, a being not 
essentially distinct from the Sctnd. giant. This it, at least, more probaUe than gSomTs 
etymology. Hobtrutb is, doubtless, Uie more special Yorkshire form of HobAnah. Comp. 
our Ainihmp, Ainfrup for Ainthorpe, trone for ihrona» &c. I concdTe the JM 
to be equivalent to Gothic alb, awf, O. N. dffr, Eng. ilf (see Hob) ; and, as to the entire 
word Hobtliruah or Hobtmiih, there is a suggestive similarity in fonn and toond 
between it and olptmirutseb, dpnUrbiub, aJhtrdntStt and the like; and certainly there 
u no startling incongruity in the sense thus suggested ; for it is dbit^, E. thuht CkveL 
awviah, with the limitation in our case to its primary meaning — of or belonging to an 
elf, or the elves. Perhaps, thus, ObtruBh Book — as meaning, L e., elvish or tArt piled- 
up heap — finds more in the way of elucidation than by supposing Grimm's ^ta^ bal^tecd 
giant, or ogre. 

Ho'd, V. a. I. To retain, keep, or keep back ; of a cow which refuses 
to yield her milk ; or in reference to her connection with the bull. 2. To 
contest or resist strongly so as to hold the competitor or co-struggler to 
a continuance of strong effort. 3. To wager. 

I. * T' au'd roan coo bo*ds her milk. We 11 hev to quit 'r ;' part with her. 

a. * She 's been te t* buU, bud Ah quesshun ef she bo*d$: Sometimes, ' bo'dt t' bnlL' 

3. * Ah 's bo'd thee a crown on 't.* See Upho'd, and comp. VlmdL 

He'd, sb. I. Grasp, possession. 2. Tenure, holding. 

1 . • " He Ml ho'd his bo'd;" keep what he has got.* Wb. 01. 

2. * ** He has his land under a good bo*d;** a good tenure, or, in other words, he has 
good bndlord.* lb. 

He'd fJEtir, V. a. To remain or continue fair weather. 

' Better weather now ; but Ah quesshun an it 11 bo*d/air while neeght.' 

He'd oflf, V. n. To keep off, not to befal; of something probably 
impending, as a fall of rain, a change of weather, a fit of illness or pain. 

He'd on, V. a. To hold fast, hold tight, without relaxing either ten- 
sion or firmness of grasp. 

Ho'd slack, v. a. i. To relax the pressure or tension of one's grasp 
especially the latter, as in pulling or holding on to a rope. 2. To relax 
for a time in attention to business or closeness of application. 

a. * '* We're bo*dding slack a bit;" gossiping awhile, holding talk when there is nothing 
else to do.* Wb. Gl. 

He'd talk, V. n. To chat, converse readily, gossip. 

* A good hand at bo'dding talk.* Wb, Gl. 


>'d-talk, used as a sb. Chat, gossip, commonplace talk. 

We 're )uit having a bit o' bo*d-talk: Wb. Gl, 

)'d up, V. n. To remain up and about, antithetical to giving way 
to weakness or indisposition, and lying down, or going to bed- 

* Match'd t* bo*d up ;* scarcely able, with all effort, to bear up against weakness or 

Hofe, sb. (pr. heeaf). i. A residence or abode; a person's home 
for the time being. And thence, 2. A haunt, the place where a person 
or creature may usually be met with. Written ' howfF' by Sir W. Scott 
in Giiy Mannering and Heart of Mid-Lothian, 

Cf. O. N., S. G., A. S. hof^ a dwelling, den, &c. Comp. Low. G. hof, hovt^ a farm- 
stead ; Dan., Sw., Germ, hof; Sw. D. hovt. The O. N. word seems first to have denoted 
the holy house or temple, and then to have been transferred to the residence of the local 
magnate ; after which it came to denote simply a residence or abode, a house, a farmstead ; 
and similarly, in the other tongues or dialects noted, there is a gradation of sense between 
the court, of a prince or nobleman namely, and a house or residence in the country. 

1 . * " A man's own betaf;** own home.* Wb. Gl. 

2, • Nat at yamm? then mebbe he'll be at Willy N.'s. That's a noted baa/o* hisn.* 

Hofe, V. a. and n. i. To abide, lodge, or live. 2. To cause to live 
or abide ; in a place, house, home, &c. 

I. • ** Where do you beeaf^xV* where do you lodge or live?' Wb. Gl. 

* Deeavid ha' left t* au'd spot, an' hes beeafd wiv yoong John Garbutt at t' Grains sen 
Marti'mas ;' of a farm-servant who has taken service in a new place. 

a. • Ay : Guinea-fowls is desper't* bad to beeaf;* in reference to their unwillingness to 
forsake the old home and adopt a new one, if the owner chances to ' Hit.' 

Hoffle, v. n. To shuffle along with slow and impeded gait, whether 
from lameness or infirmity. Probably coincident with Hobble or 

HofEb, sb. Hoofs or hooves ; not infrequently applied, especially by 
a cleanly housewife on the entrance of muddy boots into her clean 
room, to human feet. 

* •• Clarted boffs ;" feet dirty with walking.' Wb. Gl. 

Hog, sb. A male of the pig kind. 

* Bret, boc'bt bouc'b, swine, from bouc^ba^ to grunt. So Lap. snorkeset, to grunt ; morke, 
a pig ; Fin. naskia^ to make a noise like pigs in eating (G. scbmatzen) ; naski, a call for 
pigs, a pig.' Wcdgw. It is, perhaps, not irrelevant to remark in reference to the * call 
for pigs' just noted, that the invariable call or summons in Clevel. to the pigs (while as yet 
suffered to ramble about in the day-time) to come to their food at nightfall is ' Jack, Jack/ 
many times repeated in a high-pitched and sustained note. 

M m 


Hogy sb. A sheep of a year old. 

* A one-year old theep. Norm. Fr. bog^itz.' Brodc. * From six months old tiO being 
first shorn : some say from a lamb ; others, a sheep of a year old.' HaD. * Qu, A. S. bogmi, 
to take care of; because, on account of their tender age, greater care is required to rear 
them.' Cr. Gl. Comp. Wedgw. * Hog, Hoggel, Hoggrd, Hogget^ Hf^gaxUr, A 7<Hiiig 
sheep of the second year. Devonsh. bog-eolt, a yearling colt. Dut. boUkding, a bcifier, 
a beast of one year old. From being fSed in the bok^ or pen. HotuMfok, a dog-kemtd : 
Scbaapen-hok, a sheep-cote.' The sheep called bogs are, however, not fed in pens, neither 
is there any special care lavished upon them. I suspect that the last of the forms quoted 
by Wedgw. ---boggasler — affords a clue to the derivation of the word. A. S. bAg*1tald 
implies a bachelor, a virgin, novice, ccelebs, tyro ; O. Germ, beigasialt^ bagustalt, id. ; Dot. 
bagestoU ; Sw. D. and N. bogstaU, a widower. Bosw. collates also O. N. bagsUBdr, tem- 
peratus, although the word would seem to be due to a different origiiial. Bat m all 
the other words the idea seems to be that of continence, whether firom being yet singllie, 
or having become a widower. So, it is at least conceivable, that Hog simply implies mat 
the animal so called is yet virgin. It may be a matter for enquiry, is not the sense of con- 
tinence, or restraint, involved in the prefix of the words quoted above; A.S. b^f, a fence; 
M. Germ, bae, bege; N. baga; Sw. D. &a^, &c.7 Also, may there not be a connection 
between this word and Ihre's bogd^ which he seeks to derive from a corruption of 

Hoidle, V. n. To play instead of working ; to lose time, or waste 
time carelessly or wantonly. Possibly a corruption of * idle.' 

Hoity V. n. To play the fool, and with a sort of implication of osten- 
tatiously. To engage in some evident absurdity. 

* Germ. Heyda I beysa I exclaniaticns of high spirits, active enjoyment. Hence E. bey" 
day, the vigour and high spirits of youth ... In the same way Sw. bojta, to shout, explains 
£. boU, to indulge in riotous and noisy mirth : to bite up and doum, to run idle aboat the 
country. — Hall.* Wedgw. The Sw. D. bojta, byyt, boja, boa, signifies to shout to cattle in 
order to collect them ; to cry shrilly, as in a forest, by way of signal, or for help, and 
the like. 

Hoit, sb. A simpleton, a fool. Leeds GL says the word is more fire- 
quently applied to females and implies awkwardness as well as silliness. 
Scarcely so in Cleveland. 

Hold, V. a. To occupy, find occupation for, lay an abiding claim or 
detainer on. 

* A job at '11 bold him mair an yah year, or tweea owther.' 

* He '11 niwer cast it. 'T '11 bo*d him fur as lang as he lives.* 

Hold, V. n. (pr. hd'd). To last, to continue : in reference to the 

* Ay, it *s faired oop noo, but Ah question if it *l bo'd* 

Holding-ewes, holding-stock, (pr. ho'dding-yows, -stock). Ewes 
or stock intended to be kept on through the winter by the farmer or 
owner, as part of the permanent stock of the farm. 


Holl, V. a. (chiefly used in pass, pcpl.) i. To make hollow; to 
cause to pine by starvation. 2. To make lean or emaciated; thence 
hoUedy as in the example, puny, without growth or the power of it. 

O.N. bdla, to make hollow, hollow out; O. Sw. bola; Dan. bule; Sw. bala; Germ. 

a. • " A lahtle bolVd thing ;" a pony child.' Wb, GL 

HoU, adj. I. Hollow. 2. Deep, in the same sense in which the 
'depth of winter' is spoken of, and in that sense used to qualify 
the word * time.' 

O.N. bolr, hollowed, empty; N. bol; Sw. D. M/, hollowed out, concave, deep; A. S. 
bol; O. Genn. boi; Germ. bobl. Comp. Sw. D.^bdl-skog, a brge, deep forest. 

I. * Dere brother, I wille fa3rrc 

On feld ther our bestes ar, 
To look if thay be bolgb or fuUe.' Toumel. Myst. p. 15. 

a. • «• The boll time of night ;" the dead hour of the night.* Wb. Gl, 

HoU, sb. I. A deep narrow depression in the surface of the land or 
place, of no great longitudinal extent. See Howl or Hoiil. 2. The 
depth of winter ; sometimes applied also to what is called the * dead time 
of night.' 

0. N. bola; O. Sw. bol; Dan. bul; Sw. bSl. Dan. bul, in one of its senses, takes much 
the same meaning as our HoU or Houl* namely a hollow on the earth's surface ; and I 
have a note of O. N. boll, in connection with the word ndttf night, but the reference 
omitted, which would answer exactly to our HoU of the night. Under ' Howl, a hollow 
or low place,' Brock, quotes the saying, — * Wherever there 's a hill, there 's sure to be a 
howl ;' and then he adds * Howl-kiu, a vulgar name for the belly ;' which is scarcely true, 
for O. N. and O. Sw. bol is specially applied to * venter, vel pars corporis cava :' the O. N. 
distinguishing between the upper and lower cavities, or those of the breast and the bowels. 

1. In local names, frequent: e. g., Houlsyke, otherwise spelt Howlsyhe, Holdsykt; Howl' 
dikt; both in Danby parish. 

a. • " The boll of winter ;" the depth of winter.' Wb, Gl, 

Hollin, sb. The holly (Ilex aquifolium). In the pi., HollinSy 

A. S. bolegn ; O. E. bolyn, boUen ; W. cdyn, 

' In his on honde he hade a bolyn bobbe, 
pat is grattest in grene, when greue3 ar bare.' 

Sir Gaw, and Gr. Kn. 1. ao6. 

Holm, sb. Low-lying land by the side of a stream, which in time of 
flood may become more or less insular, and which at an earlier time 
may have been completely so, former channels or hollows having been 
filled up by alluvial matters. 

O. N. biilmi, bolmr, a small island ; N. bolm, bolme^ id. ; also a spot distinguished from 
the surrounding land, as a bit of grass among com, or vice vena ; a little unmown meadow ; 
Sw. D. i&<tfintf; Dan. D. bolm, id.: also, in S. Jutl., any rather more elevated plot in a 

M m 2 


meadow ; A. S. and N. S. ht'dm^ a tnull ifUnd, especially in a rifcr ; ako a onaA elevatioa; 
^ or quasi flat hill ; O. Sw. bolmber^ bolmt, a tmall island, a place or spot fenced off from tfM 

adjacent lands. We have several local names now ending in boim, tmt ntterij widKmt ooo> 
nection with the present word : e. g., Moorsbolm^ the Domesday orthography of wfaidi is 
Morebutum, which is simply the dat. pi ofMorebut; LsaJhoim^ which the Whitbj GkMsaikt 
refers to leal, little, and bolm — assuming mistakenly, that the latter means brooi — but whidi 
in Domesday sUnds as Laclum, Lelum, Again. Newbolm near Whitby is Nnubtum in llie 
same record. It is sometimes difficult to say what the Domesday q)eUing really points to, 
and perhaps Laclum^ Lelum is a case in point. I do not, faoweTcr, think that boltm is dis- 
guised under the final syllable, whether that be lum or urn. The word Holm or TTAIwm 
is common enough as designating some particular piece of Uod near the Beok* on moct 
(arms than one in the district. See note to Holm in Pr. Pm. 

Holy-bisen, sb. (pr. holy- or hooftly-bahz'n). A tawdrily- or absurdly, 
dressed figure, only fit to be a spectacle to wondering beholders. A 
reference, probably, to the tawdry, tasteless bedizenment of images of 
saints, &c., stiU extant in Popish countries and districts. See Biaen. 

Holy-danoe, sb. The extravagances and evidences of excitement 
manifested, perhaps aimed at, by one or more religious sects at their 
public services, have caused this name to be given to their proceedings. 

Holy-stone, sb. (pr. hooily-steean). A stone with a natural perfora- 
tion in it, supposed to have peculiar virtues in propitiating luck, and 
efficacy as against witch-power and mischief. Suspended by a string 
from the bed-tester, or attached to the key of the house-door for the 
safety of the inmates ; hung above the Standing of the cow, or over 
the stall of a horse, especially one that is found to sweat much at night, 
for the several security of those animals, — it was, even is yet, imagined 
to set the witch's malice at nought. 

Comp. the following, Wiir. og Wird. p. 257: — 'Upon the border-lands between East 
Gothland and Ncrike, the people still continue the practice of hanging round a child's neck 
small stones of smooth trap which are marked either by water-wora indentations or holes 
through. Thcie are called Alt-stones, because they are held to be remedial against the 
child's ailment so called (a kind of intermittent), which is supposed to be caused by 
the Elves. In this very ancient popular custom, as also in the Scanian practice of hangiiig 
upon the necks of children the so-called Gommona-stenar (Gommon's-stones ; from Gomo- 
den, or Kommoden, a local name for Thor), which correspond exactly with the GfAomda- 
stenar or Gofar-stenar of Wiircnd, we find not only an analogous usage, but also a simple 
but clear illu^tration of the practice of wearing mere stones as amulets upon the breast or 
hung from the neck. For these Gobonden's or Gofar's stones are simply small white stones 
which, when the lightning has struck any spot, are sometimes found upon the land there : 
they are perfectly smooth, and about the size of the yolk of an egg. They are beneficial ip 
many ways: — thus, Laid in the sylc, or milk-strainer, they are a certain preventative 
against the milk being spoilt or in any way damaged by the witch {Trollbackan)* Thor, 
alias Gofar, Gobondcn, Gomodcn or Kommoden, in the old mythology was the dreaded 
enemy of all the Troll-kind — the progenitors as well as predecessors of the more modem 
witch ; and when he — the Thunderer — used his heavenly artillery they fled in utter dismay. 
Hence the efficacy of these stones : the witch recoils in fear and impotence before Thor's 


Home-come, home-coming, sb. i. The arrival of a person at his 
home after an absence, whether for the day's work or longer. 2. The 
time of such arrival. 2. The reception or treatment at such arrival. 

Comp. O. N. beim-ioma, O. Sw. bemkoma, return home, or Hoxne-coxne ; Dan. bjem- 
kommefit having returned home ; Sw. bemkomst^ home-coming. 

* Hwen he beoS ute ; hauest ajain his bam-citme sar care t eie.' Halt Meid. p. 31. 

a. * He '11 be here about bome^ome* 

3. * I shall have a bonny bome-commg about it with my wife, depend upon it.' IVb. Gl. 

Honey. A term of endearment, more fondling than * dear.' Often 
used as a prefix, as in Honey-bairn. Often used also by the aged in 
addressing those they feel both respect and regard for : a kindly clergy- 
man or lady-visitor often gets the appellative Honey, and even Bairn. 

* ffarewell my bony^ farwell my sweete.' Percy's Fo/ib MS. i. p. 151. 

Honey-fall, sb. A wind-fall of a more than ordinarily pleasant kind ; 
a piece of great and very acceptable good luck. 

'"They have had a brave boney-fall lately;" a great deal of property bequeathed.* 
Wb. Gl. 

Hood-end, sb. The flat surface, or hob, at either end of the fire- 
grate, on which the kettle, &c., is customarily set. 

Or. Gl. gives * bood^ the place behind the fire : bood-end, comers near the fire, either of 
stone or iron.' I surmise that in older days the sort of enclosure made near the fire 
involved a kind of arched coverinf, which originated the name Hood. Sm NeuUn. 
Jam. quotes ' ** O. £. Hood^ the back of the fire, North." Grose. O. £. budde must cer- 
tainly be viewed as originally the same, though used in an oblique sense, as denoting what 
covers the fire during night.' 

Hooze, V. n. To wheeze or breathe with difficulty and noise. See 
Heeze, which is coincident. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. * Hoose, or cowghe (host, or boost).* 

Hop. A word of command, formerly in use by the drivers of oxen, 
and answering to the old word Bee, or the more modem Gee, as used 
in driving horses ; i. e. directing them to turn to the right or from the 
driver. Sometimes Hop-off. 

Molb. gives bop^ an exclamation employed either to cause any one to move briskly, or to 
stimulate a horse ; and byp, the word of command employed to cause a horse to go forward. 
In his Dial. Lexicon^ however, bop dig is given as the word employed (in Bierre) when the 
horse is desired to back. * It is usual to cry to a stumbling man or beast. Hop ! Hop 1 — 
Kiittner,' quoted by Wedgw. Hop ! is thus widely used in directing by voice the move- 
ments of a draught beast, and as bop in different parts of Denmark has a different intention, 
so there may have been an arbitrary use of it in Clevel., meaning. Move to the right, as in 
Denm. sometimes forward, sometimes backward. 


Hopper, sb. The basket suspended by means of a strap passing 
over one shoulder of the sower, and containing the seed-corn it is his 
business to sow. 

* Hopper, a seed basket. " A seclekpe or a bopert :" MS. Egerton, 829.' HalL Perhaps 
a simile adaptation from hopper, the seed^vceiving and delivering portion of the mill ^ 
Pr. Pm. gives * Hopyr of a mylle/ and * Hopur or a seedlepe.* 

' He (Pers Vt Ploohman) heng an Hoper on his Bac* In stude of a scrippe, 
A Busschel of Bred com* he bringe)> l>er-Inne.' P, Plougbm, {E. E, T, S.) p. 77* 

Hoppet, sb. I. A small open basket. 2. The gaol or prison. 

Wb. Gl. makes hopper and hoppU synonymous ; but, I think, incorrectly. O. Gl, gives 
boppit, * a little basket ;' Leeds G/. as ' a small osier basket, with a bow handle ;' HaH 
boppet, * a hand basket — Var. dial.* and also, * the dish used by miners to measure their ore 
in ;' besides hoppit, * a small field, generally one near a house, of a square form — Essex ' 

Hopping-tree, sb. The pole of a coup-cart. See Coup-oart 

Comp. Dan. D. hoppe ; at hoppe en vogn : to back a waggon. See Hop. ' A boppyng 
tri is mentioned in WHU and Inv. Surt, Soc. i. 104. 

Hopple, V. a. To tie the legs of a horse or other animal together in 
such a way as not to prevent all motion from place to place in grazing, 
but still so as to render straying to a distance exceedingly difficult and 
slow. Brock, gives * haffle' with this signification; and * hobble' is the 
equivalent word in othei districts. See Hoffle, Hobble, Hamper, Sec 

Horse-block, horse-mount, horsing -stones, horse-steps, sb. 

The steps, usually of stone, with a small platform above them, for con- 
venience in mounting one's horse : especially to a female. 

These are of frequent occunence in the Dales, at the top of the steep horse-tracks leading 
ap the hill-sides or Banks to the roads across the moor, as well as at the churdiyard 
gates, &c. 

Horse-oouper, sb. A horse-dealer ; one who buys, sells or exchanges 
horses. See Coup. 

Comp. horse-covrser, from O. Fr. cottratier, couracier, a broker, salesman. See Wedgw. 
bi V. 

Horse-godmother, sb. A great, ungainly female. 

Horse-gogs, sb. A fair-sized but highly astringent blue plum which 
grows abundantly in the district, and sometimes even in the hedge-rows. 

Comp. goose-gogs = gooseberries. 

Horse-knops, sb. The plant black knapweed {Centaurea nigra). 
Also called Hard-heads. See Ejiop. 

Comp. knappar, the Sw. name of the plant. 


Horse-trod, sb. A track or path used as a ' bridle-road/ See Trod. 

noflt-house, sb. (pr. wost-hus). The inn at which the farmer or 
countryman puts up in the market- (or other) town he visits. 

HostLe, V. n. (pr. woss'l). To put up at an inn. 

Ho't Pr. of Hurt. 

Hotoh, sb. A bungle, an ill-managed affair. 

Probably convertible with bitebt and in somewhat the same sense as when we say * there 
is a biteb in the affair.' Sw. D. boka is to famble, to be irresolute, to hesitate, and may be 
connected ; as also Swiss boodscben^ botscben, to crawl like a toad, shuffle along, do any- 
thing in a dawdling, untidy way. 

Hot-pots, sb. (pr. heeat- or yat-pots). Pots of hot spiced ale brought 
out by the friends of a newly-wedded couple to be partaken of by the 
bridal party as they return from church. See Bride-door, Bride- 
waan, Sec. 

Hotter, V. a. and n. i. To shake, or even jolt, as persons or things 
in a springless cart driving over rough roads are shaken up and down. 
Thence, 2. To move with an uneven pace, limpingly or lamely, in what 
is called in some places *a dot and go one' style; and 3. To throw 
together confusedly or in a jumble, as things conveyed in such a cart 
would be. In this sense, used chiefly in the passive. 

Wedgw. connects this word with buddle. He says, ' the primitive image is probably the 
bubbling Ynovement of boiling water ; Sc. botter, sotter^ for the sound of boiling or simmer- 
ing ; to botteTy to simmer, shiver, shudder, to walk unsteadily, jolt. It*8 all in a botttr^ all 
in movement ; botter^ a multitude of small animals iii motion ; bottle^ anything without 
a firm base, as a young child beginning to walk.' I conceive that the original idea of 
to botter is involved in the meanings to shiver ^ to shudder ; whence the meanings of Hacon 
Grizzlebeard's * Hutetutetutetu I' Dasent's Norse Tales, p. 46, and *He was to be sure to 
lie still, and not to shiver and call out butetu, or any such stuff.' (p. 47.) In Sw. D. we find 
huttra, buddra, bdddra, bodra, b6dra, bddda, to tremble or shiver widi cold, to have one's 
teeth chatter ; Swiss bottem, to shake, to tremble ; Dan. D. buddre, to shiver from the 
effects of cold or fever. Cf. also O. N. bossa, quatire ; boss, mollis qiiassatio. 

1. • We went boitering in the cart all the way on.* Wb, Gl, 

2. * Hottering on, nae better an a lamiter.' 

.^. * ** All botter' d up ;" jumbled together, confused, crowded.' Wb. Ol. 
With the last example comp. Jamieson's instance : — 

* Twas a muir-hen an' mony a pout 
Was rinnin', botterin round about ;' 

where the idea is not of being jumbled or flung together in a confused heap, so much as of 
voluntary crowding. 

Hottery, adj. Uneven to walk or ride upon; as a bad pavement, 
a rough and ill-kept road. 


Houe, sb. I. A sepulchral tumulus, or barrow, a. A natural hiH 

O.N. baugr; O. Sw. baugr, bogber; S. G. bog; DuLbttj; S. Jutl. ^ (pr. ly ; thejp 
much as the Fr. u); N. Jutl. byr ; a tumulus or small hill raited by hand, in oootradit- 
tinction to a natural hill or eminence. Molbech*s definition is, en /brbmnimg paa jordmM 
oimfiaiU : a hill or heap raised on the surfiice of the earth. He notes also the phrtiet at 
kasity or opkatU tm bm: to throw up a houe. Eh jordb^i is used as antithetical to m 
uuidbakht ; baik* dUr banke bntges sadvatdig om Uom og maimriigt bmt. Mam aigtr 
aldrigy tm opkasitt bakk* : the word b€dkkt or bambt is usually applied to larger hiDs of 
natural origin. No one ever says a thrown-up bakie. The special application of O. N. 
baugr, O. Sw. bogber, Dan. bm, Sw. bog. Sec., is to a sepulchral tumulus ; sometimes so 
specified, as in Dan. gravbai, Sw. dUibog, O. Sw. cttar-hogber : whence the names, Dan. M- 
/Uk, Sw. bdg'folk, N. Jutl. byvfolk, &c., for the dwarf tribe, O. N. dvergar, who were held 
to have their dwellings in these old sepulchres. In Clevel. the word, with about two excep- 
tions, denotes the grave-hills on the moors, many of which I have opened, and all of whidi, 
as I believe, belong to an exceedingly remote epoch. 

I. Black-^otMs, HtxA-boui, Sec., to any number. 

a. The Houi, near Castleton. Parker's Howt, near Crunkley OilL 

Hoiil, howl, sb. A depression in the surface of the ground, of no 
great lateral extent or length ; scarcely amounting to a \alley, and not 
rugged or precipitous like a GilL See HolL 

Hound, V. a. To set on ; to make an opportunity for a second 
person and induce him to use it. 

I take this word and the next from the Wb. Gl., a valuable and trustworthy coUectioo 
as regards the words themselves, their (oftentimes phonographic) forms, and their appli- 
cation. The definition there given is — * Pursued, in the sense of one penon introduced to 
another by the stratagem of a third party, as a man to a match he is desirous of making is 
said to have been bounded to the woman.' It is difficult to see the apf^cation of the word 
* pursued ' in this : the idea otherwise is clear. 

Hounding, sb. An advantage obtained for another person by re- 
commendation, or by creating an opportunity for him. Wh. GL 

See Hound. The extract from Wb. Gl. thereunder given is thus continued : — * also, 
a sideaway reconmiendation in any one's behalf is called a bounding for another's benefit.' 

House-flEWt, adj. Confined to the house, the result of personal indis- 
position, lameness, incapability of locomotion, &c. Comp. House-kept, 
and see Bed-fast 

House-folk, sb. The people belonging to a house. See Folk. 

Comp. O. N. busrfoUt, i. domestic servants ; a. lodgers. 

House-kept, adj. Confined to the house, the result of having to 
tend closely on a sick person, or the like. 

Housen, sb. pi. Houses, house-property. 

Several plurals in en are retained in Clevel. Comp. Een or Eyen, Owaen (oxen), 
Hosen, &c. Cf. ossen (ashes), in Chaucer ; fleem, oten, P. Plougbm. 

' And after that (a thounder) com a water so sharply, that drof down the bowsynge and a 
grete parte of the peple.' Merl. p. 153. 


HouBO-plaoe, sb. The principal living-room in a house. 

Houflin'-stufr, sb. Household furniture, inclusive of all kinds. 

Hout, interj. Strongly expressive of incredulity or dissent : not so ! 
nothing of the sort 1 impossible ! 

S. G. butt apage : particula, quA canes imprimis facessere jubemus (Ihre) ; N. hutt cry to 
silence a dog ; Welsh buft, off with it I away I * Huta ui en,* says Dire, * is to expel any 
one with indignation and contempt, as if he were a dog; Weldi bwttio; Finn, butitan* 
Wedgw. gives Fin. butaa^ to shout, to call ; N. bussa^ to ^ghten or drive out with noise 
and outcry. Add Sw. D. bussa, to shout or shriek ; also to set on or incite, as a dog on 
any one. 

Hover, v. n. i. To hang over or be suspended: thence, 2. To 
wait or remain stationary : and 3. To be in a state of suspended action, 
of either bodily or mental kind. 4. Sometimes used as v. a., to stay or 
suspend an action. See Over. 

This word in the form bout, or bove is not infrequent in O. E. In Clevel. it takes the 
form Ower ; and one of the sayings most frequently quoted as specimens of our dialect to 
puzzle or astonish the South-country hearer wiU be found below. Hall, quotes bov* in the 
senses, i. to stop or hover: 2. to float on the water, as a ship, &c. ; and the derivation 
seems to be from Welsh bqfian, bqfio, to fluctuate, hover, suspend or hang over. 

* 8c he (the raven) fonge} to be flyjt, 8c fanne3 on )>e wyndej, 
Hout^ hyje vpon hy^t to herken tybynge^.' 

E. Eng, AUit, Poems, B. 1. 458. 

* On ark on an euentyde boue^ the dowve.' lb. 1. 485. 

* pe bume bode on bonk, )>at on blonk boued* 

Sir Oaw, and Gr. Kn, 1. 785. 

' Yet boved ther an hundred 
In howves of selk, 
Sergeantz it bisemed 

That serveden at the barre.' P. Plougbm, 1. 418. 

a. • " I rather btwered a bit ;" waited awhile.* Wb. Gl 

* '* Titter oop t' sprunt mun ower a bit ;" the one that is first (soonest) up the hill must 
wait a bit' lb. 

* My lord, this care lastes lang. 

And wille, to Moyses have his bone ; 
Let hym go, els wyrk we wrang. 
It may not help to bover ne hone.' Tottmel, Myst. p. 64. 

3. • " Hovering for rain ;" cloudy, threatening to come wet.* Wb. Gl, 

4. * " Hover your hand ;'* stop, hold, e. g. in the act of pouring water.' lb. 

Howdy, sb. A midwife. 

O. N. j6d, that which is bom, also the act of parturition, is almost certainly the origin 
of this word. But comp. S. G. jordgumma, Sw. jorde^gumma, Sw. D. jor{d)mor, Dan. 
Jordemoder ; the latter also occurring with the orthography gjordemoder. * By some,' says 
Ihre, ' it has been supposed that the reference is to the custom of depositing the new-bom 
babe on the ground, whence it was to be raised by the father, if he thought it worthy of 
being reared, and given into the care of the female attendant Others have referred the 

N n 

a74 GLossARy of the 

origin of the word to birda, to take care of, wait upon, pointing to the midwife'j care and 
attention to the l3ring-in woman ; whence would come the word bjdrdgymma. Bat mj 
own notion is that an r has crept in, and that the word originally was — not jordgumma^ 
ho.t—jodgwnma ; inasmuch zsjdd is Isl. for childbirth ; jddsoi the pangs of labour/ The 
word affords a grand specimen of the success attending guesses at derivation : HotBt, in 
' Jems bodU maha tU ;* bow^ the name for the caul a child is sometimes bom with; bom 
rfy? &c. 

Howk, V. a. To dig out, to scoop, to work with digging tools in a 
hole, or in making a hole. 

Jam. well remarks that * E. dig does not properly convey the idea expressed by HouA. 
For the latter signifies to take out the middle, leaving the outside whole saving ^e aper- 
ture.' In fact, in ordinary usage, the word sometimes, but corruptly, approaches in sense 
to book. Under bolk or bulk^ a hollow straw or reed, Molb. {Dan. DiaiyLex.) quotes 
bdlkr, a spout, a hollow reed or cane, a pipe ; and adds, Sw. bolk, * in genere notat lignum 
cavatum — radix, bolka, cavaie.' Ihre, he further says, derives it from boljOt to make hol- 
low, in like manner as dolk from dolja. Comp. also bulkt, hrmnd-bulke, a wooden cover 
or protection over the mouth of a well ; where the idea is still of that which is made hol- 
low — had the inside howked out — so as to become a suitable cover for something else. 

Howly, sb. A street game played by boys in a town, one of them 
hiding behind a wall or house-end and crying * Howly' to the seekers. 

It has been suggested, though not very probably, that Ole — * the commonest Christian 
name in Norway' — ^may be the foundation of this cry. Leeds Gl. gives Hiddy as the name 
of the same game ; * the search-signal employed in the game is ** Hiddy V* and not '* Hidef* 
as common.' * Whoop !' is the South-country signal. 

Howse, V. a. To bale or dip out water, or other liquid. See Ouse 
or Owse. 

Howsomiwer, howslwer, conj. Howsoever, or however. 

Hubble-shew, hubble-shoo, sb. The tumultuous movements of 
a somewhat excited crowd ; a state of commotion, or disturbance. 

Jam. refers this word to * Tcut. boM)elen, inglomerare ; bobhelen-tobhelen, tumultuare. The 
last syllable may be Teut. scbowe, spectaculum, or from scbouwen, videre : q. a crowd 
assembled to see something that excites attention.' Is it not at least open to surmise that 
Sw. D. bo-bcd, bovel, bovoll ; N. bdbcdl, bohbalU bobholU bdvoll, midsummer, the time when 
the sun {Baal^ Balder) is highest, may have some connection with it ? Ihre, who gives 
the form bogbaJl from one Sw. district, and boghale from another, takes the word to have 
originally denoted den boge Balder, the high Balder ; or, as it were, the high and powerful 
sun's special season. It is matter of history that this season was from extremely remote 
times celebrated by the piling and burning of mighty £res on the hills in different districts, 
at which almost the entire population were assembled, with feasting, dancing and drinking, 
continued throughout the night. Herein we certainly have the main elements of what is 
thus expressed by Jam.: — * It' (the word Hubbehcbow) * suggests the idea of a multitude 
running and crowding together in a tumultuous manner (without necessarily implying diat 
there is any broil).' For the last syllable compare wappinschaw or wappenscbaw. 

Huokle, sb. The hip. See Hiike-bone. 


Huff, V. n. To become swollen and puffy, as the flesh where a blow 
has been received. 

Mr. Wcdgw. gives * Huff, Hoove. To puff or blow, as wbtff, or G. bauebm, to breathe 
or blow, from a representation of the sound. To buff up, to puff up, swell with wind. 
•• In many birds the diaphragm may be easily buffkd up with air." Grew in Todd. " Ex- 
crescences, called emphysemata, like unto bladders puffed up and hooved with wmd." Hol- 
land — Pliny in R.' The examples are unexceptionable, but Sw. D. bavna, bauna, bdyna, 
N, bowta or bomte, to puff up or beconie swollen ; bdven, bauen, bdven, swollen, huffed ; 
b'ovelse, the condition of being swollen ; Dan. boven, swollen ; bovenbed, condition of beii^ 
swollen ; bavelse, id. ; also rising or tumour, — are all distinctly referrible to bava, beyja, 
b<tv€, to heave, raise, cause to b« risen ; and it is scarcely doubtful that Clevel. Huff is a 
very close relative. 

* Her eye buffed oop in a minute ;' after a blow received. 
Cf. with the extract from Wedgw. the following : — 

* Th^ buft 8c puft with many heaves, 
till that th4 both were tyred.' Loose and Hum. Songt, p. 35. 

Huff, sb. The feeling of dissatisfaction or displeasure excited by 
a slight or petty indignity ; offence taken on some such ground. 

Probably a simple metaphor from huff, to swell or be swollen. Comp. the exactly 
analogous apphcations of Lat. tumeo, to swell with anger, to be puffed up with vanity or 
pride, &c. Mr. Wedgw., however, derives it from * the puffing and blowing of an angry 

• •• They took the buff zt it ;" they were offended by it.* Wb. GL 
In the following extract from Chaucer : — 

* ** Now, sirs,** then qtJ this Oswolde the Reve, 
*• I pray you alle, that ye nought you greve. 
That I answere, and somedell sett bis boufe. 
For lefuU it is force with force to shoufe :** * Reve*t Prdogut, p. 30, 

it would seem, from the general sense, that the phrase in italics may probably mean excite 
his ire, rather than only be quits with him, as suggested in the Glossary. In that case our 
Huff might have a different origin from that above suggested. Comp. the phrases ' Set 
one's cap,' * Cock one's bonnet* or • beaver,* &c. 

Huffle, hiiffil, huwil, sb. A finger-stall, a cot; a protection for 
a hurt or sore finger. 

O. N. bufa, cap, hood. Comp. also Sw. D. buv, a covering ; a small circular roof; O. S. 
buver, thatch, roof; O. E. bow, boove, and ' Howe, botime,* Pr. Pm., a hood, from which 
this is a diminutive. 

Hug, V. a. To carry, the hands, arms, or back being specially em- 
ployed in the act. The idea of effort is oftentimes implied, but cer- 
tainly not quite necessarily, or without exception. 

Comp. Germ, bocken, to take upon one's back. The same vb., as a v. n., is to squat or 
crouch, which probably brings it into connection with Sw. D. buka, to squat, or sit with 
curved back and knees ; Dan. sidde paa bug, O. N. buka, N. buha, buije, Dan. buge, whic)!, 
besides the preceding meaning of sitting wiSi bent back and knees, has also that of walking 
with a bowed back and head poked forward ; in other words, the very form in which one 
hugs a heavy burden on his back. We have thus, it would seem, a connection reopened 

N n 2 


between bochm and hugt, through the intenrcDtioo of CleveL Hiic> Wh» Qi, gtwm Bag, 
to carry as if toiling with a cumbrous load, and, as an example, "* Ah 's brosten wT hog- 
ging on 't ;" bunting or out of breath in contending with the load.' Bat the wocd is often 
appUed also in the case of loads which do not require inch cont e odmg with. People bus 
small parcels as well as heavy burdens. 

Huke, sb. The hip. See Huokle. 

Comp. beuek, the hip-bone of a cow ; httck, in beef, the part betwiten the iUb and the 
round (Hall.) ; bug-bons, buekU-botu, &c. See Huke-bona. 

Huke-bone, sb. The hip-bone. 

Comp. bug-bong, differently shortened into bubbom and buggan ; buck, MtdUt, aiiti 6en> 
or idgtboiu ; all of which are probably connected, and of equafiy uncotam derivatioo : imleM 
Sw. D. bukk^ a small but highish projecting point of land or promontory, jutting into the 
sea; Dan., Fris., N. Sax. buk, a comer or projecting angle; Dutch boek, id.; ako a snial 
promontory, supply a suggestion, as I conceive they do. 

Huke, To orook. To sit down ; to bend the Hoke so as, or in 
order, to sit down^ 

* I have never entik^d my bukt the whole of the day,' in Wb. Ql^ is explained by the 
compiler by * I have never crooked my bip to sit down.' However, one never * crooks one's 
hip' for that or any other purpose. The word is only another or prov form of bomgb or 
boek. * Hock, the joint of a horse's leg from the knee to the fetlock ; bougb, the back of 
the knee; A. S. bob, the heel, ham (calx, poples, sufirago)' (Wedgw.) : thns the meaning 
of each word in the phrase becomes at once apparent. Comp. ' I hae often wondered that 
any ane that ever bent a knee for the right purpose should ever daur to erook a bomgb to 
fyke and fling at piper's wind and fiddler's squealing.' Htart 0/ Mid-Lodnan, 

* She said Uiere was a tough sinew in an old wife's bougb* York CastU Dip, p. ao3. 

Hiiker, v. a. To barter, huckster. 

* G. bbke, boker, a higgler, huckster : ** a reUiler, regrater, one who sells goods, tspedMJiy 
victuals, in small quantities, a petty dealer. Dut. boecker, buektr, caupo, propola." KiL 
Bav. bugker, bugkler, bugkner. Swab, buker, bukler, a petty dealer, huckster. It is essen- 
tially the same word with G. wueber, Dut. woecker, oeeker, boeckgr, Sw. bbcbtr, O. N. akr, 
interest, usury, properly increase, from the same source as Lat. augere, Goth, auean, A. S. 
tacan, to increase. The O. H. G. wuocber is applied to the increase of plants ; ^dt-wttoehtr, 
the fruits of the earth.' Wedgw. Cf. okire^, okert, Ancr.RiwU. p. 326. See Peddle. 

* He hikered them (rabbit-skins, eggs. Sec, picked up or collected by the "BmdfB&K at 
home) at Sunderland Market.' 

* She hath holden bukkerye, Al hire lif tyme.' P. Plougbm. p. 90. 

Hull, sb. The shell or outer covering, as in the case of peas, beans, 
hazel-nuts or filberts, &c. 

Enligt den mytbiska natur-dskddningen bad* mennUko^'dsenet 1 kropptn en bioit HBJBUig 
uppenhardse-fbrm. I diiden q/kldddes nunmskan detta tUlfalUga balje : according to the 
(before-mentioned) mythical view of nature, the body simply served the human being as 
an accidental means or fashion of external manifestation. At death this accident or exter- 
nal case {boljt) was stripped off. Here we have Sw. biilje used in almost exactly the same 
sense as our HuU. Note O. N. bylja, S. G. bolja, velare, operire ; O. Sw. byijii, Sw. D. 


bdla, Dan. &«/«, N. Ae/a, O. G. helan, heljan, buljan, A. S. bilan, M. G. buljan, all meaning 
to cover, envelope, conceal, hide ; and also A. S. btd, btda^ hull, shell ; Pr, Pm, * hyUyn^ 
operio, ugo, velot Sec, ;* * Ho6l«t of pesyn, or benys, or o)wr coddyd frute.' 
• Pea-^ii//s ;' * Nut-^ii/2s,' &c. 

Hull, V. a. To Strip the outer covering, shell or pod off an3rthing 
which has such an integument ; as peas, beans, &c. 

Hummel, v. a. To detach or break off the awns, or portions of awn, 
that still adhere to the grains of barley after it is thrashed. See Hum- 

Huimneld, hummerd, adj. Without horns, applied to a cow espe- 
cially ; more rarely to hornless sheep. 

I am disposed to refer this word, as well as hiuiixiiel« HuxninaUar, to O. N. handa^ 
to mutilate, curtail by cutting, lop ; O. Germ. bamaUm ; A. S. bamdan, to hamstring ; 
£. bamnul, bamblt ; Sw. D. bammlat I. originally to hamstring, though that sense is obso* 
lete now : 2. To lop or pollard a tree, whence bammlad, p(^ed or pollarded ; and also* 
3. To strike, drub, thrash. Another form is bdmmla, to strike, flog, whence bdmmd, 
blows, stripes, a thrashing ; O. Sw. bambla, to render any one helpless by lopping off his 
limbs. In this last word we have a kind of combination of ideas not unlike what it ex- 
pressed by huimneld as applied to an animal whose means of defence are in its horns. 
The expression, to humxnel barley, also takes significance from a like explanation. 

Hummeller, sb. The instrument in use for remo\ing the awns, or 
pieces of awn, still adherent to the grains of barley after thrashing. 

Hunger, v. a. and n. i. To suffer from himger, to be famished or 
starved. 2. To cause to suffer from hunger, to starve; by withholding 
the necessary food. 

1. * Ah's about bungered to deid.' 

Cf. * And mi^iSy b€ gefctstt fmwertig daga andfrnvirtig nabta, afttr "Son gtbynegerdu* 
Nortb. Cfcsp, Matt. iv. a. 

2. * 'Twur a cruel act, bungerin* thae poor bairns, as she did, fra yah week's end tiv 

Hurple, V. n. See Hirple. 

HussookB, sb. Large tufls of coarse grass (see BuUfooes) growing 
in boggy places in low pastures, or Carre, often nearly or quite two feet 
high and twelve or fifteen inches in diameter in the dry, pillar-like growth 
of root and stem above which the herbage flourishes. 

Pr, Pm. * Hassok. Ulpbus* * In Norfolk, coarse grass, which grows in rank tufts on 
boggy ground, is termed hassock.' 76. note. Tussocks in Essex. 

Hutter, V. n. To stammer, stutter, have a difficulty in getting one's 
words out, so as to speak more or less unintelligibly. 

See Hotter. ' Dut. boddihtkt boddtlbii {bee pour boucbe^-DicL du bas Lang.), a stam- 
merer.' Wedgw. Note also Swiss budtm, to speak quick and confusedly. 


1, prep. In. 

O. N., Sw., Dan. t, in. 

* He •$ i t* hoos.' • / f thick on V 

. loe-Bhoggles, ioe-shoglinB, sb. Iddes. 

N. Fris. u-jokkel, j6M or jdgel; N. UjM; Dan. D. ^ei or ^; Sw. D. aMUtl: 
A.S. ius-gieil; Dut. iji^gel, htkd. ' To jog, thag or <io^ is to move sharply to and fro, 
BaT. gighkn to shiver, to move rapidly to and fro.' Wedgw. Comp. CleveL mhoggiB^ to 
shake, with the present word. Mr. Wedgw. derives the idea of a pointed object from rapid 
angular motion ; Oerm. ziekzack, * whence zacitn to jag, dent, slash, and, as a noon, any 
pointed or tapering object ; eis-zakhtn, an icicle.' Comp., however, Sw. D. 'omMt-ikM, the 
quick of the horn of an ox, goat, &c., where iiktl, meaning simply a prick, point or pointed 
object, may be collated with the terminal part of Sw. D. inft'Ai/, u-pigg** The word is 
written ici-»baekU in Lads Ql, 

lokles, sb. Icicles. 

Dan. D. tgd^ egU, an icicle, appears to be used absolutely as our iekie is (Molb. D. D. 
Lix.) ; and Bosw. gives gieel as signifying an icicle without the prefix ise$. It may be 
observed, moreover, that in Or. Oi, Uie word iciti4 stands for a stalaetiu — the usage of the 
Sw. D. ikhtl reproduced. 

If in case. A redundant expression for ' in case/ or ' if/ simply. 
Hk, ilka, pron. Each, every. 

A. S. ale ; Dut. tic ; Pr. Pm. TZIt , or eche. 
' I saw him Uk other day.* Wb. Gl. 

• For ilka thyng J>at God has wroght.' Pr. o/Conae. 5a. 

' Ilk man that here lyves, mare and lesse.' lb, 89. 

HI, adj. Bad, evil, evil-intentioned. 

O. N. illr; Sw. D. ilUr; O. Sw. ilder (neut. ilt); Dan. Ud; N. ill. Comp. the Germanic 
forms :—0. H. G. ubU, upU; M. G. and G. iibel; A.S. ubbil, ubU; O.E. j^cf, eofd; 
E. evil. 

• Thou art an ylU quelp, for angres.' TounUl. Mysi. p. 95. 

* He 's nobbut an ill 'un ;' of a bad disposition. 

* An ill deed as iwcr Ah kemi'd/ 
Comp. ille-didy, Tottmel. Myst. p. 320. 

ni-clep'd, adj. Ill-conditioned, surly of address. See Clep. 

Comp. ill-spoken^ in the sense addicted to the use of abusive or ill-tempered speech ; and 
also, ill-contrivedf bad-tempered, perverse, selfwrilled. Hall. 

Hl-fare, v. n. To fare badly, meet with ill-luck or ill-success. 

' Odds bobbs I what *s here te deea I mah best an' ill-fared man 1 
Ah 's seear there 's bin foul pleea. Speak fer and clear yer sen.' 

Sowerby Sword Dancg ReditUioit, 


Comp. Sw. D. ill'fatt, luckless, unfortunate, our word having much the same Pr., so that, 
in the above rhyme, the word, as written on phonographic principles by an unlettered tran- 
scriber, is spelt Ul-fil, 

ni-g^ted, adj. With awkward action of the legs, possibly arising 
from malformation or from injury leaving permanent lameness. 

niify, V. a. To defame ; to seek to lower one's reputation or take 
away his character. 

Comp. O. Sw. ilia, ilska, to vilify, slander, defame. 

ni-put-on, 111-putten-on, adj. Badly dressed, shabby. 

Ill-tented, adj. Badly looked after, or nursed ; neglected, ill-cared 
for. See Tent. 

Hi-thriven, adj. i. Without the appearance of healthy growth ; puny, 
poor-looking. 2. With the healthy part of one's disposition undeveloped ; 
ill-conditioned, cross-grained. 

ni-throdden. See Ill-thriven, Throdden. 

Sw. Ul-irivas (imp. ill'trivdes), to thrive badly. 

ni-throven. See Hi-thriven. 

Imp, sb. A ring or circlet of the same material, fabric and diameter 
as the beehive, but of varying height, intended for insertion beneath the 
hive so as to enable the bees to add to their combs. If of three folds 
or plies in height, it is a three-wreathed imp ; if four, a four- 
wreathed imp, and so on. 

A. S. impoftt impian (p. p. impod^ ge-impad), to imp, engraft, plant ; Welsh hnpt a twig, 
shoot or scion ; Dan. ympe^ id. ; Sw. ymp^ a graft, a twig ; Germ, imp/en ; Dan. ympt, 
Sw. ympOj to graft. Ihre explains the latter word by inoetdare^ instrere : the simple mean- 
ing of our word is just an insertion or thing inserted ; and Hall, gives * im/, to add ; to 
eke out : also, an addition, insertion ; one length of twisted hair in a fishing line. North, 
In hawking, to insert a new feather in the place of a broken one.' Ihre's remark is, 
* a posteriori parte vocis impod, Dani pode formarunt, quod inserere notat. Belg. impoUn* 
Mr. Wedgw., on the contrary, looks on podt as the original, and impan, impod the 
derivative : — * The origin is Dut. pote, Dan. pode, PI. D. paot, a shoot, slip ; whence PI. D. 
paten, inpaten, Du. pooten, inpoden, to plant, to set ; Dan. pode, Limousin empeouta, Bret. 
embouda, O. H. G. impiton, impten, A. S. impan, G. imp/en, to grafL The total squeezing 
out of the long vowel is remarkable.' Ihre's surmise can scarcely be right. Kok looks 
upon S. Jutl. pode, I. to graft: a. to plant, as allied to putte, and due to an O. N. source, 
perhaps pota, to prick ; while Welsh imp, a scion, impio, to graft, seem to point to inde- 
pendence of the word pode or pote. Any way, however, imp, in the sense of scion, is 
simply an insertion. 


I Inear, sb. The kidney. 

O. N. nyra, S. O. njura, Sw. njure, Dan. nyrt, Oerm. mtrtm, Cr, Qi. givet the foim 
iMfr, quoting also Soff. and Northumb. tar, and Sc. §an, while Lomd. Oi. gives 

Ing, sb. I. Pasture or meadow lands, low and moist 2. A dis- 
tinctive name for some field or other in a farm, which field originallj 
was a low-lying, wet or marshy meadow, although now it may have been 
long drained and become arable. 

O. N. engi, eingi; Dan. eng; Sw. &ng; O. Genn. tmgir, Dan. tng is used in a sense 
antithetical to ager, or arable land ; and the prominent idea is that of low43riog land too 
mobt for ordinary tillage. 

Ingate, sb. i. The means of entrance, to a house or building, en- 
closure or other place. 2. The entrance- way, path, &c., itself. 3. The 
act of entrance. 

* The lady Drede is portere . . . and so speres |>e jatis . . . )>at none evylle hafe none 
ingatt to l>e herte.* Rtl. Puces, p. 53. 

Ingle, sb. Fire, fiame. Sometimes used with the definite article, and 
then equivalent to * the fire,' * the fireside.' 

Gael. aingeaJ, fire, light, sunshine. 
* A body's ain ingle i^ a person's c 

own fireside. 

Ingle-nook, ingle-nooking, sb. (pr. neuk or neukin'). The inner 
comer or recess by the fire-side. See Neuk, Neukin. 

Inkle, V. a. i. To form notions, guesses or projects. And thence, 
2. To form wishes or inclinations, for this or that gratification, to wit. 
See Inkling. 

I. * He *s inkling o* nowght at 's good. 

a. ' He inkles after this an' that, and can take nane iv 'em when it cooms till ;* of tn 
invalid who fancies things, but can't take them when brought to him. 

Inkle, sb. A narrow linen fabric, or kind of tape, formerly used for 
shoe-ties, apron-strings, and the like. 

Mr. Wedgwood's derivation is ingenious : — * Inkle, tape, linen thread. Fr. Ugnetd, lignoi, 
strong thread used by shoemakers and saddlers ; lignivol, shoemaker's thread. From the 
first of these forms are E. lingel, lingle, lingan. The second form, lignivol, may probably 
explain O. E. liniolf. Lynyolf or innidf, threde to sow with schone or botys. Indtda, 
lieinium. — Pr. Pm. The loss of the initial /, of which we have here an example, would 
convert lingle into ingle or inkle. From Lat. linutn, flax. Fr. linge, Sc. ling, a line; 
Fr. linge, linen, cloth of flax.' Add O. N. lin. Germ, lein, and compare Clevel. Iiln, flax, 
and Isin, linen. 

Inkleweavers, sb. Weavers of the fabric called Inkle, who, on 
account of the narrowness of the web they produced, were able to sit 
very close, thus giving origin to the proverbial expression * as kind' 
(see Kind), or, * as thick as inkleweavers.' 


Inkling, sb. i. A notion of, or guess at something, formed from 
some hint or faint whisper of intelligence; a hint or suspicion. 2. An 
inclination, desire or tendency; as, to some line of action, or in- 

* Parallel with £. Iwm, O. N. has tmia, to resound, ymta, to whisper or rumour : bann 
ymti a thvi^ he gave a hint, an inkling of it. Dan. ymt$^ to whisper, talk softly, secretly of. 
Sw. bafua bum om n&got^ to have an inkling or hint of something. For the change from 
ymUy to binty compare emmet, tint. Inkling is from a frequentative form of the same root, 
O. N. um/, Dan. ymmel, murmur, ymple, to whisper, to rumour — whence £. inkling, by a 
change analogous to that which holds between G. sump/ 2nd E. sink; O. sebrumpfm and 
£. sbrink.* Wedgw. Another instance of the change of the m into n is seen in Sw. omka, 
ynka, to be compassionate, the latter being the customary spoken form of the former, which 
is the true or accurate form. 

Inmeats, sb. The edible viscera of any animal, four-footed or 

Comp. Sw. innamdte; allabanda smdtt stekt innamike of gdss: various small cooked 
inmeats of geese. 

Inoo, adv. Presently, just now. See Enow. 

Comp. Dan. f et nu ; f et nu var ban fonvundtn : he had presently, in a twinkling, dis- 

Insense, v. a. To give any one full or sufficient information or in- 
struction upon any subject or p)oint ; to make to understand. 

A good old Shaksperian word, and in frequent use with us still. 
' I was not fairly insensed into it.' Wb. Gl. 

* Ah couldn't insense him intiv it, dee what Ah wad.' 

Inses, sb. Additions to make up full weight as well as full tale; the 
articles or portions ' given in.' 

No doubt from the expression ' a dozen and one in* and the like ; the one fit coming to 
give a substantival force to the particle in. 

Insides, sb. Entrails, the viscera generally. 

*A desper't* pain i ma' insides;* (the i ma* being pr. immft, the final a as in aside, 
again, &c.) 

Intak', sb, A piece of land taken from the conmion, and enclosed 
for the purposes of cultivation : applied in the case of small plots taken 
up at will, and without any reference to, or power derived from, any 
general enclosure act. 

O. Sw. intaka; Sw. D. intag, intaka; Sw. intaga, oskift mark som inbdgnas till odling: 
common or undivided land which is enclosed for the purposes of cultivation. The Dan. 
word is indtcegt, 

Intil, prep. Into. See Til. 


zSa GLOSS A Rr of the 

Intiv, prep. Into. See Tiv. 

Inward-fits, sb. An infants* disorder, a mild convulsion-fit 

Inwards, sb. (pr. innards). One's entrails, bowels, inside generally. 

Note * SiMB Jonas wars in daes hutles innafi.* North. Gosp. Matt. zii. 40. 

* Sec flKmne haef^ on inno^ :' * a virgin shall have in wombe.' A. S, Gosp^ and Wyd. 
Transl. Matt. i. 33. 

* De of hyra m6dor innotiym cuma^ :' * the whiche ben thus bom of the modris wombe/ 
lb. Matt. xix. 1 2. 

Possibly these words suggest a different orthography for Inwards. 

Iv, prep. The form the prep, i usually takes before a vowel. See 

* Tolf iv all ;• • Iv oor hoos'.' 

Ivin, sb. The common ivy (Hedera helix). 

Comp. the form HoUin or Hollen, holly. 

Jack, sb. A quarter of a pint measure, or the quantity contained 
by it. 

Comp, black-jack, a large leather can, into which the beer was drawn in old times. 

Jack ! Jack ! The call of summons to the pigs of a farm to come 
home and be fed and housed for the night: a aill which is willingly 
responded to by the herd. 

All the animals on a Dales-farm are used to a summons from the human voice, and give 
imme(fiate obedience. The cows, as milking-time approaches, may often be seen waiting 
for the call ; or, if not, the moment it sounds they turn and move towards the gate wfaeooe 
it proceeds. In winter weather, when it becomes necessary to give the sheep, which are 
still abroad, a small ration of hay, a high-pitched and prolonged, and, as given by some, 
very musical cry, is used to summon them to the fodder-bearer's presence, and is at once 
acknowledged and replied to by them. See Ob-ee !, Sty ! 

Jaded, adj. Placed in circumstances of ahnost inextricable difficulty, 
straitened on all sides: a transitional sense, probably, from that oT 
wearied to exhaustion, and so, incapable of further exertion. 

Jannock, adj. i. Even, level. 2. Fair, even, equitable. 

O. N.yq/9i ; O. Sw. jcBtnn, jemn, iampner ; Sw.jdmn ; Dan. jevn or javn ; Sw. D.Janm^ 

jamner^ javn; M. G. ibns; O. Germ, ehan, epan; O. Sax. ehban ; A. S. rfen, €tveit. Sec 

The presence of the p in the O. Sw. form leads the way for the entrance, by substitution, of 

a k ; and accordingly, in Ihre we find the form jcemka, to render even or level ; in Sw., 


jimka, and in Sw. D.,jdnka,janka,jdnkt id. ; and this is nearly coincident in form with our 

I. • T* cloth deean't WgjcMnock, Draw yon end your-hand way.* 

a. * ** That now is not jatmock;** unfair, oncandid.' Wb. Gl. 

Jaul. See JouL 

Jaup, V. a. and n. i. To agitate water or other fluid sharply in a 
vessel, so as to cause it to dash against the sides ; to cause impact of 
one substance or siuface on another. 2. To move or dash against the 
side as the shaken water in the vessel does. 

Hald. gives gidl/rat with the example, bir giaifirar at landi : hie terram allidit aeqoor ; and 
gidlfr^ allisio maris ad Httora, with the additional forms gialpa and gtalp^ in which words 
we have, very nearly indeed, both the sound and the sense of jaup* and no doubt also itf 
origin. Jowp is simply another form. 

Jauping, adj. Wide, spacious, gaping. Spelt also Jawping and 

Equivalent to, not rather to say, identical with gspintf. Comp. the fonn yawn with 
A. S. gamartf einan, geonan, Dut. gbienen, Oerm. gierun. 

JaweTf sb- Idle talk, prating, flippancy, 

Comp. Ghab, Qabber, and see the remark on Jaupixi^ ; note also, Dan. D. biabrs or 
babbrtt to chatter fast, and without forethought, to let the tongue run ; the person who has 
a disposition this way being called a biabhtr. Collate "E, jabber, 

• •• Give us none o* yomjavwr;'* hold your tongue.' Wb. GL 

JealoiiB, adj. Apprehensive, ready to anticipate something, whatever 
it be, more or less unpleasant in its nature. 

• " Think you that waU wiU faU?" " Aye, Ah 's very jealous on "t." ' 

• Ah *i jealous he 's efter nae guid.' 

Jenny-howlet, sb. (pr. jinny-hullot). The tawny owl (Syrmum 

Jenny-spinner, sb. The long-legged insect called the crane-fly. 
Otherwise Tommy Long-legs. The name seems to belong to the 
genus Tipula at large. 

Jill, sb. A half-pint measure, or the quantity measured by it Spelt 
* Gill' in Pr. Pm. 

Jill, V. n. To drink intemperately, but in small quantities at any 
one place. 

* " He pnMJUling about ;" drinking his half-pints at different pUces.' Wh. Ol, 



Sun^, adj. I. Slight, elegant in figure; applied especially to a ladj's 
waist Thence, 2. Neat or elegant generally. 3. Small, scanty, deficient 
in measure. 

Jam. looks upon Sc. gymp otjymp^ a witty jest, or taunt; a quirk, a sobtiltj, as origi- 
nating in S. G. skymf, O. N. skymp, ludibrium, sport. Germ, tebmpf^ Belg. tebimp, a carO, 
a jest, and with much probability. In like manner he considers Sc. gymp 01 jimp, with the 
same meanings as our Jimp, as undoubtedly due to O. N. and S. G. sikim, skimU, short, 
scanty, skammot tkctmta^ to shorten, curtail. Comp. Cr.jimp^ to indenL 

Jin. A common, rather fondling, abbreviation of Jane. 

* Oor Jtn ;' the daughter bearing the name Jane. 

Jobber, sb. A small spade or iron tool for cutting up thistles from 
their roots. 

* Byllen or jobbyn as bryddys, jobbyn with the byl. Rostro* Pr. Pm, Comp. Nui- 
jobber, the nut-hatch {Sitta Europ<ea\ a bird which digs into nuts and the like with 
repeated blows of the bill ; not simply pecks, but blows given with the whole force of the 
body. Mr. Wedgw. quotes, as allied, Bohem. dubati, Pol. dziobai, to peck, dzu)b, Gael. 
gob, the beak of a bird. 

Joblijock, sb. Anything tending to interfere with domestic comfort 
or peace ; e. g. a smoking chimney, a scolding wife, &c. 

This is a familiar name for the cock-turkey in some districts, and there is probably a 
connection of idea in the Clevel. application of the word. 

Jodder, v. n. (pr. jother). To be tremulous, like jelly when shaken. 

No doubt nearly related to jog or jock, jot or jot/er, jolle or jowl, joU^ all of which, 
through jog or jock, may be connected with Sw. D.jukka, to move up and down ; Dan. D. 
jttkg, jykke, to ride about on a stumbling horse, one that communicates